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机械外文翻译--机械加工.doc

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机械外文翻译--机械加工.doc

本科毕业论文(设计)相关中英文翻译资料资料题目机械加工学生姓名所在院系机电学院所学专业机电技术教育完成时间MachiningTurningTheenginelathe,oneoftheoldestmetalremovalmachines,hasanumberofusefulandhighlydesirableattributes.Todaytheselathesareusedprimarilyinsmallshopswheresmallerquantitiesratherthanlargeproductionrunsareencountered.Theenginelathehasbeenreplacedintodaysproductionshopsbyawidevarietyofautomaticlathessuchasautomatictracerlathes,turretlathes,andautomaticscrewmachines.Alltheadvantagesofsinglepointtoolingformaximummetalremoval,andtheuseofformtoolsforfinishedonaparwiththefastestprocessingequipmentonthescenetoday.Tolerancesfortheenginelathedependprimarilyontheskilloftheoperator.Thedesignengineermustbecarefulinusingtolerancesofanexperimentalpartthathasbeenproducedontheenginelathebyaskilledoperator.Inredesigninganexperimentalpartforproduction,economicaltolerancesshouldbeused.TurretLathesProductionmachiningequipmentmustbeevaluatednow,morethaneverbefore,intermsofabilitytorepeataccuratelyandrapidly.Applyingthiscriterionforestablishingtheproductionqualificationofaspecificmethod,theturretlathemeritsahighrating.Indesigningforlowquantitiessuchas100or200parts,itismosteconomicaltousetheturretlathe.Inachievingtheoptimumtolerancespossibleontheturretlathe,thedesignershouldstriveforaminimumofoperations.AutomaticScrewMachinesGenerally,automaticscrewmachinesfallintoseveralcategoriessinglespindleautomatics,multiplespindlerapid,automaticchuckingmachines.Originallydesignedforrapid,automaticproductionofscrewsandsimilarthreadedparts,thenarrowfield,andtodayplaysavitalroleinthemassproductionofavarietyofprecisionparts.Quantitiesplayanimportantpartintheeconomyofthepartsmachinedontheautomaticscrewmachine.Thecostofthepartsmachinedcanbereducediftheminimumeconomicallotsizeiscalculatedandthepropermachineisselectedforthesequantities.AutomaticTracerLathesSincesurfaceroughnessdependsgreatlyuponmaterialturned,tooling,andfeedsandspeedsemployed,minimumtolerancesthatcanbeheldonautomatictracerlathesarenotnecessarilythemosteconomicaltolerances.Insomecases,tolerancesof±0.05mmareheldincontinuousproductionusingbutonecut.Groovewidthcanbeheldto±0.0125mmonsomeparts.Boresandsinglepointfinishescanbeheldto±0.0125mm.Onhighproductionrunswheremaximumoutputisdesirable,aminimumtoleranceof±0.125mmiseconomicalonbothdiameterandlengthofturn.MillingWiththeexceptionsofturninganddrilling,millingisundoubtedlythemostwidelyusedmethodofremovingmetal.Wellsuitedandreadilyadaptedtotheeconomicalproductionofanyquantityofparts,thealmostunlimitedversatilityofmillingprocessmeritstheattentionandconsiderationofdesignersseriouslywiththemanufactureoftheirproduct.Asinanyotherprocess,partsthathavetobemilledshouldbedesignedwitheconomicaltolerancesthatcanbeachievedinproductionmill.Ifthepartisdesignedwithtolerancesfinerthannecessary,additionaloperationswillhavetobeaddedtoachievethesetolerancesandthiswillincreasethecostofthepart.GrindingGrindingisoneofthemostwidelyusedmethodsoffinishingpartstoextremelyclosetolerancesandfinesurfacefinishes.Currently,therearegrindersforalmosteverytypeofgrindingmachinerequired.Whereprocessingcostsareexcessive,partsredesignedtoworthwhile.Forexample,whereverpossibletheproductioneconomyofcenterlessgrindingshouldbetakenadvantageofbyproperdesignconsideration.Althoughgrindingisusuallyconsideredafinishingoperation,itisoftenemployedasacompletemachiningprocessonworkwhichcanbegrounddownfromroughconditionwithoutbeingturnedorotherwisemachined.Thusmanytypesofforgingsandotherpartsarefinishedcompletelywiththegrindingwheelatappreciablesavingsoftimeandexpense.Classesofgrindingmachinesincludethefollowingcylindricalgrinders,centerlessgrinders,internalgrinders,surfacegrinders,andtoolexpense.Thecylindricalandcenterlessgrindersortaperworkthussplines,shafts,andsimilarpartsaregroundoncylindricalmachineseitherofthecommoncentertypeorthecenterlessmachine.Threadgrindersareusedforgrindingprecisionthreadsforthreadgages,andthreadsonprecisionpartswheretheconcentricitybetweenthediameteroftheshaftandpitchdiameterofthreadmustbeheldtoclosetolerances.Theinternalgrindersareusedforgrindingofprecisionholes,cylinderbores,andsimilaroperationswhereboresofallkindsaretobefinished.Thesurfacegrindersareforfinishingallkindsofflatwork,orworkwithplainsurfaceswhichmaybeoperateduponeitherbytheedgeofawheelorbythefaceofagrindingwheel.Thesemachinesmayhavereciprocatingorrotatingtables.

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