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采用剥离器收割台的联合水稻收割机.pdf

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采用剥离器收割台的联合水稻收割机.pdf

AThaimade108kWricecombineharvesterwasmodiedbyreplacingthecutterbarsystemwithastripperheader.Thepowerrequirementofthemodiedmachinewasmeasuredatnoloadandduringeldoperation.Thestripperheadersystemconsistedofa3mwidestrippingrotor,ametalhoodandanadjustablenose.Theouterdiameterofthestrippingrotorwas450mm.Thestrippingrotorconsistedofeightrubberbladesxedonanoctagonaldrumwitheachbladehaving71teeth.Theworkrateandharvestinglossesweremeasuredtoexaminetheeldperformanceofthemodiedmachine.Resultsobtainedfromthetestshowedthatthepowerrequirementforthewholemachineduringeldoperationat1600min1was58kW.Thethreshing,tractionandstripperheaderunitsconsumed114,228and169kW,respectivelyandthepowertransmissionlosswas69kW.Forstandingcrop,theaverageeldcapacityofthemachinewas066hah1withacorrespondingeldeciencyof74.Inalodgedcropcondition,theaverageeldcapacitywasfoundtobe03hah1withacorrespondingeldeciencyof72.Thetotalgrainlossofthemachinewas4ofgrainyieldinthestandingcropconditionand56inthelodgedcropcondition.Nomajormechanicaloroperationalproblemswereobservedduringeldoperations.2001SilsoeResearchInstitute1.IntroductionIn1987,therstThaimadericecombineharvesterwasdevelopedbyadoptingsomeofthedesignprinciplesfromcombineharvestermodelsofwesterncountries,modifyingsomepartstobettersuitlocalconditionsandincorporatingtheInternationalRiceResearchInstituteIRRIdesignedaxialowthresher,whichiscommonlyusedinThailandasastationarythresher.In1989,theThaimadericecombineharvesters,becameacceptableEortshavebeenmadetoimprovethedurabilityandeldcapacity,andreduceharvestinglossesofthemachinebyreplacingthedirectdrivesystemwithahydrostaticdrivesystemandthewoodenshoetracksbymetaltracks.In1998,therewereeightricecombineharvestermanufacturersinThailandtogetherproducingabout400unitsannuallyandsellingthematUS40,000perunit.Itwasestimatedthatabout3000locallymadericecombineharvesterswerebeingusedduring1998asgiveninTable1.In1999,theaverageeldcapacityoftheAdoptionofaStripperHeaderforaR.KalsirisilpAgriculturalAquaticSystemsandEngineeringProgram,SchoolofEnvironment,Bangkok,Thailandemailofcorrespondingtofarmersandcommercialproductionwasstarted.In1993,performanceevaluationoftheThaimadericecombineharvesters,poweredbya108kWengineandconsistingofa3mwidecutterbar,showedthattheeldcapacityofthemachinevariedfrom010to071hah1,withanaverageof040hah1.Thetotalgrainlossesvariedfrom130to108ofgrainyield,withanaverageof48.Themajorproblemswerefoundintheundercarriageunitofthemachine,particularlyinthesprocketandchaintransmissionpartsKalsirisilpSingh,1999.ThaimadeRiceCombineHarvesterG.SinghResourcesandDevelopment,AsianInstituteofTechnology,authorsinghgait.ac.th108kW,3mcutterbarharvesterwasfoundtobe052hah1withatotalharvestinglossof3ofgrainyieldKalsirisilp,2000.PowerrequirementevaluationsonThaimadericecombineharvesterrevealedthatthepowerconsumedbythethreshingunitwasapproximately52ofthetotaloperatingpowerduringeldoperationsatthefeedrateofabout100kgmin1Kalsirisilp,2000.Thethreshingdrumwasfrequentlyblocked,particularlyinthelodgedcropcondition.Inordertoovercomethisproblem,ThaiTable1NumberofThaimadericecombineharvestersinuseYearCombineharvester,unit19952800199628001997280019983000SourceKrishnasreniandThongsawatwong1998.manufacturersattemptedtouseenginepowerashighaspossibletoimprovemachineperformancewithoutincreasingthecostsignicantly.Stripperharvestinginvolvesstrippingthegrainfromthecropwithoutharvestingthestraw.Inriceharvesting,thismethodisadvantageousastheamountofstrawtobehandledbythemachinecanbereducedsignicantly.Consequently,theeldcapacitycanbeincreasedandthepowerrequirementreducedTadoetal.,1998.Klinneretal.1987reportedthatthepowerconsumptionofastrippingheaderforaconventionalcombineharvestervariedbetween07and08kWm1atnoloadconditionandforworkingconditionsthesamewasbetween20and29kWm1inbarleyataforwardspeedof4kmh1andbetween28and39kWm1at60kmh1forwheat.Thepowerrequirementofthestrippingheaderinstandingricevariedfrom10to45kWm1ofharvestingwidthwithaforwardspeedof75kmh1Metianuetal.,1991.AselfpropelledstrippercombineharvestermountedonatrackchassiswasdevelopedatNortheastAgriculturalUniversityinChina.Thestripperharvesterwascomposedofadrumtypethresherforthreshingthestandingrice,apneumaticconveyorsystemforprovidingairsuctiontoreduceharvestlosses,andapickupsystemforharvestingthelodgedcropJiangetal.,1992.AtransverserotorwasusedinthedesignoftheSilsoeResearchInstituteSRIstripperheaderinwhichstrippingofthegraintakesplacealongthelengthoftherotorarrangedtransverselytothedirectionoftravelTadoetal.,1998.Theouterdiameteroftherotorwas450mm.Thestripperrotorwasttedwitheightrowsofexibleteeth.ThestrippingelementsweremadeofmouldedpolyurethanethatwasessentiallyVshapedbutwitha20mmdiametercircularrecessatthebase.Therststrippersystemwasevaluatedintheeldintheformofa36mwideheaderforattachmenttoaconventionalcombineharvesterMetianuetal.,1991.In1989,acollaborativeprojectfundedbytheOverseasDevelopmentAdministrationintheUKwassetupbetweenTheInternationalRiceResearchInstituteIRRIandSRIinordertoevaluatethefeasibilityofthestrippingrotorasthebasisofpedestriancontrolledharvestingmachinesuitableforthesmallricefarmsofAsia.TheInternationalRiceResearchInstitute,incollaborationwithSRIdevelopedastrippersystem.ThestrippergathererSG800wasbuiltandeldtestedduringthe1992dryseasoninthePhilippines.Thismachinehadaharvestingwidthof800mmandwaspropelledbya67kWgasolineenginewhichalsodrovethestrippingrotor.Gatheringlosseswerelessthan1ofyieldinstandingsemidwarfricevarietiesDouthwaiteetal.,1992.Vechasit1995foundthattheunstrippedlossoftheSG800waslessthan1inThailandriceconditions.AlightweightstrippermodelLS600wasdevelopedbythePhilippineRiceResearchInstitutePhilricein1997tosuitthelocaleldconditions.Thetotalweightwas190kgcomparedto250kgoftheSG800design.Theharvestingwidthwas600mmanditwaspoweredbya45}6kWgasolineengine.Theeldcapacitywas07haday1withshatteringlossesofabout2AldasBautista,1998.Trimo1996evaluatedtheperformanceofanIndonesianmadericestripperharvester.Themachinewaspoweredbya63kWdieselengine.Theaverageeldcapacitywas008hah1withaharvestinglossofabout21.TheShelbourneReynoldsstripperheaderwasinvestigatedtodetermineitspotentialuseforgrainharvestinginmanycountrieswithdierentconditions.InItaly,researchatMilanshowedthattheminimumheaderlossinriceharvestingwas04oftheyieldforRingoandEuropavarieties.ForPandavariety,thelowestlosswas13oftheyield.PandavarietyseemedtobesensitivetotheheadersettingresultinginhigherheaderlossesHobsonMetianu,1989.ThestripperheaderttedonaThaimadericecombineharvesterhadnotbeenstudiedyet.Thisstudy,therefore,wasintendedtoinvestigateitsperformanceineldconditionsandtheresultsarepresentedinthispaper.2.DesignanddevelopmentofstripperheaderThelocallymadericecombineharvestermanufacturedbyKasetpatanaManufacturingCompany,Phitsanulokprovince,northernThailand,wasselectedforthisstudy,asitwasfoundtobethemostpopularmodelinthecountry.Thiscombineharvesterisaselfpropelledmachineequippedwithacutterbarmechanismhavingacuttingwidthof3manda108kWdieselengineastheprimemoverFig.1.PowerwastransmittedbyVbeltsfromtheengineshafttoothercomponentsofthemachine,exceptfortractionandheaderheightcontrolwhichusedahydrostaticpowertransmissionsystem.Thepowerfromthetractionshaftwasfurtherextendedtotwoindependenthydraulicpumpsgeartypeviadoublechaincouplings.Twolowspeed,hightorque,radialpistonmotorswereselectedtodrivethesprocketwheelofFig.1.Thaimadericecombineharvesterequippedwithcutterbarmechanismthemachine.Theworkingspeedofthemachinewasvariedfrom3to6kmh1dependingonthecropandeldconditions.Anaxialowthresherwasusedasathreshingunitandthemechanismconsistedofapegtoothcylinderwhichrotatedinsideaconcavedoublesection.Thelocallymadericecombineharvesterequippedwithacutterbarcutalmostthewholericeplantwhereasthestripperheaderstrippedonlygrains,leavingmostofthestrawintheeld.Modicationsofthericecombineharvesterforttingastripperheaderwerecarriedoutbyremovingthepickupreelandcutterbarunitsofthemachine.Threerubberpaddles5cmby50cmwerefabricatedandattachedtothecentreofthefrontaugerwhichenabledittoconveystrippedmaterialeasilyfrombothsidesofthetableaugerthroughthecentreofthefeederconveyor.ThefeederconveyorwasattachedwithrectangularrubberpiecesTableSpeci5cationsoftheThaimadecombineStrippingwidth,mm3000Strippingrotordiameter,mm540Numberofstripperrows8Numberofteethperrow71TransmissionsystemHydraulicRangeofspeed,min1600}Noseadjustment,mm200Powersource,kW108Numberofoperators2Numberofunskilledlabourers3Forwardspeed,kmh13}75cmby35cmalongthechainconveyorinordertoconveythestrippedmaterialintothethreshingunit.ThepowerfromtheenginewastransmittedtothestrippingrotorthroughacombinationofpulleysandVbeltsFig.2orthroughacombinationofhydraulicandmechanicaltransmissionsystem.Fig.2.Mechanicaltransmissionsystemofthestrippingrotor2.1.„heprototypestripperheaderAstripperheaderwasfabricatedandmountedonaThaimadericecombineharvesterandtheperformanceoftheheaderwasevaluated.Thestripperheadermainlyconsistedofthestrippingrotor,bae,hood,nose,frontaugerandthehydraulicmotorandpumpwhichwereusedtodrivethestrippingrotor.DesignparametersofthestrippingrotorwerebasedonthestripperrotorsystemdevelopedintheUKbySilsoeResearchInstitute.AsummaryofthespecicationsofthestripperheaderispresentedinTable2anditsmaincomponentsareexplainedbelow.Theouterdiameterofthestripperrotorwas450mm.Alongthedirectionofrotoraxis,astripperrotorwasinstalledwitheightrowsofteeth,eachrowconsistingof71teeth.Therotationofthestrippingrotorwasinthereversedirectioninrelationtothegroundwheelrotation2harvesterwithstripperheader800reconditionedIsuzudieselengineFig.3.Thestrippingrotorspeedwasbetween600and800min1resultinginaperipheralspeedof17}227ms1.TheywereessentiallyVshapedbutwitha20mmcircularrecessatthebaseFig.4.Theheightofthestrippingrotorcouldbeadjustedfromtheoperatorsseatusinghydraulicmeans.Fig.3.SchematicdiagramofthestrippingrotorTheprototypestripperheaderwasttedwithlocalindustrialrubberteeth.Thiswasbecausetheimportedpolyurethanewasexpensiveanddiculttoobtainlocally.ThecostoflocalrubberteethwasUS125forasetwhereasasetofpolyurethanestripperelementsforthestripperharvestercostaboutUS1000andneededtobeimportedfromtheUK.Theperformanceofthelocalrubberteethwasfoundtobesatisfactoryduringeldtestinginstandingandlodgedcropconditions.Thebaepositionedbehindthestrippingrotorpreventedcropreentryintotherotor.Itwasmadeof3mmthicksheetmetal.Themetalhood,positionedinfrontofandabovethestrippingrotor,deectedtheharvestedmaterialintothefrontauger.Thewallofthehoodwasmadeof3mmthicksheetmetal.Thenosedeterminedthepositionofthecropduringharvesting.ThepositionofthenosecouldbeadjustedbyFig.4.Proxleofstrippingelementsalldimensionsareinmmslidingitupordownthehood.Thenosewasheldinpositionbyapairofwingnuts,makingadjustmenteasy.Thenoseheightcouldbeadjusteduptoarangeof200mm.Theuseofreadilyavailablematerialsandtheuncomplicateddesignenabledthestripperheadertobemanufacturedlocally.3.Testingandevaluationmethodology3.1.PowerrequirementTheinstrumentationemployedformeasurementsofpowerrequirementincludedatorquetransducer,adynamicstrainamplier,aportabletaperecorderandanautonomousdataacquisitionunit.Thetorquetransducerwasconnectedtothestrainamplierwhichperformedthesignalconditioning.Theconditionedsignalwasrecordedusingataperecorder.Thespeedoftheengineshaftwasmeasuredwiththehelpofaproximityswitchandtachometerindicator.Powerwassuppliedfromthe12Vbatteryofthecombineharvester.Thepowerdemandoftheengineshaftwastheamountofpowerrequiredtooperateallmechanismsofthericecombineharvester,i.e.,threshing,tractionandheadersystems.Thepowerrequiredforthethreshingunitincludedthepowerrequirementofthethreshingcylinder,oscillatingscreen,augerconveyorandtheblowerunit.Thepowerrequirementoftheheaderunitcomprisedthepowerrequiredforthefrontaugerandthestrippingrotor.Thepowerrequirementofthewholemachine,threshingandheaderunitswascalculatedusingthefollowingformulaLiljedahletal.,1983P2nn„/60,0001wherePisthepowerrequirementinkWnisthespeedofshaftinmin1and„isthetorquetransmittedinNm.3.2.Estimationof,eldcapacityTheeectiveeldcapacitywasdeterminedbymeasuringallthetimeelementsinvolvedwhileharvesting.Thetotaltimewascategorizedintoproductiveandnonproductivetime.Theproductivetimeistheactualtimeusedforharvestingthegrainswhilethenonproductivetimeconsistedoftheturningtime,repairandadjustmenttimeandothertimelosses.Theareacovereddividedbythetotaltimegavetheeectiveeldcapacity.Theeldeciencywasdeterminedbytheratioofproductivetimetothetotaltime.

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