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外文翻译--DSP控制电液伺服驱动.doc

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外文翻译--DSP控制电液伺服驱动.doc

翻译英文DSPControlofElectroHydraulicServoActuatorsRichardPoleyDSPFieldApplicationsABSTRACTHydraulicactuatorsarecharacterizedbytheirabilitytoimpartlargeforcesathighspeedsandareusedinmanyindustrialmotionsystems.Inapplicationswheregooddynamicperformanceisimportantitiscommontocontaintheactuatorinaservoloopcomprisingafeedbacktransducerandelectroniccontroller.ThemajorityofelectronicservocontrollersusedinthesesystemsareanaloguebasedimplementationsofthewellknownPIDtype.However,therequirementtoimplementadvancedcontrolstrategieshasledtoanincreasedinterestintheuseofdigitalsignalprocessorsDSPsinthisfield.Onedesignapproachwhichmeritsspecialconsiderationistheuseofcomputersimulationsoftwaretomodelthehydraulicplantandelectronicservocontroller,andtogenerateandtestembeddedcodeforthetargetDSP.Thisapplicationreportdiscussessomeoftheissuesinvolvedincontrollinglinearhydraulicactuators,andthesuitabilityoftheTMS320C28x™DSPforsuchsystems.1IntroductionTherangeofapplicationsforelectrohydraulicservosystemsisdiverse,andincludesmanufacturingsystems,materialstestmachines,activesuspensionsystems,miningmachinery,fatiguetesting,flightsimulation,papermachines,shipsandelectromagneticmarineengineering,injectionmouldingmachines,robotics,andsteelandaluminiummillequipment.Hydraulicsystemsarealsocommoninaircraft,wheretheirhighpowertoweightratioandprecisecontrolmakesthemanidealchoiceforactuationofflightsurfaces.Althoughelectricalmotorsaresometimesusedinmanyoftheseapplications,motioncontrolsystemsrequiringeitherveryhighforceorwidebandwidthareoftenaddressedmoreefficientlywithelectrohydraulicratherthanelectromagneticmeans.Ingeneral,applicationswithbandwidthsofgreaterthanabout20Hzorcontrolpowergreaterthanabout15kW,mayberegardedassuitableforservohydraulictechniques.Apartfromtheabilitytodeliverhigherforcesatfastspeeds,servohydraulicsystemsofferseveralotherbenefitsovertheirelectricalcounterparts.Forexample,hydraulicsystemsaremechanicallystiffer,resultinginhighermachineframeresonantfrequenciesforagivenpowerlevel,higherloopgainandimproveddynamicperformance.Theyalsohavetheimportantbenefitofbeingselfcooledsincethedrivingfluideffectivelyactsasacoolingmediumcarryingheatawayfromtheactuatorandflowcontrolcomponents.Unfortunatelyhydraulicsystemsalsoexhibitseveralinherentnonlineareffectswhichcancomplicatethecontrolproblem.Thevastmajorityofelectronicclosedloopcontrollersarebasedonsimpleanaloguecircuitdesignsofferingrobust,lowcostimplementationsofthewellknownPIDcontrolstrategy.Thisapproachworkswellinsystemswithsimpletopologyandlimitedbandwidth.Howeverthegrowinguseofcomplexcontrolstrategies,coupledwiththeneedtosupportenhancedfeaturessuchasdatalogginganddigitalcommunications,hasledtoincreasedinterestintheuseofdigitalprocessorsforcontrolofhydraulicservosystems.Nowhereisthismoreapparentthaninthefieldofmechanicaltestequipment,wheretheuseofaprogrammabledigitalprocessorallowsthesameservocontrollertobeusedwithawiderangeofhydraulicsystems.ThisapplicationreportreviewssomeoftheissuesfacingthehydrauliccontrolengineeranddiscussesthesuitabilityofhighspeedDSPsforcontrolofservohydraulicsystems.TheapplicationreportbeginswithanevaluationoftheDSPforuseinelectrohydraulicservocontrollers,andintroducestheTMS320C28xfamilyaDSPplatformoptimizedfordigitalcontrolapplications.Section3describestheprincipalcomponentsofthehydraulicsystem.InSection4,mathematicalmodelsforthevariousplantelementsaredevelopedandusingSimulink.Section5presentsacasestudyofahydrauliccontrolsystemanddealswithfittingrealdatatothemodeltovalidateitsbehavior.Theapplicationreportconcludeswithabriefsummaryanddiscussionoftheapplicationanddesignprocess.2TheC2000DSPforDigitalControl2.1TheBenefitsofDSPforDigitalControlEmbeddeddigitalcontrollersofferseveralimportantbenefitstotheelectronicdesignengineer,includingsTheperformanceofahighqualityhydraulicactuatorisverydependantontheservocontroller.DSPslendthemselveswelltoimplementingrealtimecontrolalgorithms,andhavebeenwidelyusedinhighperformancedigitalcontrollersformanyyears.Inadditiontothebenefitsabove,aDSPallowstheengineertodcontrolstrategies,includingmultivariableandcomplexcontrolalgorithmsusingmodernintelligentmethodssuchasneuralnetworksandfuzzylogic.performadaptivecontrol,inwhichthealgorithmdynamicallyadaptsitselftomatchvariationsinsystembehavior.implementcomplextopologiessuchasmultiaxiscontrolwheresynchronizationofmultipleforcepatternsisrequired.performdiagnosticmonitoring,includingfrequencyspectrumanalysistoidentifymechanicalvibrationsandpredictfailuremodes.efficientlyimplementhighorderdigitalfiltersincludingsharpcutoffnotchfilterstoremoveenergythatwouldotherwiseexciteresonantmodesandpossiblyleadtoinstability.dperipheralsettominimizecomponentcountandboardsize.Theuseofdigitalcontrollersissometimesavoidedontheexpectationthattheuserisobligedtoinvesttimeinlearningnewprogramminglanguages,andwillfacedifficultiesintestinganddebuggingthecode.TheTexasInstrumentsC28x™DSPplatformincludesahighperformanceCcompilerandanextensivesetofsoftwarelibrariestominimizedevelopmenteffort.Recentdevelopmentsinsimulationsoftwarealsoenabledesignerstomodelfixedpointdigitalprocessors,andtoautomaticallygenerateoptimizedsourcecodewhichmaybecompiledandrunonthetargetprocessordirectlyfromthesimulationenvironment.ThishardwareintheloopapproachenablesthecontrolalgorithmsgeneratedbythemodeltobeexecutedonarealtargetprocessorsuchastheC28xduringsimulation,andincreasesthelevelofdesignconfidence.Theeasewithwhichcontrolalgorithmscanbecreatedandmodifiedinthismannercansavemonthsofdevelopmenttimeandleadstoearliererrordetectioncomparedwithtraditionalhandcodingmethods.2.2TheTMS320C28xDSPFamilyThechoiceofprocessortoimplementagivencontrolalgorithmisinfluencedbymanyfactors.Themostbasicandobviousisthatthedevicemustbeabletocomputethecontrolalgorithmswiftlyenoughtokeepupwiththerealtimedemandsofthesystem.Inmanycases,suchasthesimplePIDcontroller,thecontroltaskisrelativelysimple,buttoimplementmorecomplexcontrolstrategiesandincaseswhere

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