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外文翻译--一种对于常规桥远程测量最小垂直方向净空的创新检查方法.doc

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外文翻译--一种对于常规桥远程测量最小垂直方向净空的创新检查方法.doc

英文原文ANINNOVATIVEMETHODFORREMOTEMEASUREMENTOFMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEINROUTINEBRIDGEINSPECTIONBRIVEIROA,DVJAUREGUIB,PARIASC,JARMESTOC,RJIANGDADEPARTMENTOFMATERIALSENGINEERING,APPLIEDMECHANICSANDCONSTRUCTION,SCHOOLOFINDUSTRIALENGINEERING,UNIVERSITYOFVIGO,CP36208,VIGO,SPAINBDEPARTMENTOFCIVILENGINEERING,COLLEGEOFENGINEERING,NEWMEXICOSTATEUNIVERSITY,LASCRUCES,NM,USACDEPARTMENTOFNATURALRESOURCESANDENVIRONMENTALENGINEERING,SCHOOLOFMININGENGINEERING,UNIVERSITYOFVIGO,CP36310,VIGO,SPAINDDEPARTMENTOFENGINEERINGTECHNOLOGYANDSURVEYINGENGINEERING,COLLEGEOFENGINEERING,NEWMEXICOSTATEUNIVERSITY,LASCRUCES,NM,USAARTICLEINFOABSTRACTARTICLEHISTORYACCEPTED18APRIL2012AVAILABLEONLINE17MAY2012THISPAPERPRESENTSANINNOVATIVEANDLOWCOSTPROCEDUREFORTHECOMPLETEANDACCURATEMEASUREMENTOFMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEINASAFEENVIRONMENTFOROPERATORSTHISPROCEDUREDRAWSONTHEPRINCIPLESOFTERRESTRIALCONVERGENTPHOTOGRAMMETRYWHICHMAKESPOSSIBLETHERECONSTRUCTIONOFTHEBRIDGECOMPONENTSANDSURROUNDINGFEATURESIN3DSPACEUSINGTHEMEASURED3DCOORDINATES,ANALGORITHMWASDEVELOPEDINTHEMATLABSOFTWARETOCALCULATETHEVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEFURTHERMORE,APROCEDUREBASEDON3DCURVEFITTINGWASDEVELOPEDTOESTIMATETHEMATHEMATICALEXPRESSIONOFTHEBEAMCURVETHERESULTINGMETHODOLOGYISSUITABLEANDADVANTAGEOUSFORIMPLEMENTATIONINROUTINEBRIDGEINSPECTIONBECAUSEITPROVIDESAMOREEXTENSIVEANDACCURATEMEASUREMENTOFVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEUNDERMUCHSAFERCONDITIONSINADDITION,THEESTIMATEOFTHEBEAMEQUATIONCANBEUSEDNOTONLYFORCLEARANCEMEASUREMENTBUTALSOFORPERIODICMONITORINGOFTHEBEAMSHAPEOVERTIMEKEYWORDSBRIDGEINSPECTION;CLOSERANGEPHOTOGRAMMETRY;VERTICALUNDERCLEARANCE1INTRODUCTIONITISTRUETHATEXTENSIVEKNOWLEDGEOFTHEFUNCTIONALANDCONSERVATIONSTATESOFASTRUCTUREISNEEDEDINORDERTOPROPERLYSCHEDULEITSMAINTENANCEANDULTIMATELY,ENSUREITSPRESERVATIONPERIODICMONITORINGOFGEOMETRYUSUALLYPLAYSAKEYROLEINTHEDETECTIONOFSTRUCTURALANOMALIES,ANDINSOMECASESSUCHASSTONEARCHBRIDGES,CANAIDINPREVENTINGCOLLAPSEDUETOPROBLEMSWITHEQUILIBRIUMANDSTABILITY1INTHECASEOFMODERNBRIDGESMAINLYCOMPOSEDOFCONCRETEORSTEEL,ALTHOUGHTHEDIAGNOSISOFTHEIRCONDITIONSTATEISASSESSEDBASEDPRIMARILYONTHEPHYSICALCONDITIONOFTHESTRUCTURALELEMENTS,THEEXTERNALSHAPEANDGEOMETRYALSOPLAYSAVERYIMPORTANTROLEINTHEOVERALLEVALUATIONTHEPRESENCEOFDETERIORATION,DEFECTS,ANDDAMAGESEG,IMPACTDAMAGECAUSEDBYTRUCKCOLLISIONS,CONCRETESPALLSORDELAMINATIONS,FATIGUEORSHEARCRACKS,SECTIONLOSSANDEVIDENCEOFIRREGULARMOVEMENTARETHEMOSTIMPORTANTPARAMETERSCONSIDEREDDURINGAROUTINEBRIDGEINSPECTION,ANDMOVEADVANCEDTOOLSFORTHEIRDETECTIONANDQUANTIFICATIONNEEDTOBEINVESTIGATEDBRIDGEINSPECTIONISAKEYFACTORINTHEMAINTENANCEANDPRESERVATIONOFTHECIVILINFRASTRUCTUREOFACOUNTRYMANYPARAMETERSHAVETOBEPERIODICALLYEVALUATEDINORDERTODETERMINETHEPHYSICALCONDITIONOFTHESTRUCTURE4–5INTHEBRIDGEMANAGEMENTPROTOCOLOFTRANSPORTATIONAGENCIES,THEREUSUALLYEXISTSANINITIALPHASEFOCUSEDONROUTINEINSPECTION,WHERE,BYMEANSOFQUICKANDSIMPLEDOCUMENTATION,THEFIRSTDIAGNOSISOFTHECURRENTSTATEOFTHESTRUCTUREISOBTAINED6–8WHENSOMEEVIDENCEOFDISTRESSABOUTTHEPHYSICALCONDITIONORSTABILITYOFTHESTRUCTUREISFOUNDINTHISINITIALSTEPSUCHASEXCESSIVEBEAMSAGORSUPPORTSETTLEMENT,ASPECIALINSPECTIONPLANSHOULDBEINITIATEDTOPERFORMANINDEPTHEVALUATIONOFTHEBRIDGECURRENTLY,THEREARESEVERALBASICTECHNIQUESAVAILABLETOMEASUREIRREGULARBRIDGEMOVEMENTSUCHASPLUMBBOBS,LASERLEVELS,THEODOLITES,ANDTOTALSTATIONSHORIZONTALANDVERTICALCLEARANCESAREIMPORTANTGEOMETRICPARAMETERSTHATMUSTBEMEASUREDTOAHIGHLEVELOFACCURACYDURINGAROUTINEBRIDGEINSPECTIONTHEACQUISITIONOFTHESEDIMENSIONSISTRADITIONALLYACCOMPLISHEDBYMEANSOFBASICCONTACTTOOLSSUCHASTAPEMEASURESANDRANGEPOLESTHATLACKMETRICACCURACY,ANDWHICHALSOREQUIRETHEOPERATORSTOPERFORMTHECLEARANCEMEASUREMENTSUNDERDANGEROUSTRAFFICCONDITIONSFIG1ILLUSTRATESTHEUSEOFARANGEPOLETOMEASURETHEMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEWHICHISTHEDISTANCEFROMTHEROADWAYORRAILROADTRACKBENEATHTHEBRIDGETOTHEUNDERSIDEOFTHESUPERSTRUCTUREASSHOWNINTHEFIGURE,MEASUREMENTSAREUSUALLYTAKENATDISCRETEPOINTSONTHEBOTTOMSURFACEOFTHEBEAMTOSAVETIMEANDALSODUETOSAFETYCONCERNSFURTHERMORE,ITISDIFFICULTTOKEEPTHERANGEPOLEPERFECTLYVERTICALTOOBTAINANACCURATEMEASUREMENTPARTICULARLYFORHIGHERCLEARANCESCONSEQUENTLY,ITISPOSSIBLETHATTHEMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEISNOTMEASUREDACCURATELYATTHECORRECTLOCATIONTHEREARE116ITEMSOFBRIDGEDATAUSEDBYTHEFHWATOMONITORANDMANAGETHENATIONALBRIDGEINVENTORYNBIINTHEUNITEDSTATESASGIVENINTHESTRUCTUREINVENTORYANDAPPRAISALSIPSHEETTHEDATAAREDIVIDEDBETWEENINVENTORYITEMSTHATPERTAINTOTHEPERMANENTCONDITIONSOFTHEBRIDGEANDAPPRAISALITEMSTHATPERTAINTOTHECONDITIONOFTHEBRIDGECOMPONENTINCOMPARISONTOCURRENTSTANDARDSINTHESIPSHEET,GEOMETRICDATAARECONSIDEREDINVENTORYITEMSUNDERWHICHTHEMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEISITEM54THISPARTICULARITEMISCODEDWITH5DIGITS;THEFIRSTDIGITREPRESENTSTHEREFERENCEFEATUREHIGHWAYORRAILROADBENEATHSTRUCTUREANDTHEREMAININGFOURDIGITSREPRESENTTHEMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEINFEETANDINCHESUNDERCLEARANCEINFORMATIONISUSEDBYPERSONNELINVOLVEDWITHTHEPERMITTINGOFOVERSIZE/OVERWEIGHTVEHICLESANDISUSEDINEVALUATINGTHESUFFICIENCYOFABRIDGETOREMAININSERVICEIE,SUFFICIENCYRATINGFOURSEPARATEFACTORSAREDETERMINEDUSING19OFTHE116ITEMSREPORTEDINTHESIASHEETTOARRIVEATTHESUFFICIENCYRATING1STRUCTURALADEQUACYANDSAFETY;2SERVICEABILITYANDFUNCTIONALOBSOLESCENCE;3ESSENTIALITYFORPUBLICUSE;AND4SPECIALREDUCTIONSHORIZONTALANDVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCESANDTHEDECKCONDITIONAFFECTTHESECONDFACTORWHILETHESUPERSTRUCTUREANDSUBSTRUCTURECONDITIONSAFFECTTHEFIRSTFACTORTHESUFFICIENCYRATINGRANGESFROM0TO100WITHTHELATTERPERCENTAGEREPRESENTINGANENTIRELYSUFFICIENTBRIDGEBRIDGESQUALIFYFORREPLACEMENTWHENTHERATINGFALLSBELOW50ANDREHABILITATIONWHENTHERATINGFALLSBELOW80INSPITEOFTHESIMPLICITYANDRAPIDITYINUSINGTRADITIONALINSTRUMENTS,THEQUALITYOFMETRICRESULTSISPOORSURVEYINGTECHNIQUESOFFERBETTERQUALITYRESULTSINTERMSOFACCURACY,BUTTHESEMETHODSHAVEIMPORTANTLIMITATIONSFORREGULARUSEINRELATIONTOHANDLINGOFEQUIPMENTANDTHEAMOUNTOFDATACOLLECTEDTERRESTRIALPHOTOGRAMMETRYANDLASERSCANNINGARETWOGEOMATICTECHNIQUESWHICHHAVESIGNIFICANTLYEVOLVED,BEINGMOREANDMOREUSEDINDIVERSEFIELDSINCLUDINGARCHITECTURE9,10;CIVILENGINEERING11–14;INDUSTRY15,16;ANDARCHAEOLOGY17,18MANYINVESTIGATIONSSHOWTHEPOTENTIALOFTHESENEWTECHNOLOGIESINTHEFIELDOFBRIDGEENGINEERING19FROMTHECAPTUREDPRECISE3DGEOMETRYOFBRIDGES,FOREXAMPLE,ANIMPROVEDASSESSMENTOFTHESTRUCTURECANBEMADE20LASERSCANNINGISGAININGPOPULARITYDUETOITSSIMPLICITYINUSAGEANDSPEEDOFACQUISITION21AFEWSTUDIESOFDAMAGEDETECTIONINCONCRETEBRIDGESUSINGTERRESTRIALLASERSCANNERDATACANBEFOUNDIN22–24SIMILARTOTRADITIONALSURVEYINGEQUIPMENT,LASERSCANNINGPRESENTSIMPORTANTLIMITATIONSFORROUTINEINSPECTIONWORKINCLUDINGCOSTOFEQUIPMENT,NECESSITYFORTRAINEDOPERATORS,ANDAMOUNTOFDATASTOREDDURINGTHEBRIDGESURVEYCONSEQUENTLY,LOWCOSTTECHNOLOGIESCAPABLEOFCOLLECTINGMEANINGFULANDACCURATEMETRICDATAWITHOUTTHENEEDFOROVERLYCOMPLICATEDEQUIPMENTOPERATIONANDEXTENSIVEDATAPROCESSINGARENEEDEDCLOSERANGEPHOTOGRAMMETRYHASSEVERALSTRENGTHSTHATMAKEITASUITABLEMETHODFORMEASURINGBRIDGEFEATURESDURINGAROUTINEINSPECTIONSUCHASITUTILIZESLOWCOSTEQUIPMENT,ITISRELATIVELYEASYTOUSE,ANDITPROVIDESHIGHMETRICPRECISIONANEXTENSIVEREVIEWOFTHEAPPLICATIONOFTHISTECHNIQUEINBRIDGEENGINEERINGCANBEFOUNDIN19GONZALEZAGUILERAANDGMEZLAHOZ25PRESENTANOVELPHOTOGRAMMETRICSYSTEMBASEDONASINGLEIMAGEFOROBTAININGTHEOVERALLGEOMETRYOFBRIDGESBYMEANSOFDIMENSIONALANALYSISOTHERSTUDIESRELATEDTOBRIDGEMONITORINGBASEDONPHOTOGRAMMETRICMETHODSINCLUDEDTHOSEPERFORMEDBYCHANGANDJI26ANDHANGETAL27BEFORENEWTECHNOLOGIESAREINCLUDEDINTHEPROTOCOLSFORMETRICDOCUMENTATION,THEYMUSTFIRSTBEVALIDATEDINTHISCONTEXT,METHODOLOGIESOFSURVEYINGNEEDTOBEADAPTEDTOOVERCOMETHEEXISTINGDIFFICULTIESINROUTINEBRIDGEINSPECTIONTHISPAPERPRESENTSANINNOVATIVEANDLOWCOSTPROCEDUREFORTHECOMPLETEANDACCURATEMEASUREMENTOFMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEINASAFEENVIRONMENTFOROPERATORSTHISPROCEDUREDRAWSONTHEPRINCIPLESOFTERRESTRIALCONVERGENTPHOTOGRAMMETRYWHICHMAKESPOSSIBLETHERECONSTRUCTIONOFTHEBRIDGECOMPONENTSANDSURROUNDINGFEATURESIN3DSPACEUSINGTHEMEASURED3DCOORDINATES,ANALGORITHMWASDEVELOPEDINTHEMATLABSOFTWARETOCALCULATETHEVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEFURTHERMORE,APROCEDUREBASEDON3DCURVEFITTINGWASDEVELOPEDTOESTIMATETHEMATHEMATICALEXPRESSIONOFTHEBEAMCURVETHERESULTINGMETHODOLOGYISSUITABLEANDADVANTAGEOUSFORIMPLEMENTATIONINROUTINEBRIDGEINSPECTIONBECAUSEITPROVIDESAMOREEXTENSIVEANDACCURATEMEASUREMENTOFVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEUNDERMUCHSAFERCONDITIONSINADDITION,THEESTIMATEOFTHEBEAMEQUATIONCANBEUSEDNOTONLYFORCLEARANCEMEASUREMENTBUTALSOFORPERIODICMONITORINGOFTHEBEAMSHAPEOVERTIME2THEORETICALBACKGROUNDS21PHOTOGRAMMETRICPROCESSCLOSERANGEPHOTOGRAMMETRYISANONDESTRUCTIVEGEOMATICTECHNIQUEWHICHALLOWSTHE3DSHAPEOFOBJECTSTOBERECONSTRUCTEDFROMPHOTOGRAPHICIMAGESTHECONVERSIONFROM2DINFORMATIONOFIMAGESTO3DMODELSISACHIEVEDBYMEANSOFTHEPHOTOGRAMMETRICPROCESSTWOMAINSTEPSCONTRIBUTETOTHISPROCESSINNERORIENTATIONANDEXTERNALORIENTATIONTHEINNERORIENTATIONRECONSTRUCTSTHEINTERNALGEOMETRYOFTHEIMAGINGSYSTEM,WHICHDEFINESTHEPERSPECTIVESYSTEM,BYMEANSOFTHECAMERACALIBRATIONPROCESSTHEMETRICPARAMETERSOBTAINEDFROMTHECAMERACALIBRATIONINCLUDETHE3DPOSITIONOFTHEPERSPECTIVECENTREINTHEIMAGESPACEFOCALLENGTHANDPRINCIPALPOINTONTHESENSOR,SENSORDIMENSIONS,ANDLENSDISTORTIONSTHELENSDISTORTIONSARESOURCESOFERRORSDURINGTHEIMAGERECORDINGANDMUSTBECOMPENSATEDFORTOOBTAINTHEMOSTACCURATERECONSTRUCTIONOFTHE3DMODELTHESYMMETRICRADIALDISTORTIONSIGNIFICANTLYINFLUENCESTHEPHOTOGRAMMETRICRECONSTRUCTIONASSHOWNIN28,29THEREARETWOCOMMONFORMULATIONSFORRADIALDISTORTIONBALANCEDANDUNBALANCEDMODELSALTHOUGHTHESEMODELSCANBEMATHEMATICALLYEQUIVALENT,THEBALANCEDMODELRESULTSINSMALLERAPPARENTDISTORTIONSSOISCOMMONLYUSEDBYCAMERAANDLENSMANUFACTURERS30–32THEEXTERNALORIENTATIONLOCATESTHERELATIVEPOSITIONOFEACHCAMERAUSEDINTHE3DRECONSTRUCTIONPROCESSATTHETIMEIMAGESWERETAKENHENCE,IFTHEPOSITIONOFONECAMERAISKNOWN,THERELATIVEEXTERNALORIENTATIONISDONEUSINGTHEPOSITIONSX,Y,ZANDORIENTATIONSΩ,Φ,ΚOFTHEOTHERCAMERASFORAGIVENPOINTINANOBJECTSPACE,THECOPLANARITYCONDITIONREQUIRESTHATTHEPOINTSPOSITIONINTWOOVERLAPPEDIMAGESANDTHECAMERASPERSPECTIVECENTREARESITUATEDINTHESAMEPLANEASSHOWNBYKRAUSSIN33,THERELATIVEORIENTATIONOFIMAGESISACHIEVEDWHENTHEIMAGECOORDINATESOFFIG1FIG1MEASUREMENTOFMINIMUMVERTICALUNDERCLEARANCEDURINGAROUTINEBRIDGEINSPECTIONM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