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外文翻译--不规则制造系统的动态代理人模型和说明书.doc

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外文翻译--不规则制造系统的动态代理人模型和说明书.doc

1附录1翻译(英文)ModelingandspecifcationsofdynamicagentsinfractalmanufacturingsystemsKwangyeolRyua,YoungjunSonb,MooyoungJunga,aDepartmentofIndustrialEngineering,PohangUniversityofScienceandTechnology,Pohang,SouthKoreaSystemsandIndustrialEngineeringDepartment,TheUniversityofArizona,Tucson,AZ,USAbReceived9September2002accepted16April2003AbstractInordertorespondtoarapidlychangingmanufacturingenvironmentandmarket,manufacturingsystemsmustbeflexible,adaptable,andreusable.ThefractalmanufacturingsystemFrMSisoneofthenewmanufacturingparadigmsthataddresstheneedforthesecharacteristics.TheFrMSiscomprisedofanumberofbasiccomponents,eachofwhichconsistsoffivefunctionalmodules1anobserver,2ananalyzer,3anorganizer,4aresolver,and5areporter.Eachofthesemodules,usingagenttechnology,autonomouslycooperatesandnegotiateswithotherswhileprocessingitsownjobs.Theresultingarchitecturehasahighdegreeofselfsimilarity,oneofthemaincharacteristicsofafractal.DespitethemanyconceptualadvantagesoftheFrMS,ithasnotbeensuccessfullyelaboratedandimplementedtodatebecauseofthedifficultiesinvolvedindoingso.Inthispaper,thestaticfunctionsanddynamicactivitiesofeachagentaremodeledusingtheunifiedmodelinglanguageUML.Then,relationshipsamongagents,workingmechanismsofeachagent,andseveralfractalspecificcharacteristicsselfsimilarity,selforganization,andgoalorientationaremodeledusingtheUML.Then,amethodfordealingwithseveraltypesofinformationsuchasproducts,orders,andresourcesintheFrMSispresented.Finally,apreliminaryprototypefortheFrMSusingAgletsTMispresented.2003ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsFractalmanufacturingsystemFrMSAgenttechnologyUMLModelingAbbreviationsFrMS,fractalmanufacturingsystemBFU,basicfractalunitDRP,dynamicrestructuringprocessUML,uniedmodelinglanguageHMS,holonicmanufacturingsystemBMS,bionic/biologicalmanufacturingsystemCNP,contractnetprotocolMANPro,mobileagentbasednegotiationprocessNMA,networkmonitoringagentEMA,equipmentmonitoringagentSEA,scheduleevaluationagentDRA,dispatchingruleratingagentRSA,realtimesimulationagentSGA,schedulegenerationagentGFA,goalformationagentTGA,taskgoverningagentNEA,negotiationagentKDA,knowledgedatabaseagentDMA,decisionmakingagentFSM,fractalstatusmanagerFAM,fractaladdressmanagerREA,restructuringagentNCA,networkcommandagentECA,equipmentcommandagentSTA,systemagentNTA,networkagentMP,materialprocessorMH,materialhandlerMT,materialtransporterBS,bufferstorageMRP,materialremovalprocessorMFP,materialformingprocessorMIP,materialinspectionprocessorPD,passivedeviceFMH,xedmaterialhandlerMMH,movablematerialhandlerFMT,fixedmaterialtransporterMMT,movablematerialtransporterABS,activebufferstoragePBS,passivebufferstorageEmailaddressmyjungpostech.ac.krM.Jung.Correspondingauthor.Tel.t82542792191faxt82542795998.01663615/–seefrontmatter2003ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/S016636150300099X1.IntroductionFacingintensifiedcompetitioninagrowingglobalmarket,manufacturingenterpriseshavebeenreengineeringtheirproductionsystemstoachievecomputerintegratedmanufacturingCIM.MajorgoalsofCIMinclude,butarenotnecessarilylimitedto,loweringmanufacturingcosts,rapidlyrespondingtochangingcustomerdemands,shorteninglead2times,andincreasingthequalityofproducts1–3.However,thedevelopmentofaCIMsystemisanincrediblycomplexactivity,andtheevolutiontoCIMhasbeenslowerthanexpected4,5.Thiscanbedirectlyattributedtohighsoftwaredevelopmentandmaintenancecosts.Therefore,inordertoachieveacompetitiveadvantageintheturbulentglobalmarket,themanufacturingenterprisemustchangemanufacturingprocessesfromallanglesincludingordering,productdesign,processplanning,production,sales,etc.AsacontrolmodelforimplementingCIMsystems,hierarchicaldecompositionofshopflooractivitieshasbeencommonlyusedintheshopfloorcontrolsystemSFCS,thecentralpartofaCIMsystem2.Generally,acentraldatabaseprovidesaglobalviewoftheoverallsystem,andcontrollersgenerateschedulesandexecutethem.Hierarchicalcontroliseasytounderstandandislessredundantthanotherdistributedcontrolarchitecturessuchasheterarchicalcontrol.However,ithasacrucialweakpoint,whichisthatasmallchangeinonelevelmaysignificantlyandadverselyaffecttheotherlevelsinthehierarchy.Therefore,itisnormallysaidthathierarchicalcontrolofCIMsystemsismuchmoresuitableforproductioninasteadyenvironmentthaninadynamicallychangingenvironmentbecauseitissodiffculttoapplycontrolhierarchychangesimmediatelytotheequipment.Furthermore,itisdiffculttomeetdynamicallychangingcustomerrequirementsbecausethehierarchicalcontrolarchitectureisnotflexibleenoughtohandlethereconfigurationoftheshop.Therefore,themanufacturingsystemoftomorrowshouldbeflexible,highlyreconfigurable,andeasilyadaptabletothedynamicenvironment.Furthermore,itshouldbeanintelligent,autonomous,anddistributedsystemcomposedofindependentfunctionalmodules.Tocopewiththeserequirements,newmanufacturingparadigmssuchasabionic/biologicalmanufacturingsystemBMS6,7,aholonicmanufacturingsystemHMS8,9,andafractalmanufacturingsystemFrMS10–13havebeenproposed.Tharumarajahetal.14provideacomprehensivecomparisonamongaBMS,aHMS,andanFrMSintermsofdesignandoperationalfeatures.AnFrMSisanewmanufacturingconceptderivedfromthefractalfactoryintroducedbyWarnecke13.Itisbasedontheconceptofautonomouslycooperatingmultiagentsreferredtoasfractals.ThebasiccomponentoftheFrMS,referredtoasabasicfractalunitBFU,consistsoffivefunctionalmodulesincludinganobserver,ananalyzer,aresolver,anorganizer,andareporter10,11.ThefractalarchitecturalmodelrepresentsahierarchicalstructurebuiltfromtheelementsofaBFU,andthedesignofabasicunitincorporatesasetofpertinentattributesthatcanfullyrepresentanylevelinthehierarchy12.Inotherwords,thetermfractalcanrepresentanentiremanufacturingshopatthehighestleveloraphysicalmachineatthebottomlevel.EachBFUprovidesservicesaccordingtoanindividuallevelgoalandactsindependentlywhileattemptingtoachievetheshoplevelgoal.AnFrMShasmanyadvantagesforadistributedanddynamicmanufacturingenvironment.AutomaticreconfigurationofasystemthroughadynamicrestructuringprocessDRPisthemostdistinctivecharacteristicoftheFrMS.Inthispaper,thescopeofthereconfigurationdoesnotincludereconfigurablehardware15andexternallayoutdesign.Rather,itfocusesontheinteriorstructureofsoftwarecomponentsthatcanbereorganizedwithsoftwaremanipulations.Thereconfigurationorrestructuringinthispaperconsidersbothdynamicclusteringoftheagentsandconstruction/destruction/cloningofagents,whichaffectthenumberofagentsinthesystem.ThefunctionofafractalisnotspecificallydesignatedatthetimeofitsfirstinstallationintheFrMS.Thereconfigurationaddressedinthispaperalsoincludessituationswheretheagentsenrollmentsarechanged,meaningthattheagentsareassignedanewgoalandnewjobs,buttheircompositiondoesnotchange.ThispaperfocusesonformalmodelingofagentsandfractalspecificcharacteristicsthatwillprovideafoundationforthedevelopmentoftheFrMS.Becauseassociateddifficultieshave,todate,preventedafractalbasedsystemfrombeingembodied,itisnecessarytofirstexplicitlydefineaconcept,mechanisms,andcharacteristics.3Theobjectiveofthispaper,therefore,istoclearlydefineandmodelfractalspecifccharacteristicsforamanufacturingsystemtohavesuchcharacteristics.Inordertodeveloptheagents,interandintrafractalactivitiesarefirstclarified.Then,dynamicactivitiesforeachagentandrelationshipsbetweenagentsaremodeled.InordertomorefullydeveloptheFrMS,severalfractalspecificcharacteristicsarealsomodeled.Tosupportembodimentofmodeledcharacteristics,amethodfordealingwithinformationaboutproducts,orders,andresourcesintheFrMSisinvestigated.Throughthisresearch,mechanismsofagentsandcharacteristicsoftheFrMScanbedescribedwithsimplediagramsthatmakethesystemeasiertounderstand.TheworkcontainedinthispaperextendstheFrMSfrompreviouspapersbyemphasizinganddetailingitscharacteristics.Theactivitiesofagentsarespecifiedusingactivitymodelssothattheagentscanusetheactivitymodelstoforecasttheirnextactivitiesatruntime.TherestofthispaperisorganizedasfollowsSection2describesfunctionsanddynamicactivitiesofagentsusingfunctionalandactivitymodelsofunifiedmodelinglanguageUML.InSection3,interandintrafractalactivitiesarespecified.SeveralfractalspecificcharacteristicsaredescribedusingUMLmodelsinSection4.Section5describesamethodfordealingwithinformationaboutproductsandresourcesintheFrMS.Section6concludesthepaper.2.AgentbasedfractalmanufacturingsystemFrMS2.1.BackgroundofanFrMSAnoverviewoftheFrMSisdepictedinFig.1.Everycontrollerateverylevelinthesystemhasaselfsimilarfunctionalstructurecomposedoffunctionalmodules.Inaddition,eachofthesemodules,regardlessofitshierarchicallevel,consistsofasetofagents.Aftertheinitialsetupofasystem,theconfigurationofthesystemmayneedtobereorganizedinresponsetounexpectedeventssuchasmachinebreakdown.Thesystemwillalsoneedtobereconfiguredwhenthesetofpartstobeproducedinthesystemchangesduetoachangeincustomerneeds.Inthesecases,fractalsintheFrMSautonomouslyanddynamicallychangetheirstructure,viatheactionsofagentsfortheappropriateworkingmechanismsofthefractals.Fig.1showstwofacilitylayoutsandthecorrespondingcompositionsoffractalsbeforeandaftertherestructuringprocess.WhenamachineMandarobotR3areaddedtothesystem,fractalsreorganizetheirinteriorconfigurationswiththemechanismofdynamicrestructuringprocessinawaythatthesystemcontinuestoworkwithgreatestefficiency.AfractalconsistsoffivefunctionalmodulesillustratedwiththeirrelationshipsinFig.2.Thefunctionsofeachmodulecanbedefineddependingupontheapplicationdomain.Fig.1.ReorganizationofthesystemusingadynamicrestructuringprocessintheFrMS.However,whenthetargetdomainisdetermined,themainfunctionsofeachmodulewillbe4consistentthroughoutthesystem.Forexample,thefunctionofaresolvermaybedifferentdependinguponwhetheritisdefinedforcontrollingamanufacturingsystemorformanagingsupplychains.However,themainfunctionofaresolverinamanufacturingsystemissimilartootherresolversinthatsystemregardlessoftheirlevelinthehierarchy.AbottomlevelfractalhassimilarfunctionstothoseofaconventionalequipmentcontrollerinaSFCS.Afractal,whichisdirectlyconnectedtoequipmente.g.machine,robot,etc.,receivessensorysignalsofequipmentandreturnsmessagesorcommands.Thefunctionofanobserveristomonitorthestateoftheunit,toreceivemessagesandinformationfromouterfractals,andtoFig.2.FunctionalmodulesandrelationshipsofafractalinanFrMS.transmitcompositeinformationtocorrespondentfractals.Thefunctionofananalyzeristoanalyzealternativejobprofileswithstatusinformation,toratedispatchingrules,andtosimulateanalyzedjobprofilesinrealtime.Theanalyzerfinallyreportsresultstotheresolversothattheresolvercanusethemtomakedecisions.Aresolverplaysthemostimportantroleinafractal,generatingjobprofiles,goalformationprocesses,anddecisionmakingprocesses.Duringgoalformationprocesses,theresolvermayemployavarietyofnumericaloptimizationorheuristictechniquestooptimizethefractalsgoal.Ifnecessary,theresolverexecutesnegotiations,cooperation,andcoordinationamongfractals.Thefunctionofanorganizeristomanagethefractalstatusandfractaladdresses,particularlyfordynamicrestructuringprocesses.Theorganizermayusenumericaloptimizationtechniquestofindanoptimalconfigurationwhilereconfiguringfractals.Thefractalstatusisusedtoselectthebestjobprofileamongseveralalternatives,andthefractaladdressisusedtofindthephysicaladdressofthefractale.g.machine_name,port_number,etc.onthenetwork.Thefunctionofareporteristoreportresultsfromallprocessesinafractaltoothers.Inthecaseofabottomlevelcontroller,thefractalissimilartoatraditionalequipmentcontroller.Therefore,mostofitsmessagesarecommandsforcontrollingthehardware.2.2.AgentsinanFrMSAgenttechnologyhasbeenwidelyusedforvariousapplicationsincludinginformationfilteringandgathering16,knowledgemanagement17,supplychainmanagement18,

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