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外文翻译--两个轴气动人工肌肉机械手的一种新的相平面切换控制方法控制 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--两个轴气动人工肌肉机械手的一种新的相平面切换控制方法控制 英文版.pdf

GJournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology21200710181027JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnologyControlofTwoAxisPneumaticArtificialMuscleManipulatorwithaNewPhasePlaneSwitchingControlMethodTUDiepCongThanhb,KyoungKwanAHNa,aSchoolofMechanicalandAutomotiveEngineering,UniversityofUlsan,KoreabMechatronicsDepartment,HoChiMinhCityUniversityofTechnology,VietNamManuscriptReceivedSeptember25,2006RevisedApril24,2007AcceptedApril242007AbstractTheuseofrobotsinrehabilitationhasbecomeanissueofincreasingimportancebecauseoftherequirementoffunctionalrecoverytherapyforlimbs.AnovelpneumaticartificialmusclePAMactuator–whichhasachievedincreasedpopularityforprovidingsafetyandmobilityassistancetohumansperformingtasks,aswellasprovidinganotheradvantagessuchashighstrengthandpower/weightratio,lowcost,compactness,easeofmaintenance,cleanliness,readilyavailable,cheappowersource,andsoon–hasbeenconsideredduringtherecentdecadesforuseinatherapyrobot,whichinparticularrequiresahighlevelofsafety.However,somelimitationsstillexist,suchasaircompressibilityandthelackofdampingabilityoftheactuatortobringthedynamicdelayofthepressureresponseandcausetheoscillatorymotion.Inaddition,toaidrehabilitationmoreefficiently,therobotshouldadjustitsimpedanceparametersaccordingtothephysicalconditionofthepatient.Forthispurpose,themanipulatorjoinisequippedwithaMagnetoRheologicalBrakeMRB.AnewphaseplaneswitchingcontrolmethodusingMRBisproposedfortrackingsinusoidalwaveforms.TheeffectivenessoftheproposedalgorithmisdemonstratedthroughanexperimentusingafabricatedtwoaxisPAMmanipulator.Theexperimentprovesthatthestabilityofthemanipulatorcouldbegreatlyimprovedusingahighgaincontrolwithoutregardtothechangeofthefrequenciesofthereferenceinputandtheexternalloadcondition,andwithoutdecreasingtheresponsespeedorloweringthestiffnessofPAMmanipulator.GKeywordsPneumaticartificialmusclePhaseplaneswitchingcontrolManipulatorMagnetorheologicalbrake1.IntroductionThenumberofpeoplerequiringrehabilitationduetobonefractureorjointdiseasecausedbytrafficaccidentsandcerebralapoplexy,andforfunctionalmotorproblemsduetoadvancedage,numbersseveralhundredsofthousandsworldwide.Theapplicationofroboticstorehabilitationisthusofgreatconcern.Functionalrecoverytherapyisnormallycarriedoutbymedicaltherapistsonapersontopersonbasis,butautomaticequipmenthasbeenputtopracticaluseinphysicaltherapyprogramsthatrepeatrelativelysimpleoperations,suchasacontinuouspassivemotionmachine,awalkingtrainingdevice,andatorquemachineusedforasingleaxisDoi,1993Fujieetal.,1994Fujieetal.,1995.Thisresearchdealswithfunctionalrecoverytherapy,oneimportantaspectofphysicalrehabilitation.SinglejointtherapymachineshavealreadybeencreatedAhnandThanh,20042005a2005b.However,multijointrobotsarenecessarytoachievemorerealisticmotionpatterns,andhencearenecessaryformoreefficienttherapy.Thiskindofrobotmusthaveahighlevelofsafetyforhumanuse.ThePAMmanipulatorhasbeenusedtoconstructatherapyrobotwithtwodegreesoffreedomDOF.A2DOFrobotforfunctionalrecoverytherapydrivenbypneumaticCorrespondingauthor.Tel.82522592282,Fax.82522591680Emailaddresskkahnulsan.ac.krTUDiepCongThanhandKyoungKwanAHN/JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology212007101810271019musclewasdevelopedbyZobelZobeletal.,1999andRaparelliRaparellietal.,20012003artificialmuscleactuatorsforbioroboticsystemsbyKluteKluteetal.,1999200020022003apneumaticmusclehandtherapydevicebyKoenemanKoenemanetal.,2004andahumanfriendlytherapyrobotThanhandAhn,2006a.However,somelimitationsstillexist,suchastheaircompressibilityandthelackofdampingabilityoftheactuatortobringthedynamicdelayofthepressureresponse,causingoscillatorymotion.Inaddition,toexecuterehabilitationmoreefficiently,therobotmustadjustitsimpedanceparametersaccordingtothephysicalconditionofthepatient.Forthispurpose,anewtechnology,anelectrorheologicalfluiddamperERDamper,hasbeenappliedtothePAMmanipulator.NoritsuguandhisteamusedanERdampertoimprovethecontrolperformanceofthePAMmanipulatorwithaPIcontrollerandpulsecodemodulatedonoffvalvesNoritsuguetal.,1994.Byseparatingtheregionwherethedamperproducesadampingtorquetoreconcilebothdampingandresponsespeedunderhighgaincontrol,theresultsshowthattheERdamperisaneffectivemethodforuseinapracticallyavailable,humanfriendlyrobotusingthePAMmanipulator.Moreover,positioncontrolisimprovedwithoutadecreaseinresponsespeed.However,somelimitationshamperthetechnology,sinceERFluidERFrequiresextremelyhighcontrolvoltagekV,whichisproblematic,andinparticular,potentiallydangerous,onlyoperatesinanarrowtemperaturerangeandoneunsuitableforPAMmanipulators,andexhibitsnonlinearcharacteristics.BecauseERFhasmanyunacceptabledisadvantages,magnetorheologicalfluidMRFhasbeenconsideredanattractivealternativefortheadvantageslistedinTable1,andhasbeenrecentlyusedinhumanfriendlytherapyrobotsThanhandAhn,2006b.Thoughthesesystemsweresuccessfulinaddressingsmoothactuatormotionresponsetostepinputs,assumingthattwoaxesPAMmanipulatorisutilizedintherapyrobotinthefuture,whichisthefinalgoalofourresearch,itisnecessarytorealizefastresponse,eveniftheexternalinertialoadchangesseverelywithsinusoidalresponsewithoutregardtothevariousfrequencies.Therefore,torealizesatisfactorycontrolperformance,aMRBisequippedtothejointofthemanipulator.AphaseplaneswitchingcontrolmethodusingaMRBisproposedforthecaseoftrackingsinusoidalwaveforms,andtheeffectivenessoftheproposedalgorithmwillbedemonstratedthroughtheexperimentsinvolvingatwoaxisPAMmanipulator.Theexperimentsshowthatthestabilityofthemanipulatorcouldbegreatlyimprovedunderahighgaincontrolwithoutregardtovariationsofthefrequenciesreferenceandexternalloadconditions,andwithoutdecreasingtheresponsespeedandlowstiffnessofthetwoaxisPAMmanipulator.2.Experimentalsetup2.1ExperimentalapparatusTheschematicdiagramofthetwoaxispneumaticartificialmusclemanipulatorisshowninFig.1.TheTable1.Comparisonofrheologicalfluids.MagnetoRheologicalFluidElectroRheologicalFluidMax.YieldStress50–100kPa2–5kPaViscosity0.1–1.0Pas0.1–1.0PasOperableTemp.Range40to150oC10to90oCionic,DC25to125oCnonionic,ACStabilityUnaffectedbymostimpuritiesCannottolerateimpuritiesResponseTimemillisecondsmillisecondsDensity3–4g/cm31–2g/cm3Max.EnergyDensity0.1Joule/cm30.001Joule/cm3PowerSupply2–25V1–2A2–50watts2–25KV1–10mA2–50wattsFig.1.Schematicdiagramoftwoaxespneumaticartificialmusclemanipulator.1020TUDiepCongThanhandKyoungKwanAHN/JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology21200710181027Fig.2.Workingprincipleofthepneumaticartificialmusclemanipulator.Fig.3.Photographoftheexperimentalapparatus.Fig.4.ConstructionofMRB.thepressuredifferencebetweentheantagonisticartificialmusclesandtheexternalloadisrotatedasaabFig.5.CharacteristicsofMRB.Table2.Experimentalhardware.No.NameModelnameCompany1ProportionalvalveMPYE51/8HF710BFesto2MagnetoRheologicalRotaryBrakeMRB21073RotaryBrakeLord3PneumaticartificialmuscleMAS10N220AAMCFKFesto4D/AboardPCI1720Advantech5WonderBoxDeviceControllerKitRD300203Lord6RotaryencoderH4083600ZOMetronix724bitdigitalcounterboardPCL833AdvantechresultinFig.2.Thejointangles,1θand2θ,weremeasuredwitharotaryencoderMETRONIX,S4883600ZOandfedbacktothecomputerthrougha24bitdigitalcounterboardAdvantech,PCL833.Theexternalinertialoadcouldbevariedfrom20kgfcm2to40kgfcm2,a200changewithrespecttotheminimuminertialoadconditionvariousfrequenciesofreferenceinputsinusoidalwaveformareconsidered.TheexperimentsareTUDiepCongThanhandKyoungKwanAHN/JournalofMechanicalScienceandTechnology212007101810271021conductedunderanambientpressureof0.4MPaandallcontrolsoftwareiscodedinCprogramlanguage.AphotographoftheexperimentalapparatusisshowninFig.3.2.2CharacteristicsofMRBThedesignoftheMRBisshowninFig.4.Therotorisfixedtotheshaft,whichcanrotaterelativetothehousing.ThegapbetweentherotorandhousingisfilledwithMRF.ThebrakingtorqueoftheMRBcanbecontrolledbytheelectriccurrentinitscoil.TheapparentviscosityoftheMRFischangedwithinafewmillisecondsoftheapplicationofamagneticfield,andreturnstoitsnormalviscosityintheabsenceofamagneticfield.ThefollowingexperimentsareperformedtoinvestigatethecharacteristicsofMRBmeasurementdataisreportedinFig.5andTable3.TheMRBisconnectedwithatorquetransducerandaservomotorinseries.Intheexperiments,therotationalspeedisvariedfrom100rpmto1000rpmandtheappliedcurrentfrom0Ato1A.Theserangesareusedbecausetheresponseofthesystemdoesnotreach1000rpmandthemaximumcurrentappliedforMRBis1A.Figure5showsthedampingtorquewithrespecttothechangeoftheinputcurrentaandrotationalspeedbofMRBrake.FromFig.5,itisclearthatthedampingtorqueofMRBisindependentofrotationalspeedandalmostproportionaltoinputcurrent.Thus,Eq.1forinputscurrentIanddampingtorqueTbTable3.MeasurementdataofMRB.W/I00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.911000.280.811.331.872.442.933.514.034.55.115.572000.310.821.331.922.42.963.573.994.545.125.673000.30.811.361.892.482.993.544.034.555.135.584000.310.821.351.942.462.983.554.054.595.055.625000.310.831.371.872.42.993.554.084.615.065.586000.30.831.361.872.4833.534.054.545.065.557000.280.861.371.92.463.013.544.034.555.045.558000.290.861.371.92.443.053.544.084.595.045.589000.290.891.411.922.533.053.574.114.585.015.6110000.290.891.441.932.533.043.574.144.615.035.59WRotationalSpeedrpmICurrentAppliedAbTfIabI1Here,aandbareconstantsdeterminedusingcharacteristicMRBresponsecurve.3.Controlsystem3.1PositioncontrolsystemTocontrolthisPAMmanipulator,aconventionalPIDcontrolalgorithmisusedasthebasiccontrollerinthisresearch.Thecontrolleroutputcanbeexpressedinthetimedomainasfollows0tpppdiKdetutKetetdtKTTdg1792TakingtheLaplacetransformof2yieldspppdiKUsKEsEsKTsEsTs3TheresultingtransferfunctionofthePIDcontrolleris11pdiUsKTsEsTsg167g183g168g184g169g1854Atypicalrealtimeimplementationatsamplingsequencekcanbeexpressedasfollows11ppipdKTukKekukekTekekKTT−−−5whereukandekarethecontrolinputtothecontrolvalveandtheerrorbetweenthedesiredsetpointandtheoutputofjoint,respectively.Inaddition,usinganMRBisaneffectivewaytoimprovethecontrolperformanceofthePAMmanipulatorbyreconcilingboththedampingandresponsespeedbecauseitworksinonlytheregionswheretheaccelerationordecelerationistoohigh.Here,sisLaplacevariable,Taisthetorqueproducedbythemanipulator,Tcisconstanttorque,KEDdeterminesthegainforthetorqueproportionaltotheangularspeedθg5,andVcisacontrolvoltageofsourcecalculatedfromEq.1toproduceTc.The

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