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外文翻译--为了获得对疲劳寿命进行预测的初步数据而用有限元方法对重型卡车底盘进行的应力分析 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--为了获得对疲劳寿命进行预测的初步数据而用有限元方法对重型卡车底盘进行的应力分析 英文版.pdf

JurnalMekanikalDecember2008,No.26,768576STRESSANALYSISOFHEAVYDUTYTRUCKCHASSISASAPRELIMINARYDATAFORITSFATIGUELIFEPREDICTIONUSINGFEMRoslanAbdRahman,MohdNasirTamin,OjoKurdiFacultyofMechanicalEngineering,UniversitiTeknologiMalaysia,81310UTM,Skudai,JohorBahruABSTRACTThispaperpresentsthestressanalysisofheavydutytruckchassis.Thestressanalysisisimportantinfatiguestudyandlifepredictionofcomponentstodeterminethecriticalpointwhichhasthehigheststress.TheanalysiswasdoneforatruckmodelbyutilizingacommercialfiniteelementpackagedABAQUS.Themodelhasalengthof12.35mandwidthof2.45m.ThematerialofchassisisASTMLowAlloySteelA710CClass3with552MPaofyieldstrengthand620MPaoftensilestrength.Theresultshowsthatthecriticalpointofstressoccurredattheopeningofchassiswhichisincontactwiththebolt.Thestressmagnitudeofcriticalpointis386.9MPa.Thiscriticalpointisaninitialtoprobablefailuresincefatiguefailurestartedfromthehigheststresspoint.KeywordStressanalysis,fatiguelifeprediction,truckchassis1.0INTRODUCTIONTheageofmanytruckchassisinMalaysiaareofmorethan20yearsandthereisalwaysaquestionarisingwhetherthechassisisstillsafetouse.Thus,fatiguestudyandlifepredictiononthechassisisnecessaryinordertoverifythesafetyofthischassisduringitsoperation.StressanalysisusingFiniteElementMethodFEMcanbeusedtolocatethecriticalpointwhichhasthehigheststress.Thiscriticalpointisoneofthefactorsthatmaycausethefatiguefailure.Themagnitudeofthestresscanbeusedtopredictthelifespanofthetruckchassis.Theaccuracyofpredictionlifeoftruckchassisisdependingontheresultofitsstressanalysis.Themoreaccurateresultofstressanalysisthemorevalidthepredictedlifeofobject.Inthisstudy,thestressanalysisisaccomplishedbythecommercialfiniteelementpackagedABAQUS.TheautomotiveindustryvehiclesandcomponentsrepresentsastrategicandimportantbusinesssectorinMalaysia.WiththeeventualtradeliberalizationofASEANFreeTradeAreaAFTA,localautomotivemanufacturersandvendorsshallrequirecarsandcomponentsofworldclassstandard.NoiseandvibrationareCorrespondingauthorEmailojokurdiyahoo.comJurnalMekanikal,December200877keyelementsinsuchstandard.TheautomotiveindustryinMalaysiaismuchrelyingonforeigntechnology.Truckchassis,whichisimportantstructureoflightweightcommercialvehicle,ismostlydesignedandimportedfromforeigncountry.Inordertochangethistrend,itisnecessarytodevelopandbuiltMalaysianownchassisdesign.Studyandresearchontruckchassisisthusrequiredtoachievethisgoal.Thechassisoftrucksisthebackboneofvehiclesandintegratesthemaintruckcomponentsystemssuchastheaxles,suspension,powertrain,cabandtrailer.Thetruckchassisisusuallyloadedbystatic,dynamicandalsocyclicloading.Staticloadingcomesfromtheweightofcabin,itscontentandpassengers.Themovementoftruckaffectsadynamicloadingtothechassis.Thevibrationofenginesandtheroughnessofroadgiveacyclicloading.Theexistingtruckchassisdesignisnormallydesignedbasedonstaticanalysis.Theemphasisofdesignisonthestrengthofstructuretosupporttheloadingplaceduponit.However,thetruckchassishasbeenloadedbycomplextypeofloads,includingstatic,dynamicsandfatigueaspects.Itisestimatedthatfatigueisresponsiblefor85to90ofallstructuralfailures1.Theknowledgeofdynamicandfatiguebehavioroftruckchassisinsuchenvironmentisthusimportantsothatthemountingpointofthecomponentslikeengine,suspension,transmissionandmorecanbedeterminedandoptimized.Manyresearcherscarriedoutstudyontruckchassis.KaraogluandKuralay2investigatedstressanalysisofatruckchassiswithrivetedjointsusingFEM.Numericalresultsshowedthatstressesonthesidemembercanbereducedbyincreasingthesidememberthicknesslocally.Ifthethicknesschangeisnotpossible,increasingtheconnectionplatelengthmaybeagoodalternative.Fermeretal3investigatedthefatiguelifeofVolvoS80BiFuelusingMSC/Fatigue.ConleandChu4didresearchaboutfatigueanalysisandthelocalstressstrainapproachincomplexvehicularstructures.StructuraloptimizationofautomotivecomponentsappliedtodurabilityproblemshasbeeninvestigatedbyFerreiraetal5.FermérandSvensson6studiedonindustrialexperiencesofFEbasedfatiguelifepredictionsofweldedautomotivestructures.Filhoet.al.7haveinvestigatedandoptimizedachassisdesignforanoffroadvehiclewiththeappropriatedynamicandstructuralbehavior,takingintoaccounttheaspectsrelativetotheeconomicalviabilityofaninitialsmallscaleproduction.Thedesignofanoffroadvehiclechassisisoptimizedbyincreasingthetorsionalstiffness,maintenanceofcenterofgravity,totalweightofstructureandsimplergeometryforreductionofproductioncost.TheintegrationofcomputeraideddesignandengineeringsoftwarecodesPro/Engineer,ADAMS,andANSYStosimulatetheeffectofdesignchangestothetruckframehasbeenstudiedbyCosmeetal8.Chiewanichakornetal9investigatedthebehaviorofatrussbridge,whereanFRPdeckreplacedanolddeterioratedconcretedeck,usingexperimentallyvalidatedfiniteelementFEmodels.Numericalresultsshowthatthefatiguelifeofthebridgeafterrehabilitationwouldbedoubledcomparedtoprerehabilitatedreinforcedconcretedecksystem.Basedontheestimatedtrucktrafficthatthebridgecarries,stressrangesoftheFRPdecksystemlieinaninfinitefatiguelifeJurnalMekanikal,December200878regime,whichimpliesthatnofatiguefailureoftrussesandfloorsystemwouldbeexpectedanytimeduringitsservicelife.YeandMoan10haveinvestigatedthestaticandfatiguebehaviorofaluminiumboxstiffener/webframeconnectionsusingFiniteElementAnalysisFEAtoprovideaconnectionsolutionthatcanreducethefabricationcostsbychangingthecuttingshapesonthewebframeandcorrespondinglytheweldprocessmeanwhilesufficientfatiguestrengthcanbeachieved.FEbasedfatiguewasusedtolocatethecriticalpointofprobablecrackinitiationandtopredictthelifeinadoorhingesystem11.Inthisstudy,stressanalysisofheavydutytruckchassisloadedbystaticforcewillbeinvestigatedtodeterminethelocationofcriticalpointofcrackinitiationasapreliminarydataforfatiguelifepredictionofthistruckchassis.2.0FINITEELEMENTANALYSISOFTRUCKCHASSIS2.1BasicConceptofFEMThefiniteelementmethodFEMisacomputationaltechniqueusedtoobtainapproximatesolutionsofboundaryvalueproblemsinengineering.Simplystated,aboundaryvalueproblemisamathematicalprobleminwhichoneormoredependentvariablesmustsatisfyadifferentialequationeverywherewithinaknowndomainofindependentvariablesandsatisfyspecificconditionsontheboundaryofthedomain12.AnunsophisticateddescriptionoftheFEmethodisthatitinvolvescuttingastructureintoseveralelementspiecesofstructure,describingthebehaviorofeachelementinasimpleway,thenreconnectingelementsatnodesasifnodeswerepinsordropsofgluethatholdelementstogetherFigure1.Thisprocessresultsinasetofsimultaneousalgebraicequations.Instressanalysistheseequationareequilibriumequationsofthenodes.Theremaybeseveralhundredorseveralthousandsuchequations,whichmeanthatcomputerimplementationismandatory13.Figure1Acoarse–mesh,twodimensionalmodelofgeartooth.Allnodesandelementslieinplaneofthepaper13JurnalMekanikal,December2008792.2AGeneralProcedureforFEATherearecertaincommonstepsinformulatingafiniteelementanalysisofaphysicalproblem,whetherstructural,fluidflow,heattransferandsomeothersproblem.Thesestepsareusuallyembodiedincommercialfiniteelementsoftwarepackages.Therearethreemainsteps,namelypreprocessing,solutionandpostprocessing.Thepreprocessingmodeldefinitionstepiscritical.Aperfectlycomputedfiniteelementsolutionisofabsolutelynovalueifitcorrespondstothewrongproblem.Thisstepincludesdefinethegeometricdomainoftheproblem,theelementtypestobeused,thematerialpropertiesoftheelements,thegeometricpropertiesoftheelementslength,area,andthelike,theelementconnectivitymeshthemodel,thephysicalconstraintsboundaryconditionsandtheloadings12.Thenextstepissolution,inthisstepthegoverningalgebraicequationsinmatrixformandcomputestheunknownvaluesoftheprimaryfieldvariablesareassembled.Thecomputedresultsarethenusedbybacksubstitutiontodetermineadditional,derivedvariables,suchasreactionforces,elementstressesandheatflow.Actuallythefeaturesinthisstepsuchasmatrixmanipulation,numericalintegrationandequationsolvingarecarriedoutautomaticallybycommercialsoftware13.Thefinalstepispostprocessing,theanalysisandevaluationoftheresultisconductedinthisstep.Examplesofoperationsthatcanbeaccomplishedincludesortelementstressesinorderofmagnitude,checkequilibrium,calculatefactorsofsafety,plotdeformedstructuralshape,animatedynamicmodelbehaviorandproducecolorcodedtemperatureplots.Thelargesoftwarehasapreprocessorandpostprocessortoaccompanytheanalysisportionandthebothprocessorcancommunicatewiththeotherlargeprograms.Specificproceduresofpreandpostaredifferentdependentupontheprogram12.2.3TruckdefinitionandclassificationGenerally,truckisanyofvariousheavymotorvehiclesdesignedforcarryingorpullingloads.Otherdefinitionofthetruckisanautomotivevehiclesuitableforhauling.Someotherdefinitionarevarieddependingonthetypeoftruck,suchasDumpTruckisatruckwhosecontentscanbeemptiedwithouthandlingthefrontendoftheplatformcanbepneumaticallyraisedsothattheloadisdischargedbygravity.TherearetwoclassificationsmostapplicabletoRecreationalVehicletowtrucks.Thefirstoneistheweightclasses,asdefinedbytheUSgovernment,rangingfromClass1toClass8aslistedinTable1andTable2.ThesecondisclassifiedintoabroadercategoryLightDutyTruckMediumDutyTruckHeavyDutyTruck

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