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外文翻译--以微型机器人为基础的自动化显微操作装置为微系统装配.doc

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外文翻译--以微型机器人为基础的自动化显微操作装置为微系统装配.doc

本科生毕业设计(论文)翻译资料中文题目以微型机器人为基础的自动化显微操作装置为微系统装配英文题目Amicrobotbasedautomatedmicromanipulationstationforassemblyofmicrosystems1AmicrorobotbasedautomatedmicromanipulationstationforassemblyofmicrosystemsSergejFatikowMirkoBenzAbstractThedevelopmentofnewtypesofminiaturizedandmicrorobotswithhumanlikecapabilitiesplayanimportantroleindifferentapplicationtasks.Oneofthemainproblemofpresentdayresearchis,forexample,toassembleawholemicrosystemfromdifferentmicrocomponents.Thispaperpresentsanautomatedmicromanipulationdesktopstationincludingapiezoelectricallydrivenmicrorobotplacedonthehighlyprecisex–ystageofalightmicroscope,aCCDcameraasalocalsensorsubsystem,alasersensorunitasaglobalsensorsubsystem,andaPentiumPCequippedadditionallywithanopticalgrabber.Themicrorobothasthreepiezoelectricallydrivenlegsandtwoautonomousmanipulatorsasendeffectorsitcanperformhighlyprecisemanipulations(withanaccuracyofupto10nm)andanondestructivetransport(ataspeedofseveralmm/s)ofverysmallobjectsunderamicroscope.Toperformmanipulationsautomatically,acontrolsystem,includingataskplanninglevelandarealtimeexecutionlevel,isbeingdeveloped.(C)1998ElsevierScienceB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsMicrorobotsMicroassemblyAutomateddesktopstationAssemblyplanningPiezoactuators1.IntroductionThereisagrowingneedforminiaturizedandmicrorobotsworldwide.DuetotheenormousbreakthroughsinconventionalroboticsandinthemicrosystemtechnologyMST,everyoneisconvincedthatthedevelopmentofremotecontrolledorautonomousmicrorobotswillleadtoimprovementsinmanyareas.Aboveall,positiveresultsareexpectedinmedicinemicrosurgery,manufacturingmicroassembly,inspectionandmaintenance,biologymanipulationofcellsandtesting/measuringtechniqueVLSI.Medicineisoneoftheapplicationfieldswhichwouldprofitbythemicroroboticsthemost.Theattentionliesonartificialorgansprosthetics,laparoscopy,implantabledrugdeliverysystemsdiagnosisandtherapysystems,telemicrosurgery,etc.Theminimalinvasivesurgerydevelopedintoanimportantfieldofmedicineduringthelastyears.Smallerandmoreflexibleactiveendoscopesareneededinordertoreplacehumanhands,respondtoouterincidents,penetrateintoabodyoravesselthroughnaturalbodilyorificeorasmallincisionby2remotecontrol,wheretheyperformcomplexinsitumeasurementsandmanipulations.Inordertomeettheserequirements,microprocessors,severalsensorsandactuators,alightsourceandpossiblyanimageprocessingunitshouldbeintegratedintoanintelligentendoscope.Biotechnologyrequiresspecialmicrostructuredactivetoolswhichareabletoperformmicromanipulationslikethesortingorreunionofcellsortheinjectionofaforeignbodyintoacellunderamicroscope.Inthegeneresearchandtheenvironmenttechnique(cellsasindicatorsforharmfulsubstances),preciseandgentlemanipulationofsinglecellsarealsorequired.Industryandespeciallymanufacturingandmeasuringtechniquesneedhighlysensitivetestingmethodsintheμmrange.Animportanttaskrepresents,forexample,theinspectionofwafers,whereseveralcheckpointshavetobecontactedbyatemperatureorvoltageprobe.Thesameisvalidforinspectionrobotswhichareusedininaccessibleordangerousterraininordertodetectleaksorflawsandmakerepairs(e.g.,inpipelines)。TheadoptionofMSTrelateddevelopmentsbytheindustryhasalreadydemonstratedwhichkindofproblemsoccurwiththemassproductionofmicrosystems.Thesesystemsusuallyconsistofmicrocomponentsofdifferentmaterialswhichareproducedwithvariousmicrotechniquesthisleadstooneorseveralverypreciseassemblystep(s)oftheindividualcomponents.Theassemblyofmicrosystems,i.e.,thenondestructibletransport,precisemanipulationorexactpositioningofmicrocomponentsisbecomingoneofthemostimportantapplicationsinmicrorobotics.2.ManipulationofmicroobjectsTheavailabilityofhighlypreciseassemblyprocesseswillmakeiteasiertoeconomicallyrealizeoperablemicrosystems.Inordertoefficientlyproducemicrosystemsandcomponentsinlotsizesorbymassproductiontechniques,itisabsolutelynecessarytointroduceflexible,automated,preciseandfastmicroassemblystations.Differentconceptsarebeingfollowedtodomicromanipulationforparticularclassesofapplication.Purelymanualmicromanipulationisthemostoftenusedmethodtoday.Inmedicineandbiologicalresearch,itisusedexclusively.Eveninindustry,microassemblytasksareveryoftencarriedoutbyspeciallytrainedtechnicians,who,forexample,prepositionassemblypartsusingscrewsandsprings,thenpositionthepartswithtinyhammersandtweezers,andfinallyfastentheminthedesiredposition.However,withincreasingcomponentminiaturization,thetolerancesbecomesmallerandsmaller,andthecapabilitiesofthehumanhandarenolongeradequate.3Theapplicationofpartiallyautomaticmicromanipulationsystemsofconventionalsize,whichareteleoperatedthereby,thehandmotionsofthehumanoperatoraretranslatedintofiner3Dmotionsforthemanipulatorsofthemanipulationsystembymeansofajoystickormouse.Here,thedexterityofthehumanhandissupportedbysophisticatedtechniques.However,thefundamentalproblemoftheresolutionofthefinemotionandofthespeedremain,sincethemotionofthetoolisadirectimitationofthatoftheoperatorshand.TheuseofautomatedmultifunctionalmicromanipulationdesktopstationssupportedbyminiaturizedflexiblerobotswhichemployMSTspecificdirectdriveprinciples.Theserobotscouldbemobileandareableperformmanipulationsindifferentworkareas.Thetransportandmicromanipulationunitsperformingtheassemblymaybeintegratedontoonechip.Asopposedtotheaforementionedmicromanipulationtechnique,thereisnodirectconnectionbetweentheoperatorshandsandtherobot.Theassemblystepsmaybecarriedoutwiththehelpofclosedloopcontrolalgorithms.Thehumanassignsalltaskstominiaturizedassemblymechanismsand,bydoingso,triestocompensateforhislimitedmicromanipulationcapabilities.Manymicrorobotscanbeactiveatthesametimeinadesktopstation.Theuseofmanyflexiblenanorobotsystemswhichsolvethemanipulationtasksinclosecooperation.Here,therobotsizeiscomparabletothatofthemanipulatedobject.Thisconceptcouldbebasedonthehumanbehavior,butitsrealizationliesinthedistantfuture.Ingeneral,manipulationsvaryfromanapplicationtoanother.However,approximatelythesameoperationsequencesareusedineverycase.Theyaregrip,transport,position,release,adjust,fixinplaceandprocessingstepslikecutting,soldering,gluing,removalofimpurities,etc.Inordertobeabletocarryouttheseoperations,correspondingtoolsareneeded,suchasmicroknives,microneedlestoaffixobjects,microdosingjetsforgluing,microlaserdevicesforsoldering,weldingorcutting,differenttypesofmicrogrippers,microscrapers,adjustmenttools,etc.Microgrippersplayaspecialrole,sincetheyconsiderablyinfluencethemanipulationcapabilitiesofarobot.Microgripperscanclamp,makeafrictionalconnectionoradheretothematerial,dependingonthephysicalandgeometricalpropertiesofanobject.Adaptingagrippertotheshapeoftheobjecttobegrippedisoftenthebestsolutioninthemicroworld,evenatthecostofflexibility.Thisallowshandlingofaworkpiecehavingacomplexshape,suchasagear.Thereby,thegrippersecurelyattachestothecontourofthepart.Forsmall,smoothparts,asuctionpipettemightbeapracticaltool.Iftheuppersurfaceofaworkpiecemustnotbetouchedorgrippedduetotechnologicalreasons,itcanbeprotectedbyacorrespondingformfitofthe

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