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外文翻译--利用超音速射流分散纳米粒子的新型湿式粉碎机.doc

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外文翻译--利用超音速射流分散纳米粒子的新型湿式粉碎机.doc

英文原文DISPERSIONOFNANOPARTICLESBYNOVELWETTYPEPULVERIZERUTILIZEDSUPERSONICJETFLOWABSTRACTWEHAVEEXAMINEDTHEDISPERSIONOFBARIUMTITANATENANOPARTICLESBTNPSANDHAVEDISCUSSEDTHEEFFECTOFAIRPRESSURESUPPLIEDTOTHENOZZLEONTHEDISPERSIONBYUSINGNOVELWETTYPEPULVERIZERUTILIZEDSUPERSONICJETFLOWSSJMTHEAGGREGATEDPARTICLESIZEWASDECREASEDWITHINCREASINGTHEAIRPRESSUREANDTHECOLLISIONTIMESINTHEOPTIMIZEDCONDITION,ALMOSTTHEBTNPSWEREDISPERSEDWITHTHEPRIMARYPARTICLES,HOWEVER,FURTHEREXCESSIVECOLLISIONHADCAUSEDREAGGREGATIONSTHEDEGREEOFDISPERSIONHASBEENAFFECTEDBYTHEAIRPRESSURETHEINJECTEDDROPLETSHADFORMEDALMOSTTHESAMEDIAMETERREGARDLESSOFAIRPRESSUREANDTHEVELOCITYWASINCREASEDWITHINCREASINGOFTHEAIRPRESSUREANDREACHED300M/SWEHAVESPECULATEDTHATTHESHOCKWAVEDOMINATESTHEDISPERSIONOFBTNPS1INTRODUCTIONNANOPARTICLESAREREQUIREDHIGHLYINMANYAPPLICATIONSSUCHASDIELECTRICMATERIALSFORELECTRONICDEVICES,ELECTRODEMATERIALSFORSECONDARYBATTERIES,ETCTHENANOPARTICLESHAVEBEENFREQUENTLYPRODUCEDBYTHESOCALLEDBUILDUPPROCESSESSUCHASHYDROTHERMALPROCESS,COPRECIPITATIONPROCESS,ANDSOLGELMETHODFOREXPLOITINGSIZEEFFECTOFNANOPARTICLES,ITISCRUCIALTOCONTROLTHEDISPERSIONANDAGGREGATIONOFTHENANOPARTICLESINSUSPENSIONHOWEVER,NANOPARTICLESAGGREGATEMOREEASILYANDSTRONGLYTHANSUBMICRONSIZEDPARTICLES,ANDAGGREGATEDNANOPARTICLESDONOTFRAGMENTEASILYTHEREFORE,ITISQUITEDIFFICULTTODISPERSENANOPARTICLESPERFECTLY,ANDTHEDISPERSIONOFNANOPARTICLESHASBECOMEAFUNDAMENTALTECHNIQUEFORHANDLINGNANOPARTICLESININDUSTRIESITHASBEENREPORTEDTHATHENANOPARTICLESWEREWELLDISPERSEDBYUSINGBEADSMILL1BEADMILLINGWITHBALLSSEVERALTENSOFMICROMETERSINDIAMETERHASRECENTLYBEENDEVELOPEDASANEWMETHODTODISPERSENANOPARTICLESTOALMOSTPRIMARYPARTICLESIZE1HOWEVER,THECONTAMINATIONCAUSEDBYTHEGRINDEDBALLINBEADMILLINGWASTENTIMESHIGHERTHANTHATCAUSEDBYDRYGRINDING2FORPROVIDINGNANOPARTICLESDISPERSINGMETHODTHATCANSOLVETHEABOVEPROBLEM,WEHAVEDEVELOPEDNOVELWETTYPEPULVERIZERUTILIZEDSUPERSONICJETFLOWHEREAFTERREFERREDTOASSUPERSONICWETJETMILL;SSJMINTHISSTUDY,WEHAVEREPORTEDTHEDISPERSINGRESULTOFBARIUMTITANATENANOPARTICLESBTNPSANDHAVEDISCUSSEDTHEEFFECTOFAIRPRESSUREONTHEDISPERSIONBYUSINGTHESSJM2EXPERIMENTALAPPARATUSANDPROCEDURE21EXPERIMENTALAPPARATUSFIGURE1SHOWSSCHEMATICDIAGRAMOFTHESSJMLEFTTHERIGHTPARTOFDESCRIBESSHOWSTHEINTERNALCONFIGURATIONOFTHENOZZLEPARTTHECOMPRESSEDAIRMAXIMUMAIRPRESSUREWAS06MPAWASSUPPLIEDATTHETOPPARTOFTHENOZZLETHELAVALNOZZLE,WHICHWASUSEDFORTHESSJMASSHOWNINFIGURE1,ISUSEDTOACCELERATEACOMPRESSEDAIRPASSINGTHROUGHITTOASUPERSONICSPEED,ANDUPONEXPANSION,TOFORMTHEEXHAUSTFLOWSOTHATTHEHEATENERGYPROPELLINGTHEFLOWISMAXIMALLYCONVERTEDINTOKINETICENERGYASARESULT,THEINJECTEDDROPLETSPASSINGTHROUGHTHENOZZLEWEREACCELERATEDTOSUPERSONICANDWERENATURALLYCOOLEDTHESUSPENSIONINTHEFEEDTANKWASSUPPLIEDTOTHETHROATOFTHENOZZLE,WHILECONTROLLINGTHEVOLUMEFLOWTHROUGHTHEPUMPTUBINGTHESUPPLIEDSUSPENSIONHADBEENFORMEDDROPLETSBYJETFLOWANDHADBEENACCELERATEDINSIDETHENOZZLETHEACCELERATEDDROPLETSHADCOLLIDEDWITHTHESICPLATEMOSTOFTHEPROCESSEDSUSPENSIONWASCOLLECTEDATTHEBOTTOMTANK,ANDSOMEOFTHEPROCESSEDSUSPENSIONWASEVACUATEDALONGWITHTHEJETFLOW,THEREFORE,THESOLVENTRECOVERYTANKUNITATTACHEDTOTHEEXHAUSTLINEFIGURE1SCHEMATICDIAGRAMSOFSUPERSONICWETJETMILLLEFTANDTHENOZZLEPARTRIGHT,SHOWINGAPPROXIMATEFLOWVELOCITYV,TOGETHERWITHTHEEFFECTONTEMPERATURETANDPRESSUREP22EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURETWOKINDSOFBTNPWEREUSEDINTHISWORKBTNPSWITHTHEAVERAGEPARTICLESIZEOF30NMWERESYNTHESIZEDBYTHESOLGELMETHOD3REFERREDTOASSOLGELBTCOMMERCIALLYAVAILABLEBTNPSBT01,SAKAICHEMICALINDUSTRY,JAPANWITHTHEAVERAGEPARTICLESIZEOF100NMWEREMANUFACTUREDBYHYDROTHERMALMETHODREFERREDTOASHYDROTHERMALBTADISPERSANTUSEDINTHISSTUDYWASANAMMONIUMSALTOFPOLYACRYLICACIDPAANH4,MW8000,TOUAGOUSEI,JAPANTHESOLGELBTWASADDEDTOETHYLENEGLYCOLMONOMETHYLETHERIN2VOLUMEREFERREDTOASSOLGELBTSUSPENSIONPAANH4WASADDEDTODISTILLEDWATERIN5WTAGAINSTPOWDERWEIGHTANDTHENTHEHYDROTHERMALBTWASADDEDIN20VOLUMEPERCENTSAGAINSTDISTILLEDWATERREFERREDTOASHYDROTHERMALBTSUSPENSIONEACHSUSPENSIONWASINJECTEDUNDERVARIOUSAIRPRESSURESFROM03TO06MPAANAGGREGATEDPARTICLESIZEWASEVALUATEDBYDYNAMICLIGHTSCATTERINGMETHODDLS,NANOZS,MALVERN,UKASHAPEANDMICROSTRUCTUREOFTHEBTNPSWEREEXAMINEDWITHATRANSMISSIONELECTRONMICROSCOPETEM,JEM3200EX,JEOL,JAPANANDAFIELDEMISSIONSCANNINGELECTRONMICROSCOPEFESEM,S4800,HITACHI,JAPANFORDISCUSSINGTHEEFFECTOFAIRPRESSUREONTHEDISPERSIONBYUSEOFTHESSJM,SIZEANDVELOCITYDISTRIBUTIONSOFDROPLETSWEREMEASUREDASFOLLOWSDISTILLEDWATERWASINJECTEDUNDERVARIOUSAIRPRESSURESFROM03TO06MPATHESIZEANDVELOCITYDISTRIBUTIONOFDROPLETSATADISTANCEOF100MMAWAYFROMTHENOZZLEEXITWEREMEASUREDSIMULTANEOUSLYBYPHASEDOPPLERANEMOMETRYDANTECDYNAMICS,DENMARK3RESULTANDDISCUSSIONFIGURE2EFFECTOFCOLLISIONNUMBERONCUMULATIVEMEANDIAMETEROFSOLGELBTSUSPENSIONSUNDERVARIOUSAIRPRESSURESFIGURE4FESEMIMAGESOFHYDROTHERMALBTNPSAANDBWEREBEFORECOLLISIONPROCESS,ANDCANDDWEREAFTERCOLLISIONPROCESSFOR3TIMESAT06MPA31DISPERSIONOFBTNPSFIGURE2SHOWSCHANGEOFCUMULATIVEMEANDIAMETERDA,OFWHICHTHEVALUEREPRESENTSTHEAVERAGEAGGREGATEDSIZE,WITHCOLLISIONNUMBERUNDERVARIOUSAIRPRESSURESFORSOLGELBTTEMIMAGESOFBTNPSCOLLIDEDUNDERVARIOUSCONDITIONSWERESHOWNINFIGURE3DAOFTHEBTNPSCOLLIDEDAT03MPAWASDECREASEDWITHINCREASINGCOLLISIONNUMBERTHEBTNPSCOLLIDEDFOR3TIMESAT03MPAWEREDISPERSEDWITHALMOSTTHEPRIMARYPARTICLESASSHOWNINFIGURE3B,HOWEVER,FURTHEREXCESSIVECOLLISIONHADCAUSEDREAGGREGATIONSALTHOUGHDACOLLIDEDAT04AND06MPAWEREALSODECREASEDBYTHECOLLISIONATONCEORTWICE,DAWASINCREASEDIMMEDIATELYASSHOWNINFIGURE3D,SOLGELBTNPSWEREPULVERIZEDTOFINERBTNPSWITHTHESIZEUNDER10NMTHANTHEINITIALPARTICLESIZE,ANDWEREFORMEDAGGREGATIONSWITHTHESIZEOVER100NMCONSISTEDOFTHEPULVERIZEDFINERPARTICLESFIGURE4SHOWSFESEMIMAGESOFTHEHYDROTHERMALBTNPSASRECIEVEDHYDROTHERMALBTNPSWEREAGGREGATEDWITHTHESIZESOVER1ΜMASSHOWNINFIGURE4A,ANDWEREWIDELYDISTRIBUTEDINRANGEOFFROM100TO200NMANDUNDER100NMFIGURE4BAFTERTHECOLLISIONFOR3TIMESAT06MPA,BTNPSWITHTHESIZEUNDER100NMWERECLEARLYINCREASEDANDTHEAGGREGATEDPARTICLESWERENOTEXISTEDASFARASFESEMOBSERVATIONWASCONCERNEDFIGURE5SHOWSTHEHYDROTHERMALBTPARTICLESIZEDISTRIBUTIONSCOLLIDEDAT03MPAAND06MPALIKETHEFESEMOBSERVATION,THEAGGREGATEDPARTICLESWEREDECREASEDANDTHEPARTICLESWITHTHESIZEUNDER100NMWEREINCREASEDWITHINCREASINGCOLLISIONNUMBERHOWEVER,REAGGREGATIONSWITHTHESIZEOVER1ΜMANDQUITEFINEBTNPSUNDER10NMHADBEENGENERATEDBYTHECOLLISIONFOR5TIMESAT06MPAASSHOWNINFIGURE5EXCESSIVECOLLISIONAT06MPAHADCAUSEDREAGGREGATIONS,SIMILARLYTHESOLGELBTNPSDISPERSIONRESULTTHEDEGREEOFDISPERSIONHASBEENAFFECTEDBYAIRPRESSURE32EFFECTOFAIRPRESSUREONTHEDISPERSIONBYSSJMFIGURE6SHOWSTHESIZEANDTHEVELOCITYDISTRIBUTIONOFINJECTEDDROPLETSUNDERTHEAIRPRESSURESFROM03TO06MPAMEASUREDATADISTANCEOF100MMAWAYFROMTHENOZZLEEXITTHEINJECTEDDROPLETSFORMEDALMOSTTHESAMEDIAMETERREGARDLESSOFAIRPRESSUREANDTHEMEDIANDIAMETERWASABOUT7ΜMTHEDROPLETSVELOCITYWASINCREASEDWITHINCREASINGOFTHEAIRPRESSUREANDTHEVELOCITYINALLMEASUREMENTSREACHED300M/SINCASEOFDRYTYPEJETMILL,OFWHICHTHEPULVERIZINGPRINCIPALISSIMILARTOTHESSJM,ITHASBEENREPORTEDTHATTHEDRIVINGFORCEOFPULVERIZINGWERETHESHOCKWAVEGENERATEDBYTHECOLLISIONANDTHEINTERPARTICLECOLLISIONINSIDETHENOZZLE4FIGURE5PARTICLESIZEDISTRIBUTIONSINHYDROTHERMALBTSUSPENSIONSCOLLIDEDAT03MPALEFTAND06MPARIGHTFORTHESSJM,THESHOCKWAVEHASBEENOCCURREDMORESTRONGLYTHANTHATBYUSINGTHECONVENTIONALJETMILL,OFWHICHTHEIMPACTVELOCITYIS80M/SORLESS5,SINCETHESHOCKWAVEISPROPORTIONALTOTHEIMPACTVELOCITY4INADDITION,THECAVITATIONANDTHESHEARSTRESSCANBEGENERATED6,ANDTHESHEARSTRESSARISENFROMTHEDEFORMATIONOFDROPLETATTHECOLLISIONISALSOPROPORTIONALTOTHEIMPACTVELOCITYTHEREFORE,WEHAVESPECULATEDTHATTHESHOCKWAVEANDTHESHEARSTRESSARISESFROMDEFORMATIONOFDROPLETDOMINATETHEDISPERSIONOFBTNPS4CONCLUSIONTHEBTNPSCOLLIDEDATOPTIMIZEDCONDITIONWEREDISPERSEDWITHALMOSTTHEPRIMARYPARTICLE,HOWEVER,FURTHEREXCESSIVECOLLISIONHADCAUSEDREAGGREGATIONSTHEBTNPSCOLLIDEDAT06MPA

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