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外文翻译--制造系统的改革.doc

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外文翻译--制造系统的改革.doc

徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)1附录附录1英文原文TheEvolutionaryRulesofProductionSystemAbstractThecompetitionamongmodernenterpriseshasbeenconvertedfromproductstocapability.Asthebasisofcompetition,productionsystemcantwinthemarketunlessittakesadvantageofitscapabilityincompetition.Hereinthisarticle,theevolutionaryrulesofproductionsystemcontributingtotheestablishment,renovation,reform,inventionandpromotionoftheproductionofmodernenterprisesareobserved.Keywordsproductionsystemruleevolution1.IntroductionManufacturingindustryisthecornerstoneofnationaleconomyandthesourceofnationalincome.Especially,since1980s,withtheshiftinbusinessconceptsandcompetitionpatternsfromproductstocapabilities,theproductionsystemhasbeenfocusedonmanufacturing.Theproductionsystemisthebasisofcompetitionamongenterprises.ItsvitalforanyenterprisetopaymoreattentiontostrengthentheirowncapabilitiesandqualitiessoastotaketheleadincompetitionintheAgeofKnowledgeEconomyandNewEconomy.The21stcenturyistypicalofhightech,inwhichtheproduction,possession,divisionandconsumptionofknowledgemeaneverything.Inevitably,manufacturingisfacedwithchallengesandopportunitiesaswell,whichindicatesarevolutiontocome.Ithasbeenprovedbyeconomicandnaturallawsthatthefittestsurvives.Wecantbetomorrowwinnerunlessweprepareforthefuture.Hereinthisarticle,theevolutionaryrulesofproductionsystemareobservedtocontributetotheestablishment,refreshment,renovation,inventionandpromotionoftheproductionsystemofenterprises.Thatsthesoundwaytoleadthenationaleconomicdevelopmenttomovesteadilyandsmoothly.2.TheRulesoftheEvolutionofProductionSystem2.1TheExpansionofFunctionsandDirectionofMarketIngeneral,theproductionmanagementismeanttoplan,organizeandcontrolproductionactivitiesinordertoputoutqualifiedgoodsefficiently,lowcostly,flexiblyandpunctuallytoservecustomers.Withtheexpansionofthefunctionofmodernproductionsystem,includingtheproductionoftangiblecommoditiesandintangibleoperations,likeservice,knowledgeandinformation,thedifferencebetweenmanufacturingindustryandserviceindustrybecomesdim.徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)2Mostmanufacturersareservingassuppliesofservices.Productsinmanyindustrialdepartments,infact,aretheintegrityofhardware,softwareandservices.ThedevelopmentofeconomyandtechnologyinpostindustrialsocietyandInformationAgemadethedemandsinmarketlessandlessstable.Consequently,thestatusofmassproductionincompetitiondeclinedincreasingly.Thechangeabledemandsdeterminedbycustomersdisturbedthepatternofmassproductionanddevelopedintovarietyandsmallscale.2.2TheVarietyandReasonabilityofTargetsinProductionSystemMarketinvestigationsareperformedwhentheproductionsystemisestablished,renovatedandregulatedinordertolearnmoreaboutthedemand,tosetuppracticalgoalsandtoregulatethespecification,theoutputandtheproductionspeedofcommodities.Somereasonsforthevarietyandreasonabilityareshownasfollows1Withthedevelopmentofeconomy,consumershaveconvertedtheirattentiontovariouscommoditiesandtheyrekeenonpeculiaroneswhichareefficientandfashionableEarlytargetTransmittingtargetModerntargetHighefficiencyHighefficiencyHighefficiencyLowcostHighqualityHighqualityLowcostLowcostShortdeliveryperiodsafeproductionSingleproductMultiproductBiglotsizeMiddlesmalllotsize2Newcommoditiesoccurredassoonasoldcommoditieslosetheirmarkerandvanishedquickly.Inthiscircle,thelifespansofproductaresoshortthatmanyuptodateoneshavetobedevelopedandproducedintime3Becauseoftheseverecompetition,howtoincreasethesharesinthemarketbecomesanimportanttarget.Totakethelead,enterprisesaresupposedtoputoutmoreandmorenewcommodities.2.3TheFlexibilityofProductionSystemTheassemblylineproductionandmassproductionusedtobeoflowcostbuttheywerelimitedbecauseofthevariety,changeabilityandshortlifespan.Sothelawofscaleeconomy徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)3isbeingchallengedinitsapplication.Singleproductproductionsystemcouldntadjusttothechangesinmarketandintheoperationofenterprise.Asaresult,alongwiththeshifttovarietyandmassproduction,GTgrouptechnology,AMAgilemanufacturing,IMIIndependentManufacturingislandandFMSFlexibleManufacturingSystemareadopted.Especially,consolidatingmanufacturingislandsbasedontheintegratedmanufacturingsystemwithcomputerandIMItechnology,onthewhole,increasedtheflexibilityandcontingency.2.4TheAutomation,IntegrityandIntellectionofProductionSystemTheautomationtechnology,esp.informationtechnology,computertechnologyandsystematictechnology,broughttheadvancedmanufacturingindustryintoprosperitywhichpreparedwellenoughtomeetdynamicadaptabilityintermsofmaterialandtechnologicalconditions.The5thtechnologyrevolutionthatbeganin1970sactuallywasabreakthroughinmicroelectronicandcomputertechnology.Generatedfrombothofthem,theadvancedmanufacturingtechnologyandinformationtechnologycomeintobeing.Inthisway,thelowcostinbottlematerialsandfuels,thehighefficiencyandtheadaptabilityinmodernenterprisesaremadepossible.Intheory,theprofitablesourceofscaleeconomycouldberealized.1Intraditionalpatterns,ittookhighpricetoacquireknowledgeandinformation,somassproductionwasthesolution.WhenCIMS,MRPⅡ,ERP,Internet,Intranetamongenterprisersandextranetofenterprisesoccurred,theinformationofdesigningandmanagementwasstoredinsoftware.Thecostofusingandregulatinginformationwassolowthatmassproductionwasntthesolutionanymore2Theintellectualandautomaticmanufacturingequipmenttookuptherepetitivetaskandworkefficientlyonlyiffollowingtheorderfromthecentralcomputer.Theaccumulatedexperiencesdontmeanmuchhere,thesocalledmassproductionexperienceandprocessoflearningnolongerexisted3Intraditionalpatterns,manufacturingequipmentsandtoolswerespecializedandefficient,whicharesuitableformassproductiontoincreasetheproductivityandtolowerthecost.Butmodernequipmentsaremoreoftenthannotmultifunctional.Theyareadaptabletomanymanufacturingprocedures,whichensurethehighproductivitywithoutmassproduction4Inmodernadvancedmanufacturingtechnology,theproductionofonekindofcommoditiesincertainquantitycostsalmostasmuchasthatofotherkindsbutinthesamequantity.Butitllcostmuchlesswhenmanufacturedinthesamefactorythanindifferentfactories5WiththetechnologyofCAE,CAD,CAPP,CAMandFMS,thedesigningandmanufacturingofnewcommoditiescanbecompletedsoonandthedeliveryperiodisalsoshortenedwithimprovedquality.2.5EmphasisonPeopleTheMainFactorintheProductionSystemPeoplewhoareinchargeofmanufacturingactivitiesarefacedwithnewrequirementwithregardtotheirrolestatus,knowledgeandcapability.Itsduetothechangeofproductionmeansand徐州工程学院毕业设计(论文)4theexpansionofproductionactivities.1TheultimatefactorinmanufacturingactivitiespeopleTheautomationofmanufacturingsystemwaseverthecenterofinternationalmanufacturingresearch.Andnoonefactorypattern,thatis,autooperatedfactorywasexpected.TheearlyCIMSwasbasedonthisimagination.Butonlyafewenterprisesachievedwhattheyhadexpected.Mostofthemfailedinfulfillingtheirgoalsinsomedevelopedindustrialcountries.Incomparisonwiththelargeinvestment,theprofitwastoofarfrombeingsatisfactory.Finally,CIMSinmanycountrieshavebeenlaidoff.Peoplesroleinthemodernmanufacturingsystemwasnotundercutbutstrengthened.Ithasdrawnunusualattentionofmanydevelopedcountriestocultivateskilledworkersandexecutiveswhoarecompetentinthissystem.Thustheevenhigherstandardissetforworkersandexecutives2ThestrengtheningofpeoplesknowledgeandcapabilityModernmanufacturingtechnologyevolvedfromintegratedtechnology.Itischaracteristicofmultisubject,sothetechniciansaresupposedtohaveasolidspecialty,notonlytheexpertisebutalsomuchknowledgeintheadvancedresearchesisconcerned.Atthesametime,itsveryimportanttolearnmuchaboutthesubjectsinvolvedsoastowidenview,torefreshtheknowledgeandtoacceptnewconcepts.Theinitiativeofdefinitionandthecapabilityofintegrityareexpected.2.6TheProductionSystemTendstoBeLaborintensiveTogetthesimilareffectinproductioninafixedquantitytoinalargequantity,highefficiencyandregionaleconomyarebeingtargeted.Astableandbalancedproductionistoeliminateineffectiveworkandwaste,toshortentheprocessofproducing,tolowerthecostandavoidstockingtoolong.Laborintensiveandelasticlabororganizingshouldbeexecutedsoon.Consequently,themanagementconvertsfromtheonebyindividualsanddepartmentstothewholeproductionsystembasedonman.3.ConclusionFindingouttherulesofevolutionproductionsystem,inasense,contributestotheestablishment,refreshment,innovationandpromotionofthesystemitselfandalsosupportthefunctionaltargetsetforitanditsconstructionstrategy.Fortheprogressinqualityandcompetitivenessincontingency,alltheenterprisesaresupposedtofollowtherules,intheviewofproductionstrategyandcompetitionadvantages.References1.QingshanZhang,GuoqingJiang.ModernProductionManagement,NortheastUniversityPublishingHouse,1998.05

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