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外文翻译--加工基础 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--加工基础 英文版.pdf

MemoirsoftheFacultyofEngineeringKYUSHUUniversityTheIntroductionofMachiningT.L.NeoandK.S.LeeDepartmentofMechanicalandProductionEngineering,NationalUniversityofSingapore,SingaporeAbstractMachiningprocessisaprocessgeneratedshape,inthisprocess,Driversdeviceontheworkpiecematerialtobeintheformofchipremoval.Althoughinsomeoccasions,theworkpieceundernocircumstances,theuseofmobileequipmenttotheprocessing,However,themajorityofthemachiningisnotonlysupportingtheworkpiecealsosupportingtoolsandequipmenttocomplete.KeywordintroductionmachiningHaveashapeasaprocessingmethod,allmachiningprocessfortheproductionofthemostcommonlyusedandmostimportantmethod.Machiningprocessisaprocessgeneratedshape,inthisprocess,Driversdeviceontheworkpiecematerialtobeintheformofchipremoval.Althoughinsomeoccasions,theworkpieceundernocircumstances,theuseofmobileequipmenttotheprocessing,However,themajorityofthemachiningisnotonlysupportingtheworkpiecealsosupportingtoolsandequipmenttocomplete.Machiningknowtheprocesshastwoaspects.Smallgroupoflowcostproduction.Forcasting,forgingandmachiningpressure,everyproductionofaspecificshapeoftheworkpiece,evenaspareparts,almosthavetospendthehighcostofprocessing.Weldingtorelyontheshapeofthestructure,toalargeextent,dependoneffectiveintheformofrawmaterials.Ingeneral,throughtheuseofexpensiveequipmentandwithoutspecialprocessingconditions,canbealmostanytypeofrawmaterials,mechanicalprocessingtoconverttherawmaterialsprocessedintothearbitraryshapeofthestructure,aslongastheexternaldimensionslargeenough,itispossible.Becauseofaproductionofspareparts,evenwhenthepartsandstructureoftheproductionbatchsizesaresuitablefortheoriginalcasting,Forgingorpressureprocessingtoproduce,butusuallyprefermachining.Strictprecisionandgoodsurfacefinish,Machiningthesecondpurposeistheestablishmentofthehighprecisionandsurfacefinishpossibleonthebasisof.Manyparts,ifanyothermeansofproductionbelongingtothelargescaleproduction,WellMachiningisalowtoleranceandcanmeettherequirementsofsmallbatchproduction.Besides,manypartsontheproductionandprocessingofcoarseprocesstoimproveitsgeneralshapeofthesurface.Itisonlynecessaryprecisionandchooseonlythesurfacemachining.Forinstance,thread,inadditiontomechanicalprocessing,almostnootherprocessingmethodforprocessing.Anotherexampleistheblacksmithpieceskeyholeprocessing,aswellastrainingtobeconductedimmediatelyafterthemechanicalcompletionoftheprocessing.PrimaryCuttingParametersCuttingtheworkpieceandtoolbasedonthebasicrelationshipbetweenthefollowingfourelementstofullydescribethetoolgeometry,cuttingspeed,feedrate,depthandpenetrationofacuttingtool.CuttingToolsmustbeofasuitablematerialtomanufacture,itmustbestrong,tough,hardandwearresistant.Toolgeometrytothetipplaneandcutteranglecharacteristicsforeachcuttingprocessmustbecorrect.Cuttingspeedisthecuttingedgeofworkpiecesurfacerate,itisinchesperminutetoshow.Inordertoeffectivelyprocessing,andcuttingspeedmustadapttothelevelofspecificpartswithknives.Generally,themorehardworkpiecematerial,thelowertherate.ProgressiveTooltospeediscutintotheworkpiecespeed.Iftheworkpieceortoolforrotatingmovement,feedrateperroundoverthenumberofinchestothemeasurement.Whentheworkpieceortoolforreciprocatingmovementandfeedrateoneachtripthroughthemeasurementofinches.Generally,inotherconditions,feedrateandcuttingspeedisinverselyproportionalto.Depthofpenetrationofacuttingtooltoinchesdollarsisthetooltotheworkpiecedistance.Rotarycuttingittothechiporequaltothewidthofthelinearcuttingchipthickness.Roughthanfinishing,deeperpenetrationofacuttingtooldepth.WearsofCuttingToolWealreadyhavebeenprocessedandtherattleofthecountlesscracksedgetool,welearnthattoolweararebasicallythreeformsflankwear,theformerflankwearandVNotchwear.Flankwearoccurredinboththemainbladeoccurredviceblade.Onthemainblade,shoulderremovedbecausemostmetalchipmandate,whichresultedinanincreasecuttingforceandcuttingtemperatureincrease,Ifnotallowedtocheck,Thatcouldleadtotheworkpieceandthetoolvibrationandprovideforefficientcuttingconditionsmaynolongerexist.Vicebladedon,itisdeterminedworkpiecedimensionsandsurfacefinish.Flankwearsizeofthepossiblefailureoftheproductandsurfacefinisharealsoinferior.Inmostactualcuttingconditions,astheprincipalintheformerfirstdeputyflankbeforeflankwear,weararrivalenough,Toolwillbeeffective,theresultsaremadeunqualifiedparts.AsToolstressonthesurfaceuneven,chipandflankbeforeslidingcontactzonebetweenstress,inslidingcontactthestartofthelargest,andincontactwiththetailofzero,soabrasivewearintheregionoccurred.Thisisbecausethecardcuttingedgethanthenearbysettlementsnearthemoreseriouswear,andbladedchipduetothevicinityoftheformerflankandlostcontactwearlighter.ThisresultsfromacertaindistancefromthecuttingedgeofthesurfaceformedbeforetheknifepointMapit,whichisusuallyconsideredbeforewear.Undernormalcircumstances,thisiswearcrosssectionalshapeofanarc.Inmanyinstancesandfortheactualcuttingconditions,theformerflankwearcomparedtoflankwearlight,Thereforeflankwearmoregenerallyasatoolfailureofscalesigns.Butbecausemanyauthorshavesaidinthecuttingspeedoftheincrease,Maetosurfacetemperaturethantheknifesurfacetemperatureshaverisenfaster.butbecauseanyformofwearrateisessentiallytemperaturechangesbythesignificantimpact.Therefore,theformerusuallywearinhighspeedcuttinghappen.Themaintoolflankwearthetailisnotprocessedwiththeworkpiecesurfaceincontact,Thereforeflankwearthanwearalongwiththeendsmorevisible,whichisthemostcommon.Thisisbecausethelocaleffect,whichisasroughonthesurfacehashardenedlayer,Thiseffectisbycuttinginfrontofthehardeningoftheworkpiece.Notjustcutting,andasoxidationskin,thebladelocalhightemperaturewillalsocausethiseffect.Thispartialwearnormallyreferredtoaspitsexualwear,butoccasionallyitisveryserious.DespitetheemergenceofthepitsontheCuttingToolnatureisnotmeaningfulimpact,butoftenpitsgraduallybecomedarkerIfcuttingcontinuedthecase,thentherecutterfracturecrisis.Ifanyformofsexualallowedtowear,eventuallywearrateincreaseobviouslywillbeatooltodestroyfailuredestruction,thatwillnolongertoolforcutting,causetheworkpiecescrapped,itisgood,cancauseseriousdamagemachine.Forvariouscarbidecuttingtoolsandforthevarioustypesofwear,intheeventofaseriouslapse,onthetoolthathasreachedtheendofthelifecycle.Butforvarioushighspeedsteelcuttingtoolsandwearbelongingtothenonuniformityofwear,hasbeenfoundWhenthewearandeventoallowforaseriouslapse,themostmeaningfulisthatthetoolcanremilluse,ofcourse,Inpractice,cuttingthetimetousethantheshorttimelapse.Severalphenomenaareonetoolseriouslapsebeganfeaturesthemostcommonisthesuddenincreasecuttingforce,appearedontheworkpieceburningringpatternsandanincreaseinnoise.TheEffectofChangesinCuttingParametersonCuttingTemperaturesInmetalcuttingoperationsheatisgeneratedintheprimaryandsecondarydeformationzonesandthisresultsinacomplextemperaturedistributionthroughoutthetool,workpieceandchip.Atypicalsetofisothermsisshowninfigurewhereitcanbeseenthat,ascouldbeexpected,thereisaverylargetemperaturegradientthroughoutthewidthofthechipastheworkpiecematerialisshearedinprimarydeformationandthereisafurtherlargetemperatureinthechipadjacenttothefaceasthechipisshearedinsecondarydeformation.Thisleadstoamaximumcuttingtemperatureashortdistanceupthefacefromthecuttingedgeandasmalldistanceintothechip.Sincevirtuallyalltheworkdoneinmetalcuttingisconvertedintoheat,itcouldbeexpectedthatfactorswhichincreasethepowerconsumedperunitvolumeofmetalremovedwillincreasethecuttingtemperature.Thusanincreaseintherakeangle,allotherparametersremainingconstant,willreducethepowerperunitvolumeofmetalremovedandcuttingtemperatureswillreduce.Whenconsideringincreaseinundeformedchipthicknessandcuttingspeedthesituationismorecomples.Anincreaseinundeformedchipthicknessandcuttingspeedthesituationismorecomplex.Anincreaseinundeformedchipthicknesstendstobeascaleeffectwheretheamountsofheatwhichpasstotheworkpiece,thetoolandchipremaininfixedproportionsandthechangesincuttingtemperaturetendtobesmall.Increaseincuttingspeed,however,reducetheamountofheatwhichpassesintotheworkpieceandthisincreasethetemperatureriseofthechipinprimarydeformation.Further,thesecondarydeformationzonetendstobesmallerandthishastheeffectofincreasingthetemperaturesinthiszone.Otherchangesincuttingparametershavevirtuallynoeffectonthepowerconsumedperunitvolumeofmetalremovedandconsequentlyhavevirtuallynoeffectonthepowerconsumedperunitvolumeofmetalremovedandconsequentlyhavevirtuallynoeffectonthecuttingtemperatures.Sinceithasbeenshownthatevensmallchangesincuttingtemperaturehaveasignificanteffectontoolwearrate,itisappropriatetoindicatehowcuttingtemperaturescanbeassessedfromcuttingdata.ThemostdirectandaccuratemethodformeasuringtemperaturesinhighspeedsteelcuttingtoolsisthatofWrightTrentwhichalsoyieldsdetailedinformationontemperaturedistributionsinhighspeedsteeltoolswhichrelatesmicrostructuralchangestothermalhistory.Trenthasdescribedmeasurementsofcuttingtemperaturesandtemperaturedistributionsforhighspeedsteeltoolswhenmachiningawiderangeofworkpiecematerials.Thistechniquehasbeenfurtherdevelopedbyusingscanningelectronmicroscopytostudyfinescalemicrostructuralchangessrisingfromovertemperingofthetemperedmartensiticmatrixofvarioushighspeedsteels.Thistechniquehasalsobeenusedtostudytemperaturedistributionsinbothhighspeedsteelsinglepointturningtoolsandtwistdrills.AutomaticFixtureDesignAssemblyequipmentusedinthetraditionalsynchronousfixtureputpartsofthefixturemobilecenter,toensurethatcomponentsfromtransmissionfromtheplaneorequipmentplateplacedafterremovalhasbeenscheduledforposition.However,incertainapplications,mobilemandatorypartsofthecenterline,itmaycausepartsorequipmentdamage.Whenpartsvulnerabilityandmayleadtoasmallvibrationabandoned,orwhentheirlocationisbymachinespindleorspecifictodie,Toleranceagainorwhentherequestisasophisticated,itwouldratherletthefixturetoadapttothelocationofparts,andnotthecontrary.Forthesetasks,Elyria,Ohio,thecompanyhasdevelopedZaytranageneralnonfunctionaldatasynchronizationWestcategoryFLEXIBILITYfixture.Fixturebecauseoftheinteractionandsynchronizationdevicesisindependent,Thesynchronousdevicecanusesophisticatedequipmenttoreplacetheslipwithoutaffectingthefixtureforce.Fixturespecificationrangefrom0.2inchesitinerary,5poundsclampingforceofthesixinchtrip,400inchclampingforce.Thecharacteristicsofmodernproductionisbecomingsmallerandsmallerquantitiesandproductspecificationsbiggestchanges.Therefore,inthefinalstagesofproduction,assemblyofproduction,quantityandproductdesignchangesappeartobeparticularlyvulnerable.Thissituationisforcingmanycompaniestomakegreatereffortstorationalizetheextensivereformandthepreviouslymentionedcaseofassemblyautomation.Despiteflexiblefixturebehindtherapiddevelopmentofflexibletransportandhandlingdevices,suchasbackwardinthedevelopmentofindustrialrobots,itisstillexpectedtoincreasetheflexibilityfixture.Infacttheimportantfixturedevicestheproductionofthedevicestostrengtheninvestmentonthefixturesothatmoreflexibilityineconomicsupportholders.Accordingtotheirflexibilityandfixturecanbedividedintospecialfixture,thefixturecombinations,thestandardfixture,highflexiblefixture.Flexiblefixtureondifferentpartsoftheirhighadaptabilityandthefewlowcostreplacementforthecharacteristic.Formscantransformthestructureoftheflexiblefixturecanbeinstalledwiththechangeofstructurecomponentssuchasneedlecheekplate,Multichipcomponentsandflakecheekplate,anonstandardworkpiecegripperorclampingelementsforexamplecommencementstandardwithaclampingfixtureandmobilecomponentsfixturesupportingdocuments,orwithceramicorhardeningoftheintermediarysubstancessuchasMobileparticlebedfixtureandheatfixturetightfixture.Toproduction,thepartsweresecuredfixture,theneedtogenerateclampingfunction,itsfixturewithafewunrelatedtothesexualsubmissivestepsAccordingtotheprocessingwaspartofthatfoundationandworkingcharacteristicstodeterminetheworkpiecefixtureintherequiredposition,thenneedtoselectsomestabilityflatcombination,Theseconstituteastableplanewasfixedintheworkpiecefixturesetpositionontheclampprofilestructure,allbalancedandtorque,ithasalsoensuredthattheworkfeaturesclosetotheworkpiece.Finally,itmustbecalculatedandadjusted,assemblyordisassemblybestandardfixturecomponentsrequiredfortheposition,sothattheworkpiecefirmlybyclampingfixtureinChina.Inaccordancewiththisprocedure,theoutlinefixturestructureandequippedwiththeplanningandrecordingprocesscanbeautomatedcontrol.Structuralmodelingtaskistoproducesomestableflatcombination,Thus,theseplaneoftheworkpiecesclampingforceandwillfixturestability.Accordingtousualpractice,thistaskcanbehumanmachinedialoguethatisalmostcompletelyautomatedwaytocompletion.Amanmachinedialoguethatisautomatedfixturestructuremodelingtodeterminethemeritscanbeconductedinanorganizedandplanningfixturedesign,reducetheamountofthedesign,shorteningthestudyperiodandbetterdistributionofworkconditions.Inshort,canbesuccessfullyachievedsignificantlyimprovefixtureefficiencyandeffectiveness.Fullypreparedtostructureprogramsandthenumberofmaterialcircumstances,thecompletionofthefirstsuccessfulassemblycansaveupto60ofthetime.Thereforefixtureprocessmodelingagenciesisthepurposeoftheprogramhaveappropriatedocuments.

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