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外文翻译--原型基于颜色的图像检索与MATLAB.doc

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外文翻译--原型基于颜色的图像检索与MATLAB.doc

英文原文PrototypingColorbasedImageRetrievalwithMATLABAbstracContentbasedretrievalofimagedatabaseshasbecomemorepopularthanbefore.Algorithmdevelopmentforthispurposerequirestesting/simulationtools,buttherearenosuitablecommercialtoolsonthemarket.Asimulationenvironmentforretrievingimagesfromdatabaseaccordinghistogramsimilaritiesispresentedinthispaper.Thisenvironmentallowstheuseofdifferentcolorspacesandnumbersofbins.ThealgorithmsareimplementedwithMATLAB.Eachcolorsystemhasitsownmfiles.ThephasesofthesoftwarebuildingprocessarepresentedfromsystemdesigntographicaluserinterfaceGUI.ThefunctionalityisdescribedwithsnapshotsofGUI.1.IntroductionNowadaystherearethousandsorhundredsofthousandsofdigitalimagesinanimagedatabase.Iftheuserwantstofindasuitableimageforhis/herpurposes,he/shehastogothroughthedatabaseuntilthecorrectimagehasbeenfoundoruseareferencebookorsomeintelligentprogram.VideoondemandVoDservicesalsorequiresanintelligentsearchsystemforendusers.VoDsystemssearchmethodsdifferslightlyfromimagedatabasesmethods.Areferencebookisasuitableoption,iftheimagesarearrangedwithausefulmethod,forexample1categoriesanimals,flags,etc,2namesrequiresagoodnamingtechniqueor3dates.Anexperiencedusercanusethesesystemsaswellastextualsearcheskeywordshavetobeinsertedinadatabaseefficiently.Therearesituationswhenamultilanguagesystemhastobeused.Therealanguageindependentsearchsystemsbestpropertiescanbeutilized.Atoolwhichisbasedontheimagespropertiescanbemadelanguageindependent.Thesepropertiescanbeforexamplecolor,shape,texture,spatiallocationofshapeetc.IntheMuViproject1thiskindoftoolisunderconstruction.Itwillcoverthepropertiespresentedabove.Researchworkoncontentbasedimageretrievalhasbeendonein2–6.Thesystem,whichispresentedinthispaper,isasimulationenvironment,whereMuViscolorcontentbasedretrievalhasbeendevelopedandtested.2.SystemdevelopmentMATLABisanefficientprogramforvectorandmatrixdataprocessing.Itcontainsreadyfunctionsformatrixmanipulationsandimagevisualizationandallowsaprogramtohavemodularstructure.BecauseofthesefactsMATLABhasbeenchosenasprototypingsoftware.2.1SystemdesignBeforeanymfileshavebeenwritten,thesystemdesignhasbeendone.AsystemdesignfortheHSVhue,saturationandvaluecolorsystembasedretrievalprocessispresentedinFigure1.Similardesignhasbeendoneforallusedcolorsystems.Figure1FunctionchartforHSVcolorspacewith27binshistogram.Tesths27isthemainfunctionforthiscolorsystemandthisnumberofbins.Itcallsotherfunctionshs27read,dif_hsvandimage_poswhenneeded.Eachcolorsystemhasamainfunctionofitsownandvariablenumber2–3ofsubfunctions.Ifthereisnoneedforcolorspaceconversionthereare2functions,otherwise3functionsonthefirstbranchofthefunctionchart.Thefunctioncallofthemainfunctionismatchestesths27imagen,directory,numThevariableimagenspecifiesthequeryimagesnameandpath.Thedirectoryisapathoftheimagedatabaseandnumisadesirednumberofretrievedimages.2.2FunctionsAtthismomenttherearefunctionsimplementedforfourcolorspacesHSV,Lab,RGBandXYZ7.Eachcolorspacehasfrom2to4implementationsfordifferentnumbersofbins.Therearealtogether14mainfunctions.Forsomecolorsystemsitispossibletomakethesefunctionsdynamic,i.e.dynamichistogramcalculation.Everycolorsystem/bincombinationrequiresitsownhistogramsandthesecanbemadeonlywithanexhaustivemethodpixelbypixel.Histogramcalculationtakes½5minutesperimage,eachapproximately320240pixels,dependingonthecomplexityofthecolorspaceon150MHzPentium.Thusitisnotreasonabletolettheuserselectabinnumberfreely,especiallyinthecaseoflargedatabases.Thefunctionshavebeennamedsothatthenamescontaininformationofthecolorspaceused,thepurposeofthefunctionsandthenumberofusedbins.Somefunctions,forexampleimage_pos,havebeenusedbymanyorallmainfunctionsandthesefunctionshavenotbeennamedasdescribedabove.Themainfunctionchecks,ifthefunctioncalliscorrect.Ifthequeryimagesnamedoesntcontainapath,thefunctionassumesthattheimageissituatedinthedatabasedirectory.Inadditiontothis,themainfunctionchecks,ifthequeryimagealreadyhasahistograminthecurrentlyuseddatabase.Iftherequiredhistogramisnotthere,theimagereadforexamplehs27readfunctioniscalled.Thisfunctionalsonormalizespixelvaluesandarrangesimagematrixdatatoavectorformat.Afterthatstageacolorspaceconversionfunctionifneedediscalled.Finallyaquantizationfunctionbuildsthehistogramwiththecorrectnumberofbins.Thehistogramwillthenbesavedintothedatabasedirectory.Ifthehistogramalreadyexiststhere,thethreepreviousstepswillnotbeexecuted.Nowthequeryimagehasbeenanalyzed.Thenthemainfunctionwillgothroughallimagesinthedatabasedirectorywithanalmostsimilaralgorithmasinthecaseofthequeryimage.Thedifferenceisthatnowtherewillbeahistogramdifferencecalculationbetweenthequeryimagesandcurrentimageshistogram.Finallytheimage_posfunctionwillbeusedtoputaqueryimageandthedesirednumberofbestmatchimagesonthedisplay.2.3LinkingItisnotpossibletouseaprogrambeforethemainfunctionandsubfunctionsareconnectedtoeachother.Themainfunctionwillbecalledfromthecommandlineorthroughthegraphicaluserinterface,whichwillbepresentedlaterinthispaper.Inbothcasesthefunctioncallwillcontainthesamearguments.Formultilevelsearchpurposesseparatemainfunctionshavebeenimplemented,butitispossibletoutilizenormalfunctionsandaddoneparameter,wherethebestmatchesarraycanbetransferredforsecondastagecomparisonfunction.Themainfunctioncallsanimagereadfunctionwiththeimagesname.Thehistogramwillbereturnedtothemainfunction.Ifacolorspaceconversionisneeded,theconversionfunctionwillbecalledfromthereadfunctionwithr,gandb–vectors.Thehistogramwillbereturnedtothecallingfunction.Finallythehistogrambuildfunctionwillbecalledwithconvertedcolorvectors.Thisfunctionreturnsaquantizedhistogram,whichwillgothroughallfunctionsuntilitachievesthemainfunction.Themainfunctioncallsthehistogramdifferencefunctionwithtwohistogramvectorsandwillgetadifferencevalueasaresponse.ThedifferencefunctionusesEuclideandistancecalculation,butitcanbeeasilychangedtoanotheralgorithmduetothemodularityoftheprogram.Ifthedifferenceissmallerthanlargestdifferenceonabestmatchtable,thecurrentresultwillbewrittenoverthelastresultonthebestmatchtable.Afterthatthetableisarrangedagaininanascendingorderofdistance.Whenalltheimageshavebeenanalyzed,thesortedbestmatchtable,thenumberofdesiredoutputimages,thequeryimagesname,thesearchimagespathandthedatabasepatharetransferredtotheimage_posfunction.Thesevaluescanbetransferredintolargercomponentsvectors/containers.Nowtheprogramworksfasterwithseveralinputarguments,becausethereisnoneedforpickingupvariablesfromacontainer.2.4GraphicaluserinterfaceThegraphicaluserinterfaceGUIisanimportantpartofsoftwaredevelopment.ThedesigningoftheGUIhavetosolvethefollowingproblemslearningtime,speedofperformance,rateoferrorsbyusers,retentionovertime,andsubjectivesatisfaction9.Thissoftwareis,atthemoment,intendedtobeusedonlyfortestingpurposes.Themostimportantpropertyofthissoftwareisthattheresultsofdifferenttestqueriescanbeseenquicklyandtheresultscanbesavedsafelyonadisk.Thusthevisuallayoutisnotasimportantasincaseofacommercialsoftwareproduct.InFigure2thefirstscreenonGUIispresented.Thepurposesofthebuttons,menusandothercomponentswillbepresentedlater.Ifthissoftwareisdevelopedintoacommercialproduct,themenubarwillbedisabledinthefutureandtheexitandhelpbuttonswillbeaddedonthecanvas.Figure2GUIbeforethesearchimageselection.InFigure3thesearchscreenispresentedjustbeforestartingasearch.Theuserisshownasearchimage,andinthiswayhe/shecanbesurethatthesearchwillbemadewiththecorrectimage.

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