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外文翻译--叶面积的测量与计算.doc

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外文翻译--叶面积的测量与计算.doc

1MeasurementandcalculationofleafareaAbstractEthodsofleafareameasurementareusefulforsmallplantpopulations,suchasexperimentswithpottedplants,andallowthemeasurementofthesameplantseveraltimesduringthegrowingperiod.Amethodologywasdevelopedtoestimatetheleafareaindexofcucumberandtomatoplantsthroughtheevaluationoftheleafareadistributionpatternoftheplantsandtherelativeheightoftheleavesintheplants.Plantandleafheight,aswellasthelengthandwidthofallleavesweremeasuredandtheareaofsomeleaveswasdeterminedbyadigitalareameter.Theobtainedregressionequationswereusedtoestimatetheleafareaforallrelativeheightsalongtheplant.TheLADPadjustedtoaquadraticmodelforbothcropsandLAIwereestimatedbymeasuringthelengthandwidthoftheleaveslocatedattherelativeheightsrepresentingthemeanleafareaoftheplants.TheLAIestimationspresentedhighprecisionandaccuracywhentheproposedmethodologywasusedresultingintimeandeffortsavingsandbeingusefulforbothcrops.KeywordsCucumissativusL.,LycopersiconesculentumMill.,greenhouse,leafareaindex.2Leafisanimportantplantorgan,andisassociatedwithphotosynthesisandevapotranspirationtherefore,leafareameasurementsarerequiredinmostphysiologicalandagronomicstudiesinvolvingplantgrowth.Manymethodsofleafareameasurementshavebeendeveloped.Directmethodsfordeterminingleafareaarerestrictedtotheuseofanautomaticareaintegratingmeter.Tracing,shadowgraphingortheuseofaplanimetertomeasuretheleafareaofleavesattachedtoshootsistimeconsumingandtediousalso,insomeexperimentstimeisinsufficienttomakesuchmeasurements.Estimationofleafareafrommathematicalmodelsinvolvinglinearmeasurementsofleavesisrelativelyaccurateandnondestructive.CucumberandtomatoaresomeofthemaincropscultivatedingreenhouseinBrazilandresearcheswiththesecropsareessentialtoestablishthebestmanagementpracticestoincreaseyieldandfruitquality.Researcheswithplantscultivatedinpotsarecommonundergreenhouseconditionsbecauselessspaceisrequiredandthenumberoftreatmentsandreplicationscanbequiteincreased.Underpotcultivation,anondestructivemethodforLAIevaluationisrequiredwiththeadvantagethatthesameplantcanbemeasuredseveraltimesduringthegrowingperiod,thusleadingtoamorerealcurveofLAIincreasealongthegrowingseason.MATERIALANDMETHODSInthefirstcucumberseason,agreenhouseof1.6mheightoflateralopening,10mwideand20mlongandcoveredwithapolyethylenefilmof0.15mm3thicknesswasused.ThelateralcurtainswereclosedatnightandopenedduringthedaygreenhousewaslocatedinaexperimentalareaoftheUniversidadede,Piracicabacity,Brazil.Cucumberseedlings,weretransplantedon13thJanuary,1999,infourbeds,eachonewithtworowsofplants,givingaplantpopulationof2.5plantsm2.Plantsweretrainedwithasinglestemalongandaroundaverticalplasticstring.Waterwasappliedbyadripirrigationsystem,withonedripperperplant,andfertilizerscontainingN,P,K,Ca,Mgandwereappliedwiththeirrigationwaterinallirrigations,followingtheuptakerateofcucumberingreenhouse.Fortydaysaftertransplanting,fiveplantswereselectedandthewidthandlengthofallleavesweremeasuredwithasimpleruler.Inaddition,plantheightandtheinsertionheightofthepetiolefromeachleafwasalsoobtainedtocalculatetherelativeleafheightbytheequation.whereRLHistherelativeleafheight,LHistheleafheight,thatis,thedistancebetweenthesoilsurfaceandthenodecorrespondingtotheleaf,andPHtheplantheight.Inthesameday,leavesofdifferentsizeswereselectedtorepresentthefullspectrumofmeasurableleafsizesandtheirareasweremeasuredusingaLICOR3000leafareameter.Lengthwasmeasuredfromlaminatiptothepointofintersectionofthelaminaandpetioleandwidthweremeasuredfromtiptotipbetweenthewidestlaminalobes.TherelativeleafareaRLAwascalculatedbydividingtheareaofeachleafbythemeanleafareaoftheplantforeachRLHasfollows4whereRLAistherelativeleafarea,LAistheleafareaofagivenleafcm2andLAMisthemeanleafareaoftheplantcm2leaf1givenbythesumoftheLAofallleavesdividedbythenumberofleavesofeachplant.TheRLHwasplottedagainstRLAinordertodeterminetheleafwhosearearepresentsthemeanleafareaoftheplantToevaluatetheperformanceofthemethodology,theLandWofallleavesoffiveplantsdifferentfromthoseusedinthemodeldevelopment,fromeachcropandseasonweremeasuredand,theareasoftheleaveslocatedattherelativeheightsthatrepresentedtheLAMwereusedtocalculatetheLAIbytheequationWhereNisthenumberofleavesintheplantandAtheareacm2occupiedbyoneplantinthecroppedarea.EstimatedLAIwascorrelatedtothemeasuredLAI,thesumoftheareasofallleavesdividedbyA,andtheresultswereplottedandanalysedbymeansoftheregressionslope,coefficientofdeterminationr2andcoefficientofWillmottWillmott,1981.RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONTheequationsrelatingtheleafareawiththeL,WandLxWforallcropsareshown.EquationsthatuseonlyLorWshowedgoodrelationshipswithLA,whichdemandlesseffortandtimeinthemeasurementatfieldbecausejustonedimensioncouldbemeasured.TheequationusedtoestimateLA,todetermineleafareadistributionpatternLADPoftheplantswasthatshowedthehighestr2value.TheLADPforeachcropandseasonisshown.Ahighcorrelationcanbe

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