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外文翻译--在光伏误差辐射监测能量测量的数据与采样速度.doc

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外文翻译--在光伏误差辐射监测能量测量的数据与采样速度.doc

附录SolarEnergyCopyrightElsevierScienceDATASAMPLINGSPEEDVERSUSENERGETICMEASUREMENTERRORSOFIRRADIATIONMONITORINGINPHOTOVOLTAICTokyoUniversityofAgricultureandTechnology,22416,Nakamachi,Koganeishi,Tokyo184,Japan.CommunicatedbyGERARDWRIXON.AbstractTomeasuresolarirradiationandphotovoltaicarrayoutputenergyameasuringaccuracycannotbeguaranteedunlessthedatasamplingintervalisappropriatelyselected.Fromthisviewpoint,actualirradiancehasbeenmeasuredbycomparativelyhighspeedsamplingofl4sfor44monthsandthedailyerrorsofthenumericalintegralhavebeenestimatedforvariousstepsizes.Approximationformulaeoftheerrorversusthestepsizehavebeenstatisticallyobtainedaswellastheirprobabilitydensityfunctioncovering4c.Finally,anomographispresentedtodecideanappropriatesamplinginterval.Aconcludingexampleshowsthatthedeviatingcomponentoftheerrorexceeding1canhappenonceforevery1monthor6monthsifthestepsizeisselectedas105or65.5s,ineachofwhichthetotalerrorbecomes0.0485k1or0.03361includinganaverageerrorcomponentaccordingtothedatameasuredatTsukuba.Copyright1996ElsevierScienceLtd.IntroductionInaphotovoltaicsystemtheinputsolarenergyhasabasicdayandnightcycleandanuncertain,timevaryingfactorcausedbymeteorologicalconditions.Whenameasurementisperformedtoobtainlongtermperformanceparameterssuchasirradiation,theamountofgeneratedenergy,etc.,theaccuracyofthemeasurementmaynotbemaintainedifthesamplingspeedofdataacquisitionisdecidedregardlessofthefluctuatingrateofsolarradiation.Sincesimplifiedmeasurementsmayhavetobeadoptedinthefuturewiththespreadofphotovoltaicsystems,someinstructionsmustbeclearlypreparedasasystemmonitoringstandard.Theauthorpresentsananalysisofthisneed.Forthispurpose,actualirradianceprofilehasbeenmeasuredbycomparativelyhighspeedsamplingfor44monthsattheElectrotechnicalLaboratoryinTsukubaScienceCityKurokawaandMine,1989Kurokawa,1994.Byusingthesedata,thedailyerrorsofnumericalintegrationhavebeenevaluatedforvarioustimestepsizes.Then,theerrorsforeachstepsizehavebeenanalyzedforacertaintermtoobtainstatisticalparameterssuchasstandarddeviation0andaveragevalue.Approximationformulaehavebeenalsogiventoexpressrelationshipsbetweenthesevaluesandstepsizes.Inaddition,theprobabilitydensityfunctionprofileoftheerrorshasbeenalsoestimated.Finally,byapplyingtheapproximationformulaeandtheprobabilitydensityfunction,anomographispresentedfordeterminingamaximumallowablestepsizetoassuremonitoringprecision.DataAcquisitionInordertoknowthetrueintegralofirradianceprofiles,originalirradiancedataweretakenatacomparativelyhighspeedsamplingratefor44monthsfromSeptember1986toApril1990atTsukubaScienceCity.Thecityislocated60kmnorthofTokyoanditsclimaticconditionsseemtobeordinaryasfarasJapanisconcerned.MeasuringequipmentusedisillustratedinFig.1.Noises,whichmaybegeneratedinsignalconditioners,werealsosuppressedverycarefullybyusinganisolationamplifierandelectronicfilter.Inaddition,adigitalaveragingtechniquesynchronizedwiththeutilitygridfrequencywasadoptedanddrasticallydecreasedthenoiselevel.Morethan100dataweresampledandaveragedforjust40ms,whichcorrespondsto2cyclesofthefrequency.Thisbecomesonesampleofrawdataforthisstudy.TotaldataacquisitionflowisillustratedinFig.2.Thenormalrawdatasamplingperiodwas1sbutitwasmadelonger,upto4s,incaseofaslowerfluctuatingspeedoftheirradiancetoreducedatavolume.Dailydatawerestoredina2HDdiskforeveryday.Byapplyingthetrapezoidalruletothemeasuredirradiancedata,typicalexamplesofwhichareshowninFigs3aand4a,theintegratedvalueofirradiance,i.e.irradiation,siisgivenby.Theintegratingintervalisindicatedbyh.Iterationofeqn1givesasdailyintegralofSiuntiltisunset.Thevariousintervalsaredenotedashjforjl60.Thesamplingintervaloftheoriginaldataisho.Therangeofhicorrespondsto10sto2hlogarithmicallyasshowninTable1.S,andSjaregivenasSforhhoandhhi,respectively.Then,percentintegrationerror,ejisdefinedby.ThestatisticalvaluesobtainedforacomparativelyshorttermareapttoshowsomeirregularityinthetrendsofstandarddeviationsaspresentedinFig.6.However,itisobservedthattheoverallresultsforthewhole44monthsgaveenoughsmoothnessasshowninFig.9.Therefore,the44monthresultsaretobestudiedasdescribedbelow.ByusingthedatainFig.9,approximationformulaewereformed.AsshowninFigs10and11,therelationshipshowingandcsversushjisdeterminedby.Toobtainenoughprecisionforbothsmallerhregionsandlargerones,tworegionapproximationwasadopted.Forexample,itgivesm0.0315andd0.220forh60andtheirratiostostatisticaldataare1.07and0.980,respectively.Althoughtheformerlooksslightlylarge,thedataofmcontainlargerirregularities.Theyseemtobeareasonableapproximationfordatasmoothing.ProbabilityAsatentativeconclusionoftheprecedingstatistics,itisunderstoodthatthestandarddeviationofintegrationerrorsismostlyanoteworthyfactorfordetermininganappropriateintegrationinterval.However,itsprobabilisticmeaningisnotpreciselyknownsofar.Thissectionstudiesit.Thefrequencyoftheerrorclassescovering40atrespectiveintervalshasbeenplottedashistogramsasshowninFigs1214.Figure12isgivenforh60s,Fig.13forh600sandFig.14forh3600s.Fromthesefigures,itissupposedthattheirdistributionshapesarefairlysimilarinallintervals.Therefore,eachhistogramissuperimposedbynormalizingtheintegrationerrorswitheachstandarddeviation6.ThisresultisgivenasahistograminFig.15.TheGaussiandistributionisalsodrawninthesamefigurebyadottedlineasareference.在光伏误差辐射监测能量测量的数据与采样速度耿介黑川东京大学农业和科技,16年2月24日Nakamachi小金井市,东京184,日本摘要为了测量太阳辐射和光伏阵列输出能量,除非数据采样间隔是适当选择,否则测量精度无法保证。从这个角度看,实际辐照已被14秒的比较高的速度采样测量44个月,用数值积分的每日误差估计各种步长。用逼近公式的误差与步长以及统计学获得其概率密度函数覆盖±4σ。最后,诺模图是决定一个适当的采样间隔。总结的例子表明,偏离误差超过±1%的组件可以为每1个月或6个月发生一次,如果选择步长为105或65.5s,则总误差变为0.0485±1%,或0.0336±1%,其中包括根据筑波测得的数据平均误差分量。版权1996爱思唯尔网络科技有限公司。引言在太阳能光伏系统中输入的太阳能有一个基本的昼夜周期和一个不确定的,随时间变化气象条件造成的的因素。当测量是获得长期作为辐射度,产生的能量等性能参数,如果数据采集的采样速度是决定于太阳能的辐射,而不是太阳能的波动率,测量精度可能无法维持。由于简化了测量可能要通过在未来光伏发电系统的传播,一些指令必须明确准备作为一个系统的监测标准。作者提出这方面的需求的分析。为此,实际辐射谱在筑波科学城电工技术实验室用比较高的速度采样,用了44个月(黑川和煤矿,1989年黑川纪章,1994年)来测量。通过使用这些数据,数值积分的日常错误已被评估为不同的时间步长。然后,每一步的大小误差都进行了分析,以获得一定期限,如标准偏差0和平均值的统计参数。近似公式也已表达这些值和步长之间的关系。此外,误差的概率密度函数轮廓也已估计。最后,通过应用的近似公式和概率密度函数,诺模图是确定最大允许步长,以保证监测精度。数据采集为了了解真正的辐照型材的组成,原辐射数据均在一个比较高的速度采样率采样,用时44个月,从1986年9月至1990年4月在筑波科学城。科学城位于东京以北60公里,其气候条件对日本来说是普通的城市。测量设备使用说明图1噪音,可能产生的信号调理,也非常仔细地进行抑制,使用隔离放大器和电子过滤器。此外,通过与电网频率同步数字平均技术,大幅降低噪音水平。超过100多个数据采样,平均只有40毫秒,这相当于2个周期的频率。这将成为本研究的原始数据的一个样本。

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