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外文翻译--在高速潮湿机械加工条件下后刀面表层磨损机理.doc

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外文翻译--在高速潮湿机械加工条件下后刀面表层磨损机理.doc

11CHAPTERVTOOLWEARMECHANISMSONTHEFLANKSURFACEOFCUTTINGINSERTSFORHIGHSPEEDWETMACHINING5.1IntroductionAlmosteverytypeofmachiningsuchasturning,milling,drilling,grinding...,usesacuttingfluidtoassistinthecosteffectiveproductionofpartsassetupstandardrequiredbytheproducer1.UsingcoolantwithsomecuttingtoolsmaterialcausesseverefailureduetothelackoftheirresistancetothermalshocklikeAL2O3ceramics,usedtoturnsteel.OthercuttingtoolsmaterialslikecubicboronnitrideCBNcanbeusedwithoutcoolant,duetothetypeoftheirfunction.TheaimofusingCBNistoraisethetemperatureoftheworkpicetohighsoitlocallysoftensandcanbeeasilymachined.Thereasonsbehindusingcuttingfluidscanbesummarizedasfollows.®Extendingthecuttingtoollifeachievedbyreducingheatgeneratedandasaresultlesswearrateisachieved.Itwillalsoeliminatetheheatfromtheshearzoneandtheformedchips.®Coolingtheworkpieceofhighqualitymaterialunderoperationplaysanimportantrolesincethermaldistortionofthesurfaceandsubsurfacedamageisaresultofexcessiveheatthatmustbeeliminatedorlargelyreducedtoproduceahighqualityproduct.Reducingcuttingforcesbyitslubricatingeffectatthecontactinterfaceregionandwashingandcleaningthecuttingregionduringmachiningfromsmallchips.Thetwomainreasonsforusingcuttingfluidsarecoolingandlubrication.CuttingFluidasaCoolantThefluidcharacteristicsandconditionofusedeterminethecoolantactionofthecuttingfluid,whichimprovestheheattransferattheshearzonebetweenthecuttingedge,workpiece,andcuttingfluid.22Thepropertiesofthecoolantinthiscasemustincludeahighheatcapacitytocarryawayheatandgoodthermalconductivitytoabsorbtheheatfromthecuttingregion.Thewaterbasedcoolantemulsionwithitsexcellenthighheatcapacityisabletoreducetoolwear44.CuttingFluidasaLubricantThepurposeistoreducefrictionbetweenthecuttingedge,rakefaceandtheworkpiecematerialorreducingthecuttingforcestangentialcomponent.Asthefrictiondropstheheatgeneratedisdropped.Asaresult,thecuttingtoolwearrateisreducedandthesurfacefinishisimproved.CuttingFluidPropertiesFreeofperceivableodorPreserveclaritythroughoutlifeKindandunirritatedtoskinandeyes.Corrosionprotectiontothemachinepartsandworkpiece.Costeffectiveintermsofftoollife,safety,dilutionratio,andfluidlife.15.1.1CuttingFluidTypesTherearetwomajorcategoriesofcuttingfluidsNeatCuttingOilsNeatcuttingoilsarepoorintheircoolantcharacteristicsbuthaveanexcellentlubricity.Theyareappliedbyfloodingtheworkareabyapumpandrecirculatedthroughafilter,tankandnozzles.Thistypeisnotdilutedbywater,andmaycontainlubricityandextremepressureadditivestoenhancetheircuttingperformanceproperties.Theusageof33thistypehasbeendecliningfortheirpoorcoolingability,causingfirerisk,proventocausehealthandsafetyrisktotheoperator1.®WaterBasedorWaterSolubleCuttingFluidsThisgroupissubdividedintothreecategories1.Emulsionmineralsolublewhitemilkycolorasaresultofemulsionofoilinwater.Containfrom4080mineraloilandanemulsifyingagentbesidecorrosioninhibitors,besidebiocidetoinhibitthebacteriagrowth.2.Microemulsionsemisyntheticinventedin1980s,haslessoilconcentrationand/orhigheremulsifierratio1040oil.Duetothehighlevelsofemulsifiertheoildropletsizeinthefluidaresmallerwhichmakethefluidmoretranslucentandeasytoseetheworkpieceduringoperation.Otherimportantbenefitisinitsabilitytoemulsifyanyleakageofoilfromthemachinepartsinthecuttingfluid,acorrosioninhibitors,andbacteriacontrol.3.Mineraloilfreesyntheticisamixofchemicals,water,bacteriacontrol,corrosioninhibitors,anddyes.Doesnotcontainanymineraloils,andprovidesgoodvisibility.23totheworkpiece.bareinmindthatthelackofmineraloilinthistypeofcuttingfluidneedstotakemoreattentiontomachinepartslubricationsinceitshouldnotleaveanoilyfilmonthemachineparts,andmightcausesealsdegradationduethelackofprotection.5.1.2CuttingFluidSelectionManyfactorsinfluencetheselectionofcuttingfluidmainlyworkpiecematerial,typeofmachiningoperation,machinetoolparts,paints,andseals.Table51preparedatthemachinetoolindustryresearchassociation2providessuggestionsonthetypeoffluidtobeused.445.1.3CoolantManagementToachieveahighlevelofcuttingfluidsperformanceandcosteffectiveness,acoolantrecyclingsystemshouldbeinstalledinthefactory.Thissystemwillreducetheamountofnewpurchasedcoolantconcentrateandcoolantdisposable,whichwillreducemanufacturingcost.Iteitherdonebythecompanyitselforberentedout,dependsonthebudgetandmanagementpolicyofthecompany1.Table51Guidetotheselectionofcuttingfluidsforgeneralworkshopapplications.MachiningoperationWorkpiecematerialFreemachiningandlowcarbonsteelsMediumCarbonsteelsHighCarbonandalloysteelsStainlessandheattreatedresistantalloysGrindingCleartypesolubleoil,semisyntheticorchemicalgrindingfluidTurningGeeralprpose,solubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidExtremepressuresolubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidMillingGeneralpurpose,solubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidExtremepressuresolubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidExtremepressuresolubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidneatcuttingoilsmaybenecessaryDrillingExtremepressuresolubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidGearShappingExtremepressuresolubleoil,semisyntheticorsyntheticfluidNeatcuttingoilspreferable

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