会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

外文翻译--塑料注射成型-热力学性质.doc

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:42.50KB   全文页数:9页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

外文翻译--塑料注射成型-热力学性质.doc

外文翻译原文InjectionMoldingManydifferentprocessesareusedtotransformplasticgranules,powders,andliquidsintoproduct.Theplasticmaterialisinmoldableform,andisadaptabletovariousformingmethods.Inmostcasesthermosettingmaterialsrequireothermethodsofforming.Thisisrecognizedbythefactthatthermoplasticsareusuallyheatedtoasoftstateandthenreshapedbeforecooling.Theromosets,ontheotherhandhavenotyetbeenpolymerizedbeforeprocessing,andthechemicalreactiontakesplaceduringtheprocess,usuallythroughheat,acatalyst,orpressure.Itisimportanttorememberthisconceptwhilestudyingtheplasticsmanufacturingprocessesandpolymersused.Injectionmoldingisbyfarthemostwidelyusedprocessofformingthermoplasticmaterials.Itisalsooneoftheoldest.Currentlyinjectionmoldingaccountsfor30ofallplasticsresinconsumption.Sincerawmaterialcanbeconvertedbyasingleprocedure,injectionmoldingissuitableformassproductionofplasticsarticlesandautomatedonestepproductionofcomplexgeometries.Inmostcases,finishingisnotnecessary.Typicalproductsincludetoys,automotiveparts,householdarticles,andconsumerelectronicsgoods.Sinceinjectionmoldinghasanumberofinterdependentvariables,itisaprocessofconsiderablecomplexity.Thesuccessoftheinjectionmoldingoperationisdependentnotonlyinthepropersetupofthemachinehydraulics,barreltemperaturevariations,andchangesinmaterialviscosity.Increasingshottoshotrepeatabilityofmachinevariableshelpsproducepartswithtightertolerance,lowersthelevelofrejects,andincreasesproductqualityi.e.,appearanceandserviceability.Theprincipalobjectiveofanymoldingoperationisthemanufactureofproductstoaspecificqualitylevel,intheshortesttime,andusingrepeatableandfullyautomaticcycle.Moldersstrivetoreduceoreliminaterejectedpartsinmoldingproduction.Forinjectionmoldingofhighprecisionopticalparts,orpartswithahighaddedvaluesuchasappliancecases,thepayoffofreducedrejectsishigh.Atypicalinjectionmoldingcycleorsequenceconsistsoffivephases1.Injectionormoldfilling2.Packingorcompression3.Holding4.Cooling5.PartejectionPlasticgranulesarefedintothehopperandthroughanintheinjectioncylinderwheretheyarecarriedforwardbytherotatingscrew.Therotationofthescrewforcesthegranulesunderhighpressureagainsttheheatedwallsofthecylindercausingthemtomelt.Asthepressurebuildingup,therotatingscrewisforcedbackwarduntilenoughplastichasaccumulatedtomaketheshot.Theinjectionramorscrewforcesmoltenplasticfromthebarrel,throughthenozzle,sprueandrunnersystem,andfinallyintothemoldcavities.Duringinjection,themoldcavityisfilledvolumetrically.Whentheplasticcontactsthecoldmoldsurfaces,itsolidifiesfreezesrapidlytoproducetheskinlayer.Sincethecoreremainsinthemoltenstate,plasticfollowsthroughthecoretocompletemoldfilling.Typically,thecavityisfilledto9598duringinjection.Thenthemoldingprocessisswitchedovertothepackingphase.Evenasthecavityisfilled,themoltenplasticbeginstocool.Sincethecoolingplasticcontractsorshrinks,itgivesrisetodefectssuchassinkmarks,voids,anddimensionalinstabilities.Tocompensateforshrinkage,additionplasticisforcedintothecavity.Oncethecavityispacked,pressureappliedtothemeltpreventsmoltenplasticinsidethecavityfrombackflowingoutthroughthegate.Thepressuremustbeapplieduntilthegatesolidifies.Theprocesscanbedividedintotwostepspackingandholdingormaybeencompassedinonestepholdingorsecondstage.Duringpacking,meltforcedintothecavitybythepackingpressurecompensatesforshrinkage.Withholding,thepressuremerelypreventsbackflowofthepolymermalt.Aftertheholdingstageiscompleted,thecoolingphasestarts.During,thepartisheldinthemoldforspecifiedperiod.Thedurationofthecoolingphasedependsprimarilyonthematerialpropertiesandthepartthickness.Typically,theparttemperaturemustcoolbelowthematerialsejectiontemperature.Whilecoolingthepart,themachineplasticatesmeltforthenextcycle.Thepolymerissubjectedtoshearingactionaswellastheconditionoftheenergyfromtheheaterbands.Oncetheshortismade,plasticationceases.Thisshouldoccurimmediatelybeforetheendofthecoolingphase.Thenthemoldopensandthepartisejected.Whenpolymersarefabricatedintousefularticlestheyarereferredtoasplastics,rubbers,andfibers.Somepolymers,forexample,cottonandwool,occurnaturally,butthegreatmajorityofcommercialproductsaresyntheticinorigin.AlistofthenamesofthebetterknownmaterialswouldincludeBakelite,Dacron,Nylon,Celanese,Orlon,andStyron.Previousto1930theuseofsyntheticpolymerswasnotwidespread.However,theyshouldnotbeclassifiedasnewmaterialsformanyofthemwereknowninthelatterhalfofthenineteenthcentury.Thefailuretodevelopthemduringthisperiodwasdue,inpart,toalackofunderstandingoftheirproperties,inparticular,theproblemofthestructureofpolymerswasthesubjectofmuchfruitlesscontroversy.Twoeventsofthetwentiethcenturycatapultedpolymersintoapositionofworldwideimportance.ThefirstofthesewasthesuccessfulcommercialproductionoftheplasticnowknownasBakelite.Itsindustrialusefulnesswasdemonstratedin1912andinthenextsucceedingyears.TodayBakeliteishighonthelistofimportantsyntheticproducts.Before1912materialsmadefromcellulosewereavailable,buttheirmanufactureneverprovidedtheincentivefornewworkinthepolymerfieldsuchasoccurredaftertheadventofBakelite.ThesecondeventwasconcernedwithfundamentalstudiesofthenaturepolymersbyStaudingerinEuropeandbyCarohers,whoworkedwiththeDuPontcompanyinDelaware.Agreaterpartofthestudiesweremadeduringthe1920s.Staudingersworkwasprimarilyfundamental.Carothersachievementsledtothedevelopmentofourpresenthugeplasticsindustrybycausinganawakeningofinterestinpolymerchemistry,aninterestwhichisstillstronglyapparenttoday.TheNatureofThermodynamicsThermodynamicsisoneofthemostimportantareasofengineeringscienceusedtoexplainhowmostthingswork,whysomethingsdonotthewaythattheywereintended,andwhyothersthingsjustcannotpossiblyworkatall.Itisakeypartofthescienceengineersusetodesignautomotiveengines,heatpumps,rocketmotors,powerstations,gasturbines,airconditioners,superconductingtransmissionlines,solarheatingsystems,etc.Thermodynamicscentersaboutthenotionsofenergy,theideathatenergyisconservedisthefirstlowofthermodynamics.Itisstartingpointforthescienceofthermodynamicsisentropyentropyprovidesameansfordeterminingifaprocessispossible.Thisideaisthebasisforthesecondlowofthermodynamics.Italsoprovidesthebasisforanengineeringanalysisinwhichonecalculatesthemaximumamountofusefulthatcanbeobtainedfromagivenenergysource,ortheminimumamountofpowerinputrequiredtodoacertaintask.Aclearunderstandingoftheideasofentropyisessentialforonewhoneedstousethermodynamicsinengineeringanalysis.Scientistsareinterestedinusingthermodynamicstopredictandrelatethepropertiesofmatterengineersareinterestedinusingthisdata,togetherwiththebasicideasofenergyconservationandentropyproduction,toanalyzethebehaviorofcomplextechnologicalsystems.Thereisanexampleofthesortofsystemofinteresttoengineers,alargecentralpowerstations.Inthisparticularplanttheenergysourceispetroleuminoneofseveralforms,orsometimesnaturalgas,andtheplantistoconvertasmuchofthisenergyaspossibletoelectricenergyandtosendthisenergydownthetransmissionline.Simplyexpressed,theplantdoesthisbyboilingwaterandusingthesteamtoturnaturbinewhichturnsanelectricgenerator.Thesimplestsuchpowerplantsareabletoconvertonlyabout25percentofthefuelenergytoelectricenergy.Butthisparticularplantconvertsapproximately40percent

注意事项

本文(外文翻译--塑料注射成型-热力学性质.doc)为本站会员(英文资料库)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5