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外文翻译--多畴模拟挖掘机的机械学和液压学 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--多畴模拟挖掘机的机械学和液压学 英文版.pdf

MultiDomainSimulationMechanicsandHydraulicsHHHofanExcavatorHirokazuAraya,MasyukiKagoShimaMechanilEngineeringRerchLbortoryKobestl,Ltd,NishiKvobeHyogo6512271,JapanAbstracItidemonstraedhowtomodelandsimulatenexcavatorwithModelicandDymolabyusingModelicalibrriesformtibodyndfhydraulicsystem.Thehydrulicsystemisontrolldbyaloadsensingcontrolle.Uualy,modelscontaining3dimnsionalmechanilndhydrauliomponentsaredificultosimulte.AthandofthexcavatoritshownthaModelicawluitdorsuchkindsofsystemsimulations.1.IntroducionThedesignofanewproductrequirsanumberofdecisonsintheinitalphasethaseverlyafecthesuccesofthefinihedmchine.Today,digitlsimultionistheforusdinarlytagetolookatdiferntoncepts.heviewofthipaperithaanewexcvatoristbedesignedndsveralcndidatshydraulicontolsystemhavetobeeluated.Stmstconsistof3dimnsionalmechanialndofhydraulicomponents–likeexcavators–areficultosimulat.Usualy,twodiferntsimulationnvironmnthavetobeoupled.Thiiofteninconvenient,ladstounnecesrynumeicalproblemsandhasfragilinterfacs.IthisarticlitsdemonstrdathandofthemodelofnxcvatortModeliweluitedfortheetypesofystems.T3dimensionalcomponentsofthexcavatorarmodeldwithhenew,freModelicaultiBodylibrary.Thialowsepecilytouseannalyticsolutionofthekinemtiloopathebucketndtokethemasofthehydruliylinder,i.e.,tforcelmnts,directlyintacount.Thydraulicpartismodeledinadetiledway,utilzngpump,valvesndylindersfomHyLib,ahydraulicslibrryforModelica.Forthecontrolpartageneicloadsensingcontrolystemisused,mledbysetofsimplequations.Thisapprchgivestheequirdultandkeepstheimenededforanalyzingtheproblemonaresonablelvel.2.ModlingChoicesThereasveralpproacheswnsimulatingasystem.Dependingonthetaskitmaybenecytobuildaveryprecimodel,continingverydetailoftystemndedingalotofinformtion,.g.,mlparametrs.Thiskindmodelsiexpensivetobuildupbutontheotrhandveryusfulipaametrofaweldefinedsystmhatbemodified.AtypicalexamplistheoptimztionparmtrsofacounterbalancevalveinaxcvatorKrft1996.Theotrkindofmodelisneededairstudyofasystem.Inthiscaesompropertiesofthepump,cylinderandloadsepecifed.Rquirdinformtionabouttheperformanceofthasystem,.g.,thesdofthepistonsorthenecesaryinputpowethepumpsft,omakeadecionwtrthideigncanbeusdinprincplfortaskthand.Thismodelhastherefortobechep,i.e.,itmbepossibletobuilditnahortimeithoutdetaildknowledgeofparticularcomponents.Theauthorintendedtobuildupamodelofthesecondtype,runitandhavefirstresultwithminimumamountoftimespent.ToahivethisgoalthemodelinglanguageModelicaodelic2002,theModelicsimultionenvironmentDymolaDymol2003,thenewMlicalibrryfor3dimensionalmchanialsystemultiBodyOtertal.2003ndtheodelicalibrryofhydrulicomponentHyLibeatr2000sused.Tmodelonsistofthe3dimensionalmehanicalconstructionoftheexcavator,adetileddecriptontpowrhydraulisndgeneicloadsnsingcontrolle.ThismodelwilbeavailbleasdemointhenextversionofHyLib.3.CtrucionofExcavatorsInashematidrawingofatypicalexcavatorunderconsiderationishown.Itconsitofchaintrckndthehydrulipropeldrivewhihisusedtomanoeuvrethemahinebutusualynotduringaworkcycle.Ontopofthaiacrigewhertopertoristing.Itcanrotteroundvertialxisithrespetothehaintack.ItalsoholdstheDieslngine,thehydraulicpumpsndcontolystem.Furthermore,thereiaboom,anrmandtendbucketwhihisatchedviaplanarkinematiclooptohearm.Boom,armndbucketcanberotatedbytheappropriatecylinders.Figureshowthatherequirdpresurinthecylindersdependonthepositon.orthetrecdsituaiontheeitboomcylinderis60higherthanittapositon.Notonlythepositonbutalsothemovementhavetobetakeintocount.Figure3showasituaiwheretrmhangsdown.Ifthecrigedoesnotrotateheriapullingforcerquidinthecylinder.Whenrotating–excavatorcntypiclyottewithupto12volutionsperminute–tforceinthermylinderhangesitignandnowapushingforceisneded.Thishangeisveysignificantbecausenowthectivechamberoftheylinderswitcheandtmustbetkenioountbytontrolsystem.Bothfiguresdemonstaethasimulationmodelmustakeintoacountthecouplingsbetwnthefourgrsoffredomthisexcavatorhas.Asimplermodelthausesaconstantloadoreachcylindeandthewiveldrileadstooneousresult4.LoadSensigSystemExcavatorhavetypicalyoneDieslngine,twohydraulicmotorsandthrecylinders.Therexistdifernthydraulicruitsprovidetheonsumerwithherequidhydraulicnergy.AtypicldesigniaLoadSensingciruithatisenergyficntnduserfindly.Theiaitohaveflowratcontolsystemforthepumpsuchthaitdelivesxactlyneededflowrate.Asensortheprurdropacrossanorifceisused.Therefncvalueistheitancoftorifce.Ashemtidrwingihownigur4,agoodintroductiontohatopiisgivenianon.1992.Thepumpcontrolvalvemaintnsapresurathepumpporthatistypicaly15barhigherthanthepresurintheLSlineLoadSensingline.Ifthediretionalvalveisclosedtpumphatreforastndbyprsurof15bar.itsopenthepumpdeliversaflowratetladstopreurdropracossthadirectionalvalve.NoteThedictionalvaveisnotusdtohrottlehepumpflowbutasflowmetrprsurdropthaisfedbackandsarfncrsitance.Theciruitisnegyeficntbecausethepumpdeliveronlytheneededflowrt,throttlinglossarsmlompardtootrciuits.Ifmorethanonecylinderisusedtheciruitbecomesmorecompliated,sefigure5.E.g.iftheboomrequiaprurof100barandthebucketprsurof300barthepumppresurmustbebove300barwhichouldcausenunwantedmovementoftboomcylinder.Thereforcompensatorsareusthathrottlheoilfowandthusachieveapresurdropof15barcostheparticulardiectionalvalve.Thesecompenstorscnbeinstaledupsteamordownstemofthertill.Anadditionalvavereducsthenominalprsuredifrntialftmaximumpumpflowrteorthemaximumprureisrached.g.Nikolus1994.5.ModlofechanialPartInFigur6,aModelicashematicofthemechanialpartishown.Thechaintrackisnotmodeled,i.e.,itumedthatintrckdoenotmove.Componentsrev1,...,rv4arethe4rvolutjointstomovethepartselativetoeachother.Theiconswithhelongblacklinearevirtualrodsthaausdtmrkspeifcpointsonapart,especilythemountingpointsofthehydrulicylinde.Thelightbluepheresb2,b3,b4,b5arebodiesthavemasndaninertiaensorandreusedtomodelthecorrespondingpropertioftheexcvatorparts.Thethreomponentcyl1f,cyl2f,andcyl3farelineforceomponentsthadescribeaforcierationalongalinebetwentotchmntpoints.Themalgrenquaresthescomponentsreprsnt1dimnsionaltransltionalconnetorsfromtheModelica.Mehani.Tansltionalibrary.Theyeusdtodefinethe1dimensionalforlwctingbetwenthetwotchmentpoints.Her,thehydrauliccylindersdecribedinthenextsctionaredirtlyathed.Tmaltwospheresintheionsoftheyl1f,cyl2f,yl3fomponentsindictehatoptionalytpointmasearetkenintoaountthaaretachedatdefineddistancesfromthetchmntpointsalongtheconnetingline.Thislowstoeasilymodeltheentialmaspropertiemndentrofmasofthehydraulicylinderswithonlyverymlcomputationaloverhead.ThejointRcomponentserightpartofFigure6isansemblyelmntconsistngof3revolutejoithaformtogetheaplnarloopwheconnetdothearm.Apicturthispartofanexcavator,zoominthecorrespondingModelicaschemtiandtheanimtionviwishowniFigure7.Wmovirevolutejoint

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