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外文翻译--如何为大型的步行机器人在供能不足的情况下选择合适的速度轨道.doc

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外文翻译--如何为大型的步行机器人在供能不足的情况下选择合适的速度轨道.doc

1SPEEDADAPTEDTRAJECTORIESINTHECASEOFINSUFFICIENTYDRAULICRESSUREFORTHEFOURLEGGEDLARGESCALEWALKINGVEHICLEALDUROABSTRACTWhenoperatingwalkingmachines,onlyacoordinatedmovementofallcylindersand/ormotorscanleadtosafe,stablewalking.ThelargehydraulicallydrivenwalkingmachineALDURO,whichisinvestigatedinthispaper,hasnoexternalpowersupply,andthereforethesizeoftheonboardhydraulicpowerpackanditsdieselengineislimitedbyitsweight.Whenmovingseveralcylinderswithhighspeed,thehydraulicsupplycanbecomeinsufficientandtheresultingtrajectoriesoffeetandplatformcanbecomeunpredictable.WhentheALDUROisnearitsstabilitylimitsuchbehaviourcanleadtoinstabilityandtopplingofthesystem.Theproposedsolutionunderdiscussionhereistoobservethepositionerrorsandtimederivativesforthecylindersandbasedonthisreducethespeedwhennecessary.1.INTRODUCTIONThesysteminvestigatedinthispaperistheAnthropomorphicallyLeggedandWheeled2DuisburgRobotALDURO.Itconsistsofaplatformof2.0mby2.2mwithacabinfortheoperatorandfourlegs,each1.8mlong.Theestimatedweightis1200kg.ItcanbeusedasaquadrupedwalkingmachineFig.2,andbyreplacingthetwohindfeetwithwheels,itcanalsobeusedasacombinedleggedandwheeledvehicleFig.1.Thelattercombinestheadvantagesofawalkingmachinehighmobilitywiththestabilityandspeedofwheeledvehicles2.Whenoperatinginsteepanddangerousterrain,safetyplaysanimportantrole.Itmustbeguaranteedthatthecylindersfollowthecalculatedtrajectoriesexactlysinceawrongmovementmightcausetherobottobecomeinstable.ALDUROslegsarehydraulicallydriven,withanopenhydraulicsystem.Normally,whenplanninghydraulicsystems,lowweighthasnohighpriority1.ForthewalkingmachineALDUROtheratiopowerperweightwasoptimized.Fig.1CombinedLeggedFig.2WalkingMachineandWheeledVehicleWhileactuatingseveralcylinderssimultaneouslyormovingveryfast,thevolumeflowofthehydraulicsupplybecomesinsufficientandtheresultingmovementsuncontrollable.Theproposedsolutionunderdiscussionhereisadecreaseinspeedofallcalculatedtrajectories.Thisisadmissibleaslongastherobotisstaticallystableatanymoment.Byobservingthepositionerrorsofthecylindersandtheirtimederivatives,adecisionistakenonwhethertodecreaseorincreasethespeedalongthetrajectories.Toensurethatallmovementsareinfluencedsimultaneously,themodeltime,uponwhichallcalculationsdepend,issloweddown.Thuswecanguaranteethatlegsandplatformcananddofollowtheprescribed3trajectories.ThisstrategyisbeingtestedonavirtualmodeloftheALDUROandisbeingtestedonavirtualmodeloftheALDUROandateststandinthelaboratory,consistingofasingleleginscale11,givingverygoodresults.Fig.3Experimentalsetup2.EXPERIMENTALSETUPThelegoftheALDUROisanthropomorphic,i.e.itisbasedonthegeometryandfunctionofthehumanleg.Thehipjointisasphericalballjointwiththreedegreesoffreedomd.o.f.andthekneearevolutejointwithoned.o.f.ThesejointsareactuatedwithhydrauliccylindersFig.4,whereasthetwoadditionald.o.f.ofthefootarepassive.Tomakesolutionoftheexplicitinversekinematicspossiblewelockoneofthehipcylinders.Theexplicitsolutionofthedirectandinversekinematicsisshownindetailin4.Toexaminethedynamicbehaviouroftheleg,andtotestdifferentcontrolschemes,anexperimentalsetupforafullysizedlegwasdevelopedandbuiltseeFig.3.ItincludesallthehydrauliccomponentsthatwillbeusedonthefirstprototypeALDUROandisdrivenbyastationaryhydraulicpowerpackinthelaboratory.Theexperimentalsetupisequippedwithanopenhydraulicsystemwitha15kWelectricalmotorandanaxialpistonpumpproducingavolumeflowof40l/minat200bar.Thisissmallerthanwhatwillbeusedontherealsystem,4whichwillbepowerdbya27kWdieselengine.Fortestswithaninsufficienthydraulicflow,asecondsetoffourhydrauliccylindersasusedtomoveonelegismountedonthefloornexttotheteststand.Anopticalfieldbusforthetransferofthesensorandactuatordatabetweentheteststandandthecontrolcomputerwithrealtimeoperatingsystemisalsoinstalled.Thehydrauliccylindersincludepositionandpressuresensorsthatareusedascontrollerinputs.Thusdynamictestscanbecarriedouttoexaminethecooperationbetweenthemechanicalandhydrauliccomponentsandtheelectroniccontrolsystem.Thehipplateoftheexperimentalsetupismountedonapairoflinearbearings,andthusismobileinverticaldirection.Whencombinedwiththefoot,asshowninFig.3,orthepassivewheelusedonthehindlegofthecombinedleggedandwheeledsystem,thisallowsloadingtestsonthelegwhileperformingwalkingmotions.Mechanicalstopsbelowthehipplateallowthefoottobeliftedintheswingphaseofthewalkingmotion.Thefirstunloadedtestshaveshownthemobilityoftheanthropomorphiclegmechanismtobeverygood,andtheopticalfieldbussystemhasalsoproventobereliable.

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