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外文翻译--实验研究激光加工表面微观造型平行的推力轴承.doc

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外文翻译--实验研究激光加工表面微观造型平行的推力轴承.doc

英文原文EXPERIMENTALINVESTIGATIONOFLASERSURFACETEXTUREDPARALLELTHRUSTBEARINGSPERFORMANCEENHANCEMENTSBYLASERSURFACETEXTURINGLSTOFPARALLELTHRUSTBEARINGSISEXPERIMENTALLYINVESTIGATEDTESTRESULTSARECOMPAREDWITHATHEORETICALMODELANDGOODCORRELATIONISFOUNDOVERTHERELEVANTOPERATINGCONDITIONSACOMPARISONOFTHEPERFORMANCEOFUNIDIRECTIONALANDBIDIRECTIONALPARTIALLSTBEARINGSWITHTHATOFABASELINE,UNTEXTUREDBEARINGISPRESENTEDSHOWINGTHEBENEfiTSOFLSTINTERMSOFINCREASEDCLEARANCEANDREDUCEDFRICTIONKEYWORDSflUIDfiLMBEARINGS,SLIDERBEARINGS,SURFACETEXTURING1INTRODUCTIONTHECLASSICALTHEORYOFHYDRODYNAMICLUBRICATIONYIELDSLINEARCOUETTEVELOCITYDISTRIBUTIONWITHZEROPRESSUREGRADIENTSBETWEENSMOOTHPARALLELSURFACESUNDERSTEADYSTATESLIDINGTHISRESULTSINANUNSTABLEHYDRODYNAMICfiLMTHATWOULDCOLLAPSEUNDERANYEXTERNALFORCEACTINGNORMALTOTHESURFACESHOWEVER,EXPERIENCESHOWSTHATSTABLELUBRICATINGfiLMSCANDEVELOPBETWEENPARALLELSLIDINGSURFACES,GENERALLYBECAUSEOFSOMEMECHANISMTHATRELAXESONEORMOREOFTHEASSUMPTIONSOFTHECLASSICALTHEORYASTABLEflUIDfiLMWITHSUffiCIENTLOADCARRYINGCAPACITYINPARALLELSLIDINGSURFACESCANBEOBTAINED,FOREXAMPLE,WITHMACROORMICROSURFACESTRUCTUREOFDIffERENTTYPESTHESEINCLUDEWAVINESS1ANDPROTRUDINGMICROASPERITIES2–4AGOODLITERATUREREVIEWONTHESUBJECTCANBEFOUNDINREF5MORERECENTLY,LASERSURFACETEXTURINGLST6–8,ASWELLASINLETROUGHENINGBYLONGITUDINALORTRANSVERSEGROOVES9WERESUGGESTEDTOPROVIDELOADCAPACITYINPARALLELSLIDINGTHEINLETROUGHNESSCONCEPTOFTONDER9ISBASEDON‘‘EffECTIVECLEARANCE’’REDUCTIONINTHESLIDINGDIRECTIONANDINTHISRESPECTITISIDENTICALTOTHEPARTIALLSTCONCEPTDESCRIBEDINREF10FORGENERATINGHYDROSTATICEffECTINHIGHPRESSUREMECHANICALSEALSVERYRECENTLYWANGETAL11DEMONSTRATEDEXPERIMENTALLYADOUBLINGOFTHELOADCARRYINGCAPACITYFORTHESURFACETEXTUREDESIGNBYREACTIVEIONETCHINGOFSICPARALLELTHRUSTBEARINGSSLIDINGINWATERTHESESIMPLEPARALLELTHRUSTBEARINGSAREUSUALLYFOUNDINSEALLESSPUMPSWHERETHEPUMPEDflUIDISUSEDASTHELUBRICANTFORTHEBEARINGSDUETOTHEPARALLELSLIDINGTHEIRPERFORMANCEISPOORERTHANMORESOPHISTICATEDTAPEREDORSTEPPEDBEARINGSBRIZMERETAL12DEMONSTRATEDTHEPOTENTIALOFLASERSURFACETEXTURINGINTHEFORMOFREGULARMICRODIMPLESFORPROVIDINGLOADCARRYINGCAPACITYWITHPARALLELTHRUSTBEARINGSAMODELOFATEXTUREDPARALLELSLIDERWASDEVELOPEDANDTHEEffECTOFSURFACETEXTURINGONLOADCARRYINGCAPACITYWASANALYZEDTHEOPTIMUMPARAMETERSOFTHEDIMPLESWEREFOUNDINORDERTOOBTAINMAXIMUMLOADCARRYINGCAPACITYAMICRODIMPLE‘‘COLLECTIVEEffECT’’WASIDENTIfiEDTHATISCAPABLEOFGENERATINGSUBSTANTIALLOADCARRYINGCAPACITY,APPROACHINGTHATOFOPTIMUMCONVENTIONALTHRUSTBEARINGSTHEPURPOSEOFTHEPRESENTPAPERISTOINVESTIGATEEXPERIMENTALLYTHEVALIDITYOFTHEMODELDESCRIBEDINREF12BYTESTINGPRACTICALTHRUSTBEARINGSANDCOMPARINGTHEPERFORMANCEOFLSTBEARINGSWITHTHATOFTHETHEORETICALPREDICTIONSANDWITHTHEPERFORMANCEOFSTANDARDNONTEXTUREDBEARINGS2BACKGROUNDACROSSSECTIONOFTHEBASICMODELTHATWASANALYZEDINREF12ISSHOWNINFIGURE1ASLIDERHAVINGAWIDTHBISPARTIALLYTEXTUREDOVERAPORTIONBPΑBOFITSWIDTHTHETEXTUREDSURFACECONSISTSOFMULTIPLEDIMPLESWITHADIAMETER,DEPTHANDAREADENSITYSPASARESULTOFTHEHYDRODYNAMICPRESSUREGENERATEDBYTHEDIMPLESTHESLIDINGSURFACESWILLBESEPARATEDBYACLEARANCEDEPENDINGONTHESLIDINGVELOCITYU,THEflUIDVISCOSITYLANDTHEEXTERNALLOADITWASFOUNDINREF12THATANOPTIMUMRATIOEXISTSFORTHEPARAMETERTHATPROVIDESMAXIMUMDIMENSIONLESSLOADCARRYINGCAPACITYWHERELISTHEBEARINGLENGTH,ANDTHISOPTIMUMVALUEISHP125ITWASFURTHERFOUNDINREF12THATANOPTIMUMVALUEEXISTSFORTHETEXTUREDPORTIONADEPENDINGONTHEBEARINGASPECTRATIOL/BTHISBEHAVIORISSHOWNINfiGURE2FORABEARINGWITHL/B075ATVARIOUSVALUESOFTHEAREADENSITYSPASCANBESEENINTHERANGEOFSPVALUESFROM018TO072THEOPTIMUMAVALUEVARIESFROM07TO055,RESPECTIVELYITCANALSOBESEENFROMfiGURE2THATFORA085NOOPTIMUMVALUEEXISTSFORSPANDTHEMAXIMUMLOADWINCREASESWITHINCREASINGSPHENCE,THELARGESTAREADENSITYTHATCANBEPRACTICALLYOBTAINEDWITHTHELASERTEXTURINGISDESIREDITISALSOINTERESTINGTONOTEFROMfiGURE2THEADVANTAGEOFPARTIALLSTA1OVERTHEFULLLSTA1FORBEARINGAPPLICATIONSATSP05,FOREXAMPLE,THELOADWATA06ISABOUTTHREETIMESHIGHERTHANITSVALUEATA1AFULLACCOUNTOFTHISBEHAVIORISGIVENINREF123EXPERIMENTALTHETESTEDBEARINGSCONSISTOFSINTEREDSICDISKS10MMTHICK,HAVING85MMOUTERDIAMETERAND40MMINNERDIAMETEREACHBEARINGSEEfiGURE3COMPRISESAflATROTORAANDASIXPADSTATORBTHEBEARINGSWEREPROVIDEDWITHANORIGINALSURFACEfiNISHBYLAPPINGTOAROUGHNESSAVERAGERA003LMEACHPADHASANASPECTRATIOOF075WHENITSWIDTHISMEASUREDALONGTHEMEANDIAMETEROFTHESTATORTHEPHOTOGRAPHSOFTWOPARTIALLSTSTATORSARESHOWNINfiGURE4WHERETHETEXTUREDAREASAPPEARASBRIGHTERMATTSURFACESTHEfiRSTSTATORINDICATEDAISAUNIDIRECTIONALBEARINGWITHTHEPARTIALLSTADJACENTTOTHELEADINGEDGEOFEACHPAD,SIMILARTOTHEMODELSHOWNINfiGURE1THESECONDSTATORBISABIDIRECTIONALVERSIONOFAPARTIALLSTBEARINGHAVINGTWOEQUALTEXTUREDPORTIONS,A/2,ONEACHOFTHEPADENDSTHELASERTEXTURINGPARAMETERSWERETHEFOLLOWING;DIMPLEDEPTH,DIMPLEDIAMETERANDDIMPLEAREADENSITYSP06003THESEDIMPLEDIMENSIONSWEREOBTAINEDWITH4PULSESOF30NSDURATIONAND4MJEACHUSINGA5KHZPULSATINGNDYAGLASERTHETEXTUREDPORTIONOFTHEUNIDIRECTIONALBEARINGWASA073ANDTHATOFTHEBIDIRECTIONALBEARINGWASA063ASCANBESEENFROMfiGURE2BOTHTHESEAVALUESSHOULDPRODUCELOADCARRYINGCAPACITYVARYCLOSETOTHEMAXIMUMTHEORETICALVALUETHETESTRIGISSHOWNSCHEMATICALLYINfiGURE5ANELECTRICALMOTORTURNSASPINDLETOWHICHANUPPERHOLDEROFTHEROTORISATTACHEDASECONDLOWERHOLDEROFTHESTATORISfiXEDTOAHOUSING,WHICHRESTSONAJOURNALBEARINGANDANAXIALLOADINGMECHANISMTHATCANFREELYMOVEINTHEAXIALDIRECTIONANARMTHATPRESSESAGAINSTALOADCELLANDTHEREBYPERMITSFRICTIONTORQUEMEASUREMENTSPREVENTSTHEFREEROTATIONOFTHISHOUSINGAXIALLOADINGISPROVIDEDBYMEANSOFDEADWEIGHTSONALEVERANDISMEASUREDWITHASECONDLOADCELLAPROXIMITYPROBETHATISATTACHEDTOTHELOWERHOLDEROFTHESTATORALLOWSONLINEMEASUREMENTSOFTHECLEARANCECHANGEBETWEENROTORANDSTATORASTHEHYDRODYNAMICEffECTSCAUSEAXIALMOVEMENTOFTHEHOUSINGTOWHICHTHESTATORHOLDERISfiXEDTAPWATERISSUPPLIEDBYGRAVITYFROMALARGETANKTOTHECENTEROFTHEBEARINGANDTHELEAKAGEFROMTHEBEARINGISCOLLECTEDANDRECIRCULATEDATHERMOCOUPLEADJACENTTOTHEOUTERDIAMETEROFTHEBEARINGALLOWSMONITORINGOFTHEWATERTEMPERATUREASTHEWATEREXITTHEBEARINGAPCISUSEDTOCOLLECTANDPROCESSDATAONLINEHENCE,THEINSTANTANEOUSCLEARANCE,FRICTIONCOEffiCIENT,BEARINGSPEEDANDEXITWATERTEMPERATURECANBEMONITOREDCONSTANTLYTHETESTPROTOCOLINCLUDESIDENTIFYINGAREFERENCE“ZERO”POINTFORTHECLEARANCEMEASUREMENTSBYfiRSTLOADINGANDTHENUNLOADINGASTATIONARYBEARINGOVERTHEFULLLOADRANGETHENTHELOWESTAXIALLOADISAPPLIED,THEWATERSUPPLYVALVEISOPENEDANDTHEMOTORTURNEDONAXIALLOADINGISINCREASEDBYSTEPSOF40NANDEACHLOADSTEPISMAINTAINEDFOR5MINFOLLOWINGTHESTABILIZATIONOFTHEFRICTIONCOEffiCIENTATASTEADYSTATEVALUETHEBEARINGSPEEDANDWATERTEMPERATUREAREMONITOREDTHROUGHOUTTHETESTFORANYIRREGULARITIESTHETESTENDSWHENAMAXIMUMAXIALLOADOF460NISREACHEDORIFTHEFRICTIONCOEffiCIENTEXCEEDSAVALUEOF035ATTHEENDOFTHELASTLOADSTEPTHEMOTORANDWATERSUPPLYARETURNEDOffANDTHEREFERENCEFORTHECLEARANCEMEASUREMENTSISRECHECKEDTESTSAREPERFORMEDATTWOSPEEDSOF1500AND3000RPMCORRESPONDINGTOAVERAGESLIDINGVELOCITIESOF49AND98M/S,RESPECTIVELYANDEACHTESTISREPEATEDATLEASTTHREETIMES4RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONASAfiRSTSTEPTHEVALIDITYOFTHETHEORETICALMODELINREF12WASEXAMINEDBYCOMPARINGTHETHEORETICALANDEXPERIMENTALRESULTSOFBEARINGCLEARANCEVERSUSBEARINGLOADFORAUNIDIRECTIONALPARTIALLSTBEARINGTHERESULTSARESHOWNINfiGURE6FORTHETWOSPEEDSOF1500AND3000RPMWHERETHESOLIDANDDASHEDLINESCORRESPONDTOTHEMODELANDEXPERIMENT,RESPECTIVELYASCANBESEEN,THEAGREEMENTBETWEENTHEMODELANDTHEEXPERIMENTISGOOD,WITHDIffERENCESOFLESSTHAN10,ASLONGASTHELOADISABOVE150NATLOWERLOADSTHEMEASUREDEXPERIMENTALCLEARANCESAREMUCHLARGERTHANTHEMODELPREDICTIONS,PARTICULARLYATTHEHIGHERSPEEDOF3000RPMWHEREAT120NTHEMEASUREDCLEARANCEIS20LM,WHICHISABOUT60HIGHERTHANTHEPREDICTEDVALUEITTURNSOUTTHATTHECOMBINATIONOFSUCHLARGECLEARANCESANDRELATIVELYLOWVISCOSITYOFTHEWATERMAYRESULTINTURBULENTflUIDfiLMHENCE,THEASSUMPTIONOFLAMINARflOWONWHICHTHESOLUTIONOFTHEREYNOLDSEQUATIONINREF12ISBASEDMAYBEVIOLATEDMAKINGTHEMODELINVALIDESPECIALLYATTHEHIGHERSPEEDANDLOWESTLOADINORDERTOBECONSISTENTWITHTHEMODELOFREF12ITWASDECIDEDTOLIMITFURTHERCOMPARISONSTOLOADSABOVE150N

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