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外文翻译--工业机器人及电动驱动系统.doc

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外文翻译--工业机器人及电动驱动系统.doc

附录1INDUSTRIALROBOTSANDELECTRICDRIVESYSTEMTHEREAREAVARIETYOFDEFINITIONSOFTHETERMROBOTDEPENDINGONTHEDEFINITIONUSED,THENUMBEROFROBOTINSTALLATIONSWORLDWIDEVARIESWIDELYNUMEROUSSINGLEPURPOSEMACHINESAREUSEDINMANUFACTURINGPLANTSTHATMIGHTAPPEARTOBEROBOTSTHESEMACHINESAREHARDWIREDTOPERFORMASINGLEFUNCTIONANDCANNOTBEREPROGRAMMEDTOPERFORMADIFFERENTFUNCTIONSUCHSINGLEPURPOSEMACHINESDONOTFITTHEDEFINITIONFORINDUSTRIALROBOTSTHATISBECOMINGWIDELYACCEPTEDTHISDEFINITIONWASDEVELOPEDBYTHEROBOTINSTITUTEOFAMERICAAROBOTISAREPROGRAMMABLEMULTIFUNCTIONALMANIPULATORDESIGNEDTOMOVEMATERIAL,PARTS,TOOLS,ORSPECIALIZEDDEVICESTHROUGHVARIABLEPROGRAMMEDMOTIONSFORTHEPERFORMANCEOFAVARIETYOFTASKSNOTETHATTHISDEFINITIONCONTAINSTHEWORDSREPROGRAMMABLEANDMULTIFUNCTIONALITISTHESETWOCHARACTERISTICSTHATSEPARATETHETRUEINDUSTRIALROBOTFROMTHEVARIOUSSINGLEPURPOSEMACHINESUSEDINMODERNMANUFACTURINGFIRMSTHETERM“REPROGRAMMABLE”IMPLIESTWOTHINGSTHEROBOTOPERATESACCOMMODATEAVARIETYOFMANUFACTURINGTASKSTHETERM“MULTIFUNCTIONAL”MEANSTHATTHEROBOTCAN,THROUGHREPROGRAMMINGANDTHEUSEOFDIFFERENTENDEFFECTORS,PERFORMANUMBEROFDIFFERENTMANUFACTURINGTASKSDEFINITIONSWRITTENAROUNDTHESETWOCRITICALCHARACTERISTICSAREBECOMINGTHEACCEPTEDDEFINITIONSAMONGMANUFACTURINGPROFESSIONALSTHEFIRSTARTICULATEDARMCAMEABOUTIN1951ANDWASUSEDBYTHEUSATOMICENERGYCOMMISSIONIN1954,THEFIRSTPROGRAMMABLEROBOTWASDESIGNEDBYGEORGEDEVILITWASBASEDONTWOIMPORTANTTECHNOLOGIESNUMERICALCONTROLNCTECHNOLOGYREMOTEMANIPULATORTECHNOLOGYNUMERICALCONTROLTECHNOLOGYPROVIDEDAFORMOFMACHINECONTROLIDEALLYSUITEDTOROBOTSITALLOWEDFORTHECONTROLOFMOTIONBYSTOREDPROGRAMSTHESEPROGRAMSCONTAINDATAPOINTSTOWHICHTHEROBOTSEQUENTIALLYMOVES,TIMINGSIGNALSTOINITIATEACTIONANDTOSTOPMOVEMENT,ANDLOGICSTATEMENTSTOALLOWFORDECISIONMAKINGREMOTEMANIPULATORTECHNOLOGYALLOWEDAMACHINETOBEMORETHANJUSTANOTHERNCMACHINEITALLOWEDSUCHMACHINESTOBECOMEROBOTSTHATCANPERFORMAVARIETYOFMANUFACTURINGTASKSINBOTHINACCESSIBLEANDUNSAFEENVIRONMENTSBYMERGINGTHESETWOTECHNOLOGIES,DEVILDEVELOPEDTHEFIRSTINDUSTRIALROBOT,ANUNSOPHISTICATEDPROGRAMMABLEMATERIALSHANDLINGMACHINETHEFIRSTCOMMERCIALLYPRODUCEDROBOTWASDEVELOPEDIN1959IN1962,THEFIRSTINDUSTRIALROBOTTOBEUSEDONAPRODUCTIONLINEWASINSTALLEDBYGENERALMOTORSCORPORATIONTHISROBOTWASPRODUCEDBYANIMATIONAMAJORSTEPFORWARDINROBOTCONTROLOCCURREDIN1973WITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHET3INDUSTRIALROBOTBYCINCINNATIMILACRONTHET3ROBOTWASTHEFIRSTCOMMERCIALLYPRODUCEDINDUSTRIALROBOTCONTROLLEDBYAMINICOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLANDREMOTEMANIPULATORTECHNOLOGYPROMPTEDTHEWIDESCALEDEVELOPMENTANDUSEOFINDUSTRIALROOTSBUTMAJORTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTSDONOTTAKEPLACESIMPLYBECAUSEOFSUCHNEWCAPABILITIESSOMETHINGMUSTPROVIDETHEIMPETUSFORTAKINGADVANTAGEOFTHESECAPABILITIESINTHECASEOFINDUSTRIALROBOTS,THEIMPETUSWASECONOMICSTHERAPIDINFLATIONOFWAGESEXPERIENCEDINTHE1970STREMENDOUSLYINCREASEDTHEPERSONNELCOSTSOFMANUFACTURINGFIRMSATTHESAMETIME,FOREIGNCOMPETITIONBECAMEASERIOUSPROBLEMFORUSMANUFACTURERSFOREIGNMANUFACTURERSWHOHADUNDERTAKENAUTOMATIONONAWIDESCALEBASIS,SUCHASTHOSEINJAPAN,BEGANTOGAINANINCREASINGLYLARGESHAREOFTHEUSANDWORLDMARKETFORMANUFACTUREDGOODS,PARTICULARLYAUTOMOBILESTHROUGHAVARIETYOFAUTOMATIONTECHNIQUES,INCLUDINGROBOTS,JAPANESEMANUFACTURERS,BEGINNINGINTHE1970S,WEREABLETOPRODUCEBETTERAUTOMOBILESMORECHEAPLYTHANNOAUTOMATEDUSMANUFACTURERSCONSEQUENTLY,INORDERTOSURVIVE,USMANUFACTURERSWEREFORCEDTOCONSIDERANYTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTSTHATCOULDHELPIMPROVEPRODUCTIVITYTHOUGHAVARIETYOFAUTOMATIONTECHNIQUES,INCLUDINGROBOTS,JAPANESEMANUFACTURERS,BEGINNINGINTHE1970S,WEREABLETOPRODUCEBETTERAUTOMOBILESMORECHEAPLYTHANNOAUTOMATEDUSMANUFACTURERSCONSEQUENTLY,INORDERTOSURVIVE,USMANUFACTURERSWEREFORCEDTOCONSIDERANYTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTSTHATCOULDHELPIMPROVEPRODUCTIVITYITBECAMEIMPERATIVETOPRODUCEBETTERPRODUCTSATLOWERCOSTSINORDERTOBECOMPETITIVEWITHFOREIGNMANUFACTURERSOTHERFACTORSSUCHASTHENEEDTOFINDBETTERWAYSOFPERFORMINGDANGEROUSMANUFACTURINGTASKSCONTRIBUTEDTOTHEDEVELOPMENTOFINDUSTRIALROBOTSHOWEVER,THEPRINCIPALRATIONALEHASALWAYSBEEN,ANDISSTILL,IMPROVEDPRODUCTIVITYONEOFTHEPRINCIPALADVANTAGESOFROBOTSISTHATTHEYCANBEUSEDINSETTINGSTHATAREDANGEROUSTOHUMANSWELDINGANDPARTINGAREEXAMPLESOFAPPLICATIONSWHEREROBOTSCANBEUSEDMORESAFELYTHANHUMANS,EVENTHOUGHROBOTSARECLOSELYASSOCIATEDWITHSAFETYINTHEWORKPLACE,THEYCAN,INTHEMSELVES,BEDANGEROUSROBOTSANDROBOTCELLSMUSTBECAREFULLYDESIGNEDANDCONFIGUREDSOTHATTHEYDONOTENDANGERHUMANWORKERSANDOTHERMACHINESROBOTWORKENVELOPESSHOULDBEACCURATELYCALCULATEDANDADANGERZONESURROUNDINGTHEENVELOPECLEARLYMARKEDOFFREDFLOORINGSTRIPSANDBARRIERSCANBEUSEDTOKEEPHUMANWORKERSOUTOFAROBOT’SWORKENVELOPEEVENWITHSUCHPRECAUTIONSITISSTILLAGOODIDEATOHAVEANAUTOMATICSHUTDOWNSYSTEMINSITUATIONSWHEREROBOTSAREUSEDSUCHASYSTEMSHOULDHAVETHECAPACITYTOSENSETHENEEDFORANAUTOMATICSHUTDOWNOFOPERATIONSFAULTTOLERANTCOMPUTERSANDREDUNDANTSYSTEMSCANBEINSTALLEDTOENSUREPROPERSHUTDOWNOFROBOTICSSYSTEMSTOENSUREASAFEENVIRONMENTTHEROBOTELECTRICALLYOPERATEDSERVODRIVESYSTEMSDSISUSESTHEMOMENTOFFORCEANDTHESTRENGTHWHICHEACHKINDOFELECTRICMOTORPRODUCES,DIRECTLYORINDIRECTLYACTUATESTHEROBOTMAINBODYTOOBTAINTHEROBOTEACHKINDOFMOVEMENTIMPLEMENTINGAGENCYTHEELECTRICMOTORACTUATESWHICHTOTHEINDUSTRYROBOTJOINT,THEREQUESTHASTHEMAXIMUMWORKRATEQUALITYCOMPAREDTOWITHTHETORQUEINERTIACOMPAREDTO,RISESUPTHEDYNAMICTORQUE,THEISLOWINERTIAANDBROADERALSOTHESMOOTHVELOCITYMODULATIONSCOPESPECIALLYHANDFINGERNAILSHOULDUSETHEVOLUME,THEQUALITYASFARASPOSSIBLESMALLELECTRICMOTORLIKETHEROBOTTERMINALEXECUTION,WHENINPARTICULARREQUESTSTHEFASTRESPONSE,THESERVOMOTORMUSTHAVEAHIGHERRELIABILITYANDTHESTABILITY,ANDHASTHEBIGGERMOMENTARYOVERLOADABILITYTHISISTHESERVOMOTORINTHEINDUSTRYROBOTTHEAPPLICATIONPRECONDITIONTHEROBOTACTUATESTHEELECTRICALMACHINERYTOTHEJOINTOVERRIDINGDEMANDTHEGAUGENATRIUMASFOLLOWS1RAPIDITYTHEELECTRICMOTORFROMOBTAINSTHECOMMANDSIGNALTOCOMPLETETHEACTIVESTATUSTIMEWHICHTHEINSTRUCTIONREQUESTSTOBESUPPOSEDTOBESHORTRESPONSECOMMANDSIGNALTIMESHORTER,THEELECTRICITYSERVOSYSTEMSENSITIVITYHIGHER,THEFASTRESPONSEPERFORMANCEISBETTER,GENERALLYISEXPLAINSTHESERVOMOTORFASTRESPONSEBYTHESERVOMOTORMECHANICALANDELECTRICALTIMECONSTANTSIZETHEPERFORMANCE2THESTARTINGMOMENTINERTIAISBIGGERTHANININTHEACTUATIONLOADSITUATION,REQUESTSTHEROBOTTHESERVOMOTORSTARTINGMOMENTINABIGWAY,THEROTATIONINERTIAISSMALL3THECONTROLCHARACTERISTICCONTINUITYANDTHESTRAIGHTLINE,ALONGWITHTHECONTROLSIGNALCHANGE,THEELECTRICMOTORROTATIONALSPEEDCANCONTINUOUSLYCHANGE,SOMETIMESALSONEEDSTHEROTATIONALSPEEDANDTHECONTROLSIGNALHASTHEDIRECTRATIOORAPPROXIMATELYHASTHEDIRECTRATIO4MODULATESVELOCITYTHESCOPETOBEWIDECANUSETO11,00010,000VELOCITYMODULATIONSCOPES5THEVOLUMESMALL,THEQUALITYSMALL,THEAXIALSIZEISSHORT6CANUNDERGOTHEHARSHMOVEMENTCONDITION,MAYCARRYONTHEEXTREMELYFREQUENTPROANDCONTOANDADDSANDSUBTRACTSTHEFASTMOVEMENT,ANDCANWITHSTANDTHEOVERLOADINTHESHORTTIMEINDUSTRYROBOTDIRECTMOTORDRIVEPRINCIPLELIKECHART1SHOWSTHEINDUSTRYROBOTELECTRICALLYOPERATEDSERVOSYSTEMGENERALSTRUCTUREISTHREECLOSEDLOOPSCONTROL,NAMELYELECTRICCURRENTLINK,SPEEDRINGANDSNAPRINGATPRESENTTHEOVERSEASMANYELECTRICMOTORSPRODUCETHEFACTORYTODEVELOPTHEACTUATIONPRODUCTWHICHSUITABLYMATCHESWITHTHEEXCHANGESERVOMOTOR,THEUSERACTACCORDINGTOONESELFNEEDTHEFUNCTIONSTRESSTOCHOOSETHEDIFFERENTSERVOCONTROLWAYDIFFERENTLY,INTHEORDINARYCIRCUMSTANCES,EXCHANGESTHESERVODRIVERBELOW,PASSABLEHASCARRIEDONTHEARTIFICIALHYPOTHESISTOITSINTERNALFUNCTIONPARAMETERTOREALIZETHEFUNCTION1POSITIONCONTROLWAY;2SPEEDCONTROLWAY;3TORQUECONTROLMODE;4POSITION,SPEEDMIXEDMODE;5POSITION,TORQUEMIXEDMODE;6SPEED,TORQUEMIXEDMODE;7TORQUELIMITATION;8THEPOSITIONDEVIATIONOVERSIZEDREPORTSTOTHEPOLICE;9SPEEDPIDPARAMETERESTABLISHMENT;10SPEEDANDACCELERATIONFORWARDFEEDPARAMETERESTABLISHMENT;11ZEROFLOATSCOMPENSATESTHEPARAMETERESTABLISHMENT;12ADDSANDSUBTRACTSTHEFASTTIMEESTABLISHMENTANDSOON1DIRECTCURRENTSERVOMOTORDRIVERDIRECTCURRENTSERVOMOTORDRIVERTOUSETHEPULSEDURATIONMODULATIONPWMTHESERVODRIVER,CHANGESTHROUGHTHECHANGEPULSEWIDTHADDSINTHEMOTORARMATUREBEGINNINGSANDENDSAVERAGEVOLTAGE,THUSCHANGESTHEELECTRICMOTORTHEROTATIONALSPEEDTHEPWMSERVODRIVERHASTHEVELOCITYMODULATIONSCOPEWIDTH,THELOWSPEEDCHARACTERISTICWELL,RESPONDS,THEEFFICIENCYQUICKLYHIGH,THEOVERLOADCAPACITYISSTRONGANDSOONTHECHARACTERISTIC,OFTENTAKESTHEDIRECTCURRENTSERVOMOTORDRIVERINTHEINDUSTRYROBOT2SYNCHRONIZEDTYPESEXCHANGESERVOMOTORDRIVERSAMEDIRECTCURRENTSERVOMOTORACTUATESTHESYSTEMTOCOMPARE,THESYNCHRONIZEDTYPEEXCHANGESERVOMOTORDRIVERHASTHETORQUEROTATIONINERTIAELECTRONICSBRUSHANDCOMMUTATIONSPARKMERITANDSOONTOBEHIGHERTHAN,NOTTOHAVE,OBTAINSTHEWIDESPREADAPPLICATIONINTHEINDUSTRYROBOTTHESYNCHRONIZEDTYPEEXCHANGESERVOMOTORDRIVERUSUALLYUSESTHEELECTRICITYFLOWPATTERNPULSEDURATIONMODULATIONPWMTHEINVERSIONANDHASTHEELECTRICCURRENTLINKFORTHEINNERRIM,THESPEEDRINGFORTHEOUTERRINGMULTICLOSEDLOOPCONTROLSYSTEM,REALIZESTOTHETHREEPHASEPERMANENTMAGNETISMSYNCHRONIZATIONSERVOMOTORELECTRICCURRENTCONTROLACCORDINGTOITSPRINCIPLEOFWORK,THEACTUATIONCURRENTWAVEFORMANDTHECONTROLMODEDIFFERENCE,ITMAYDIVIDEINTOTWOKINDOFSERVOSYSTEMS1RECTANGULARWAVEELECTRICCURRENTACTUATIONPERMANENTMAGNETISMACSERVOMECHANISM2SINUSOIDALCURRENTACTUATIONPERMANENTMAGNETISMACSERVOMECHANISMUSESTHERECTANGULARWAVEELECTRICCURRENTACTUATIONTHEPERMANENTMAGNETISMEXCHANGESERVOMOTORTOBECALLEDNOTBRUSHESTHEDIRECTCURRENTSERVOMOTOR,USESHESINUSOIDALCURRENTACTUATIONTHEPERMANENTMAGNETISMEXCHANGESERVOMOTORTOBECALLEDNOTBRUSHESTHEEXCHANGESERVOMOTOR3DIRECTDRIVESSOCALLEDDIRECTDRIVESDDTHESYSTEM,ISTHELOADCONDUCTIVECOUPLINGWHICHTHEELECTRICMOTORIFACTUATESINTHESAMEPLACE,MIDDLEDOESNOTHAVEANYREDUCTIONGEARTHESAMETRADITIONALELECTRICMOTORSERVOACTUATESTOCOMPARE,THEDDACTUATIONREDUCEDTHEREDUCTIONGEAR,THUSREDUCEDTHEGAPWHICHINTHESYSTEMTRANSMISSIONPROCESSTHEREDUCTIONGEARPRODUCESANDBECOMESLESSCROWDED,ENORMOUSLYINCREASEDTHEROBOTPRECISION,SIMULTANEOUSLYALSOREDUCEDBECAUSETHEREDUCTIONGEARFRICTIONANDTHETRANSMISSIONTORQUEPULSATIONCREATESTHEROBOTCONTROLPRECISIONREDUCESBUTDDACTUATIONBECAUSEHASABOVEMERIT,THEREFOREMECHANICALRIGIDITYGOOD,MAYTHEHIGHSPEEDHIGHACCURACYMOVEMENT,ALSOHASTHEPARTFEW,THESTRUCTURESIMPLE,ISEASYTOSERVICE,THERELIABLEHIGHERCHARACTERISTIC,INTHEHIGHACCURACY,INTHEHIGHSPEEDINDUSTRYROBOTAPPLICATIONMOREANDMOREBRINGSTOPEOPLESATTENTIONASTHEDDACTUATIONTECHNOLOGYESSENTIALLINKISTHEDDELECTRICMOTORANDITSTHEDRIVERBELOWITSHOU

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