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外文翻译--市场分化.doc

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外文翻译--市场分化.doc

中英文翻译1.MarketFragmentation1Marketsofallkindsarefragmentingatwhatseemslikeanacceleratingpace.Magazines,beer,softdrinks,andsnackfoodsradiostationsandcableTVchannelsaudioandVideoequipmentcameras,faxmachinesandcopiers,printers,andscannersappliances,clothing,andfinancial,shopping,andbusinessservicesallcomeinabewilderingarray.Thesanebanking,credit,andinvestmentservicesmaybepriceddifferentlydependingonage,credit,history,numberofaccounts,levelofaccountactivity,orsizeofbalance.2Companiesaresneakerizingtheirproducts,transformingthemfromrelativelylowpricedcommoditiestorelativelyhighpricedspecialtyitems.Sneakersusedtobegeneralpurpose,inexpensivemassmarketcommodities.Butsneakersare,astheysay,historyandthuscandidatesforresurrectionashigherpriced,nostalgiaproductsinanichemarketSneakershavebeenreplacedbysportshoes–specialpurpose,expensive,occupyingnichemarketsandyetproducedinlargevolume.Supportedbyaggressiveandboleadvertisingappealingtotheemotions,whathadbeenaninexpensive,practical,lowmargincommodityhasbeentransformedintoaspecialtyproduct,associatedwithimageandproducedinlargevolumefornumerousnichemarkets,thesellingpricedeterminedbytheextenttowhichtheindividualcustomerfeelsenrichedbythepurchase.Becausemanufacturingandinformationtechnologiesaremakingitpossibletodiversifybothproductsandservicesatlittleadditionalcostovermassproduction,theprofitabilityofcustomerenrichmentpricingstrategiescanbeveryhighforawhile.Atthesametime,however,andforthesamereasons,imitationofhighlysuccessfulproductsandservicesisinevitable,becausethetechnologiesfordesigning,producing,anddeliveringgoodsandservicesarealmostuniversallyavailable,Andwiththeimitationcomesgreatdownwardpressureonpricesandprofitspreciselybecauseofthewidegapbetweenproductioncostsandsellingprice.WhenMotorolasMicroTaccellulartelephonewasintroducedin1989,itcarriedaretailpricedof2500.Inmid1994itwasreadilyavailableforlittlemorethan100,andcellulartelephonecompaniesfrequentlyoffereditfreetomewsubscribers,reflectingashiftvaluefromphysicalproductstoservices.Thelessonisclear.Intheemergingagilecompetitiveenvironment,sustainedsuccessgoestocompaniesthatarecapableofcontinuallyaddingnewvaluetoexistingproductsandservices,aswellascreatingasteadystreamofmewones.3Companiesaresegmentingmarketsaccordingtofunction,exploitingeconomiesofscopemadepossibleprimarilybythegeneralizabilityofmicroelectronicstechnologies.Inasense,theextraordinaryrangeofcomputerchipbasedconsumer,commercial,andindustrialproductsisanexpressionofthepackagabilityofthistechnology.Increasingly,workstations,desktopcomputers,portables,laptops,andnotebookandsubnotebookevenpalmcomputersutilizenotonlythesameunderlyingtechnologybuttheverysameprocessingchips,forexample,theIntel386,486andPentiumCPUs,andthepowerPCchipscreatedyointlybyIBM,Motorola,andApple.Pagersandbeepershaveevolvedintoabroadrangeoflightweight,wirelesspersonalcommunicationdeviceswithconstantlyexpandingcomputingandinformationexchangeanddisplaycapabilities,rangingfromsendingandreceivingfaxestouploadinganddownloadingdataremotelytoandfromonlinedataservicesthatliterallyspantheglobe.2.ProductiontoOrderinArbitraryLotSizesItisalreadypossibleforeachofthemanyproductsmadeonahighvolumeproductionlinetobemadedifferentlyfromeachoftheotherswithlittleornoincreaseinproductioncosts.Thiscapability,whichresultedfromthecollapseoftraditionalinformationcosts,hasrevolutionarymarketingconsequences.Individualizedproductionincreasescompetitioninexistingmarkets,opensnewmarketsandcreatescompetitiveasclosetomassproductionpricesasacompanychoosestopricethem.Inaddition,moreandmorecompaniesarediscoveringthattheycanproducecustomerconfiguredproductstoorderinsteadoftoforecast.Doingsogeneratesbenefitsfarbeyondsavingsfromtheeliminationofinventories.Theknowledge,aseveryproductismade,thatithasalreadybeensoleto,andthusisbeingmadefor,aparticularcustomercanhaveadramaticimpactoncompanyoperations.Itcertainlytransformsthenatureofsales,frompushinginventorytopullingproduction.Finally,productionequipmentinnovationscontinuetoprovidegreaterandgreaterfunctionalityatsmallerscalesandatsignificantlylowercosts.Forlargeandmediumsizebusinesses,thisdevelopmentmakesiteasierandmorecosteffectivetotargetnichemarkets,producinggoodsandservicesefficientlyforsmallerclustersofcustomers.Atthesametime,itisalsocausingademocratizationofproductionopportunitiesbymakingentryintonichemarketsforlowvolume,individualizedproductsaccessibletobusinessesofallsizes.Justafewillustrationsofthisdemocratizationaredesktoppublishinghardwareandsoftwaredigitalvideo,audio,andaudiovideostudioqualityproductionequipmentprintcopying,graphics,anddigitalimagereproductionandmanipulationservices,informationsearchingandpackagingservices,electronicmusicplayingandrecordingwithincreasinglysophisticatedsynthesizer,ovensthatmakeminibakeryandminirestaurantoperationspracticalasbothstandalonebusinessesandwithinlargerenterprise,forexample,departmentstoresandsupermarkets.Traditionally,economicorderquantityEOQcalculationsdeterminedthesmallestlotsizethatcouldbeprofitablyproduced.Thesecalculationsinvolveamixoftechnologydependentvariablesandaccountingandfinancialmetricsinwhichassignmentoflabor,materials,andsetupcostsplaysamajorrole.Inacompetitiveenvironmentcharacterizedbypricingbasedoncustomerenrichment,anddrivenbyademandforcustomizableproductsthatincreasingnumbersofcompaniesarealreadycapableofsatisfying,theconceptofEOQneedstobereexamined.Withthespreadofindividualizableproductionequipment,theEOQshouldbewhateverthecustomerwantstheimportantfigurebecomestheratioofproductionleadtimetocustomertolerancetime.Iftheratioislessthan1,acompanycanproducetoorderifitisgreaterthan1,acompanycanonlybuildtoforecastwhilereducingitsproductionleadtimetobelowitscustomerstolerancetimeifitwantstokeepitscustomersTheabilitytoproducetoorderinarbitrarylotsizesmayormaynotbeafunctionoftheuseofadvancedtechnologies.AtitsSt.Louisaircraftmanufacturingfacility,McDonnellDouglasreduceditsEOQbylinkingits100individualcomputernumericalcontrolCNCmachinetoolcellstoasingleproductionschedulingcomputerinordertoactivatedirectnumericalcontrolDNCofmachiningoperations.MotorolasBoyntonBeach,Florida,plantservesasanevolvingtestbedrecentlyconvertedtoasecondgenerationofproduction

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