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外文翻译--市场分化.doc

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外文翻译--市场分化.doc

中英文翻译1MARKETFRAGMENTATION1MARKETSOFALLKINDSAREFRAGMENTINGATWHATSEEMSLIKEANACCELERATINGPACEMAGAZINES,BEER,SOFTDRINKS,ANDSNACKFOODS;RADIOSTATIONSANDCABLETVCHANNELS;AUDIOANDVIDEOEQUIPMENT;CAMERAS,FAXMACHINESANDCOPIERS,PRINTERS,ANDSCANNERS;APPLIANCES,CLOTHING,ANDFINANCIAL,SHOPPING,ANDBUSINESSSERVICESALLCOMEINABEWILDERINGARRAYTHESANEBANKING,CREDIT,ANDINVESTMENTSERVICESMAYBEPRICEDDIFFERENTLYDEPENDINGONAGE,CREDIT,HISTORY,NUMBEROFACCOUNTS,LEVELOFACCOUNTACTIVITY,ORSIZEOFBALANCE2COMPANIESARE“SNEAKERIZING”THEIRPRODUCTS,TRANSFORMINGTHEMFROMRELATIVELYLOWPRICEDCOMMODITIESTORELATIVELYHIGHPRICEDSPECIALTYITEMSSNEAKERSUSEDTOBEGENERALPURPOSE,INEXPENSIVEMASSMARKETCOMMODITIESBUTSNEAKERSARE,ASTHEYSAY,HISTORYANDTHUSCANDIDATESFORRESURRECTIONASHIGHERPRICED,NOSTALGIAPRODUCTSINANICHEMARKETSNEAKERSHAVEBEENREPLACEDBY“SPORTSHOES”–SPECIALPURPOSE,EXPENSIVE,OCCUPYINGNICHEMARKETSANDYETPRODUCEDINLARGEVOLUMESUPPORTEDBYAGGRESSIVEANDBOLEADVERTISINGAPPEALINGTOTHEEMOTIONS,WHATHADBEENANINEXPENSIVE,PRACTICAL,LOWMARGINCOMMODITYHASBEENTRANSFORMEDINTOASPECIALTYPRODUCT,ASSOCIATEDWITH“IMAGE”ANDPRODUCEDINLARGEVOLUMEFORNUMEROUSNICHEMARKETS,THESELLINGPRICEDETERMINEDBYTHEEXTENTTOWHICHTHEINDIVIDUALCUSTOMERFEELSENRICHEDBYTHEPURCHASEBECAUSEMANUFACTURINGANDINFORMATIONTECHNOLOGIESAREMAKINGITPOSSIBLETODIVERSIFYBOTHPRODUCTSANDSERVICESATLITTLEADDITIONALCOSTOVERMASSPRODUCTION,THEPROFITABILITYOFCUSTOMERENRICHMENTPRICINGSTRATEGIESCANBEVERYHIGHFORAWHILEATTHESAMETIME,HOWEVER,ANDFORTHESAMEREASONS,IMITATIONOFHIGHLYSUCCESSFULPRODUCTSANDSERVICESISINEVITABLE,BECAUSETHETECHNOLOGIESFORDESIGNING,PRODUCING,ANDDELIVERINGGOODSANDSERVICESAREALMOSTUNIVERSALLYAVAILABLE,ANDWITHTHEIMITATIONCOMESGREATDOWNWARDPRESSUREONPRICESANDPROFITSPRECISELYBECAUSEOFTHEWIDEGAPBETWEENPRODUCTIONCOSTSANDSELLINGPRICEWHENMOTOROLA’SMICROTACCELLULARTELEPHONEWASINTRODUCEDIN1989,ITCARRIEDARETAILPRICEDOF2500INMID1994ITWASREADILYAVAILABLEFORLITTLEMORETHAN100,ANDCELLULARTELEPHONECOMPANIESFREQUENTLYOFFEREDITFREETOMEWSUBSCRIBERS,REFLECTINGASHIFTVALUEFROMPHYSICALPRODUCTSTOSERVICESTHELESSONISCLEARINTHEEMERGINGAGILECOMPETITIVEENVIRONMENT,SUSTAINEDSUCCESSGOESTOCOMPANIESTHATARECAPABLEOFCONTINUALLYADDINGNEWVALUETOEXISTINGPRODUCTSANDSERVICES,ASWELLASCREATINGASTEADYSTREAMOFMEWONES3COMPANIESARESEGMENTINGMARKETSACCORDINGTOFUNCTION,EXPLOITINGECONOMIESOFSCOPEMADEPOSSIBLEPRIMARILYBYTHEGENERALIZABILITYOFMICROELECTRONICSTECHNOLOGIESINASENSE,THEEXTRAORDINARYRANGEOFCOMPUTERCHIPBASEDCONSUMER,COMMERCIAL,ANDINDUSTRIALPRODUCTSISANEXPRESSIONOFTHEPACKAGABILITYOFTHISTECHNOLOGYINCREASINGLY,WORKSTATIONS,DESKTOPCOMPUTERS,PORTABLES,LAPTOPS,ANDNOTEBOOKANDSUBNOTEBOOKEVEN“PALM”COMPUTERSUTILIZENOTONLYTHESAMEUNDERLYINGTECHNOLOGYBUTTHEVERYSAMEPROCESSINGCHIPS,FOREXAMPLE,THEINTEL386,486ANDPENTIUMCPUS,ANDTHEPOWERPCCHIPSCREATEDYOINTLYBYIBM,MOTOROLA,ANDAPPLEPAGERSANDBEEPERSHAVEEVOLVEDINTOABROADRANGEOFLIGHTWEIGHT,WIRELESSPERSONALCOMMUNICATIONDEVICESWITHCONSTANTLYEXPANDINGCOMPUTINGANDINFORMATIONEXCHANGEANDDISPLAYCAPABILITIES,RANGINGFROMSENDINGANDRECEIVINGFAXESTOUPLOADINGANDDOWNLOADINGDATAREMOTELYTOANDFROMONLINEDATASERVICESTHATLITERALLYSPANTHEGLOBE2PRODUCTIONTOORDERINARBITRARYLOTSIZESITISALREADYPOSSIBLEFOREACHOFTHEMANYPRODUCTSMADEONAHIGHVOLUMEPRODUCTIONLINETOBEMADEDIFFERENTLYFROMEACHOFTHEOTHERSWITHLITTLEORNOINCREASEINPRODUCTIONCOSTSTHISCAPABILITY,WHICHRESULTEDFROMTHECOLLAPSEOFTRADITIONALINFORMATIONCOSTS,HASREVOLUTIONARYMARKETINGCONSEQUENCESINDIVIDUALIZEDPRODUCTIONINCREASESCOMPETITIONINEXISTINGMARKETS,OPENSNEWMARKETSANDCREATESCOMPETITIVEASCLOSETOMASSPRODUCTIONPRICESASACOMPANYCHOOSESTOPRICETHEMINADDITION,MOREANDMORECOMPANIESAREDISCOVERINGTHATTHEYCANPRODUCECUSTOMERCONFIGUREDPRODUCTSTOORDERINSTEADOFTOFORECASTDOINGSOGENERATESBENEFITSFARBEYONDSAVINGSFROMTHEELIMINATIONOFINVENTORIESTHEKNOWLEDGE,ASEVERYPRODUCTISMADE,THATITHASALREADYBEENSOLETO,ANDTHUSISBEINGMADEFOR,APARTICULARCUSTOMERCANHAVEADRAMATICIMPACTONCOMPANYOPERATIONSITCERTAINLYTRANSFORMSTHENATUREOFSALES,FROMPUSHINGINVENTORYTOPULLINGPRODUCTIONFINALLY,PRODUCTIONEQUIPMENTINNOVATIONSCONTINUETOPROVIDEGREATERANDGREATERFUNCTIONALITYATSMALLERSCALESANDATSIGNIFICANTLYLOWERCOSTSFORLARGEANDMEDIUMSIZEBUSINESSES,THISDEVELOPMENTMAKESITEASIERANDMORECOSTEFFECTIVETOTARGETNICHEMARKETS,PRODUCINGGOODSANDSERVICESEFFICIENTLYFORSMALLERCLUSTERSOFCUSTOMERSATTHESAMETIME,ITISALSOCAUSINGA“DEMOCRATIZATION”OFPRODUCTIONOPPORTUNITIESBYMAKINGENTRYINTONICHEMARKETSFORLOWVOLUME,INDIVIDUALIZEDPRODUCTSACCESSIBLETOBUSINESSESOFALLSIZESJUSTAFEWILLUSTRATIONSOFTHISDEMOCRATIZATIONAREDESKTOPPUBLISHINGHARDWAREANDSOFTWARE;DIGITALVIDEO,AUDIO,ANDAUDIOVIDEOSTUDIOQUALITYPRODUCTION;EQUIPMENT;PRINTCOPYING,GRAPHICS,ANDDIGITALIMAGEREPRODUCTIONANDMANIPULATIONSERVICES,INFORMATIONSEARCHINGANDPACKAGINGSERVICES,ELECTRONICMUSICPLAYINGANDRECORDINGWITHINCREASINGLYSOPHISTICATEDSYNTHESIZER,OVENSTHATMAKEMINIBAKERYANDMINIRESTAURANTOPERATIONSPRACTICALASBOTHSTANDALONEBUSINESSESANDWITHINLARGERENTERPRISE,FOREXAMPLE,DEPARTMENTSTORESANDSUPERMARKETSTRADITIONALLY,ECONOMICORDERQUANTITYEOQCALCULATIONSDETERMINEDTHESMALLESTLOTSIZETHATCOULDBEPROFITABLYPRODUCEDTHESECALCULATIONSINVOLVEAMIXOFTECHNOLOGYDEPENDENTVARIABLESANDACCOUNTINGANDFINANCIALMETRICSINWHICHASSIGNMENTOFLABOR,MATERIALS,ANDSETUPCOSTSPLAYSAMAJORROLEINACOMPETITIVEENVIRONMENTCHARACTERIZEDBYPRICINGBASEDONCUSTOMERENRICHMENT,ANDDRIVENBYADEMANDFORCUSTOMIZABLEPRODUCTSTHATINCREASINGNUMBERSOFCOMPANIESAREALREADYCAPABLEOFSATISFYING,THECONCEPTOFEOQNEEDSTOBEREEXAMINEDWITHTHESPREADOFINDIVIDUALIZABLEPRODUCTIONEQUIPMENT,THEEOQSHOULDBEWHATEVERTHECUSTOMERWANTSTHEIMPORTANTFIGUREBECOMESTHERATIOOFPRODUCTIONLEADTIMETOCUSTOMERTOLERANCETIMEIFTHERATIOISLESSTHAN1,ACOMPANYCANPRODUCETOORDER;IFITISGREATERTHAN1,ACOMPANYCANONLYBUILDTOFORECASTWHILEREDUCINGITSPRODUCTIONLEADTIMETOBELOWITSCUSTOMERS’TOLERANCETIMEIFITWANTSTOKEEPITSCUSTOMERSTHEABILITYTOPRODUCETOORDERINARBITRARYLOTSIZESMAYORMAYNOTBEAFUNCTIONOFTHEUSEOFADVANCEDTECHNOLOGIESATITSSTLOUISAIRCRAFTMANUFACTURINGFACILITY,MCDONNELLDOUGLASREDUCEDITSEOQBYLINKINGITS100INDIVIDUALCOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLCNCMACHINETOOLCELLSTOASINGLEPRODUCTIONSCHEDULINGCOMPUTERINORDERTOACTIVATEDIRECTNUMERICALCONTROLDNCOFMACHININGOPERATIONSMOTOROLA’SBOYNTONBEACH,FLORIDA,PLANTSERVESASANEVOLVINGTESTBEDRECENTLYCONVERTEDTOASECONDGENERATIONOFPRODUCTION

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