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外文翻译--并联机器人及其远程操作.doc

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外文翻译--并联机器人及其远程操作.doc

AparallelroboticattachmentanditsremotemanipulationLihuiWanga,,FengfengXib,DanZhangcaIntegratedManufacturingTechnologiesInstitute,NationalResearchCouncilofCanada,800CollipCircle,London,OntarioN6G4X8,CanadabDepartmentofAerospaceEngineering,RyersonUniversity,Toronto,OntarioM5B2K3,CanadacFacultyofEngineeringandAppliedScience,UniversityofOntarioInstituteofTechnology,Oshawa,OntarioL1H7K4,CanadaReceived7October2005accepted25November2005AbstractThispaperdiscussesa3dofdegreeoffreedomparallelroboticattachmentanditsremotemanipulation.Thisattachmentisdesignedasatripodthatprovidestworotarymotionsandonelinearmotion.Theattachmentcanbemountedontoavarietyofmachinesfordifferentapplications,includingCNCmillingmachines,industrialrobots,andCMM.Javatechnologiesareusedtodeveloparemotemanipulationsystemfortheparallelroboticattachment,includingremotemonitoringandcontrol.Themaindifferenceofthissystemfromtheexistingwebbasedorinternetbasedremotesystemsisthewaytocontrolthemotionofthemachinefromaremotesite.Insteadofusingacameraformonitoring,thetripodismodeledusing3Dcomputergraphicswithbehavioralcontrolnodesembedded.Comparedwithcamerabasedsolutions,networktrafficislargelyreduced,therebymakingrealtimeremotedevicemanipulationpracticalontheweb.OurparallelroboticattachmentisonetypeofparallelkinematicmechanismsPKM.WithPKMemergingasanewwayofbuildingflexiblesystemsoragilemachines,itsadvantageoverserialmechanismisalsopresented.ⓒ2006ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsParallelkinematicmachinesStiffnessmappingInversekinematicsRemoterealtimemanipulation1.IntroductionParallelkinematicmechanismshavesignificantadvantagesoverserialmechanisms.Inparticular,theypossessreducedmovingmassandhigherstiffness.Thus,parallelmechanismscanworkathighervelocities,andyetmaintainsufficientrigiditytodeliverhighlevelsofaccuracy.ThisresearchrepresentsourcontinuouseffortsofPKMdesign,analysisandcontrol.Parallelmechanismsgenerallycomprisetwoplatformsthatareconnectedbyjointsorlegsactinginparallel1.Overthepastdecades,parallelmechanismshavereceivedmuchattentionfromresearchersandindustrialpractitioners.Theycanbefoundinseveralpracticalapplications,includingaircraftsimulators2,positiontracker3,telescopes4,andmicromotiondevice5.Morerecently,theyhavebeenusedinthedevelopmentofhighprecisionmachinetools68bymanycompaniessuchasGiddingsLewis,Ingersoll,Hexel,GeodeticandToyoda.Amongothers,hexapodmachinetoolsareonetypeofthesuccessfulapplications.Withthegrowingmanufacturingdecentralization,designandfabricationfunctionsofmostoriginalequipmentmanufacturersOEMhavebeendistributedgeographically.Followingthetrend,manufacturingoperationshavebeenshiftedrapidlyfromintracorporationtoglobalnetworks.Howtokeepallactivitiesundercontrolisachallengingissue.Insuchadistributedenvironment,controllabilityandpredictabilityoffactoryoperationsaretwoessentialrequirementsforwebbasedcollaborativemanufacturing.Inthispaper,thischallengeisaddressedthroughaparallelroboticattachmentbyapplyingthelatestWebandJavatechnologies.Since1993shortlyafteritsdebut,theWebhasgainedawideacceptancefordevelopingbusinessapplications.Ithasbeenwidelyusedbymanyasamediumtoshareinformation,knowledgeandbusinessdecisions911.Duetothedecentralizationoftodaysmanufacturing,webbasedsolutionshavebecomethenormfordistributedcollaborativemanufacturingbecauseoftheirplatform,networknormfordistributedcollaborativemanufacturingbecauseoftheirplatform,networkandoperatingsystemtransparency,andtheireasytouseuserinterfacethewebbrowser.InadditiontotheWeb,Javatechnologyhasbroughtaboutafundamentalchangeinthewaythatapplicationsaredesignedanddeployed.WithJava,thebrowserparadigmhasemergedasacompellingwaytoproducemanufacturingapplicationsovertheInternet.Inthispaper,weintroduceaJavabasedmonitoringandcontrolapproachthatdemonstratesagreatpotentialtosupportdispersedengineersinacollaborativeenvironment.PoweredbyJavaswriteonce,runanywhereconcept,ourJavabasedapproachcanlargelyreducethecomplexityandcosttraditionallyassociatedwithsoftwaredevelopmentonmultipledistincthardwareplatforms.Aparallelroboticattachmentisintroducedasatestingdeviceforsystemvalidation.This3dofdegreesoffreedomattachmentcanbecombinedwithmillingmachines,industrialrobots,orcoordinatemeasuringmachinesCMMtoprovidefinetuningforCorrespondingauthor.Tel.15194307084fax15194307090.Emailaddresslihui.wangnrc.gc.caL.Wang.07365845/seefrontmatterⓒ2006ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.rcim.2005.11.012motioncontrol.ThispaperreportsonnewRDfindingsandisarrangedasfollows.TheprinciplesoftheJavabasedmonitoringandcontrolapproacharepresentedinSection2.ThemechanismandkinematicsofaparallelroboticattachmentatripodarerevealedinSection3.Forthepurposeofsystemvalidation,theparalleltripodisattachedtoagantrysystemforlightpolishing.ItisusedasacasestudyinSection4todemonstratetheJavabasedmonitoringandcontrol.Finally,conclusionsandfutureworkaresummarizedinSection5.2.Javabasedmonitoringandcontrol2.1.ConceptandapproachTraditionally,remotemonitoringandcontrolsolutionshavebeenfollowingtwoapproachessignalsonlyorbundledwithcamerasforvisualization.WiththeemergenceoftheInternetandWeb,moreandmorecompaniesareseekingcompellingwaysforwebbasedsolutions.AlthoughacamerabasedmonitoringandcontrolsystemcanbeportedtotheInternetasawebbasedapplication,thebandwidthconservationofanetworkpreventsitfrombeingpracticalasarealtimesolution.Targetingtheproblem,weproposeaJavabasedapproachtocombiningsensordatawithcomputergraphics.ItutilizesthelatestJavatechnologiesincludingJava3DandJavaServletforsystemimplementation,andallowsclientstomonitorandcontroladistantdevicewithvisualhelpsenabledbyaJava3Dmodel.The3Dmodelisareplicaofthephysicaldevicebeingrenderedoffsiteforvisualization,anditsbehaviorisdrivendirectlybyrealtimesensorsignalsofitsphysicalcounterpart.Oncedownloadedfromanapplicationserver,the3Dmodelworksonbehalfofitscounterpartataclientside,butremainsalivebyconnectingwiththephysicaldevicethroughlowvolumesensordatapassing.Inotherwords,thehybridsolutionsformeetinguserrequirementsdemandingrichdatasharingandtherealtimeconstraintsovertheInternetare1usinginteractivescenegraphbasedJava3Dmodelsinsteadofbandwidthconsumingcameraimagesforboffsitevisualization2transmittingonlythesensordataandcontrolcommandsbetweenmodelsanddeviceControllersformonitoringandcontrol3providingclientswithaplatformtransparentgraphicaluserinterfacefornavigationand4deployingmajorcontrollogicsinasecureapplicationserverforpropertyprotection.Thegoalistosignificantlyreducenetworktraffic,whilestillprovidingenduserswithanintuitiveenvironment.IthencemakesrealtimemonitoringandcontrolpracticalovertheInternetforusersonrelativelyslowhookups.ThisJavabasedmonitoringandcontrolapproachissupportedbyaWiseShopFloorframework12,andshownasmodulesinthegreyboxesinFig.1.Withintheframework,themidtierapplicationserverhandlesmajorsecurityconcerns,suchassessioncontrol,userregistration,sensordatacollection/distribution,andrealdevicemanipulation.AcentralSessionManagerisdesignedtolookaftertheissuesofuserauthentication,sessioncontrol,sessionsynchronization,andsensitivedatalogging.AllinitialtransactionsneedtopassthroughtheSessionManagerforaccessauthorization.Asaserversidemodule,theSignalCollectorisresponsibleforsensordatacollectionfromnetworkedphysicaldevices.ThecollecteddataarethenpassedtoanotherserversidemoduleSignalPublisherwhointurnmulticaststhesensordatatotheregisteredsubscribersclientsthroughappletservletcommunication.ARegistrarisdesignedtomaintainalistofsubscriberswiththerequestedsensordata.AphysicaldeviceiscontrollableonlybytheControlCommanderthatresidesinthesameapplicationserver.TheconceptoftheJavabasedmonitoringandcontrolisdesignedtousethepopularclientserverarchitectureandVCMviewcontrolmodeldesignpattern.Thecontroltierisanapplicationserverthathostsmajormanufacturingcontrollogics.Themodeltierisadatabasethatstoresneededdata,knowledgeand3Dmodelsformonitoringandcontrol.Atclientside,aJavaappletuserinterfacefittingintheviewtierprovidesclientswithamodelbasedandsensordrivenenvironment.Inamulticlientenvironment,differentclientsmayrequiredifferentsetsofsensordatafordevicemanipulation.Itisnotefficienttohavemultipleclientswhosharethesamemodeltalkwiththesamedeviceatthesametime.Instead,apublishsubscribedesignpatternisadopted,basedonwhichtwoserversidemodulesSignalCollectorandSignalPublisherareresponsibleforsensordatacollectionanddistributiontotherightclients,efficiently.HTTPStreamingischosenasthecommunicationprotocolbetweenappletsandservlets.Fig.2illustrateshowatripodismonitoredandcontrolremotelyaccordingtoourJava3Denabledconcept.

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