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外文翻译--影响倾斜隧道中掘进机的工作的一些地质和岩土性能.doc

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外文翻译--影响倾斜隧道中掘进机的工作的一些地质和岩土性能.doc

中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第1页英文原文ABSTRACTTHEFACTORSAFFECTINGTHEPERFORMANCEOF90KWSHIELDEDROADHEADERISINVESTIGATEDINDETAILINATUNNELEXCAVATEDFORNUHCEMENTFACTORYTHEFIRSTPARTOFTHETUNNELISHORIZONTALANDTHESECONDPARTISINCLINEDWITH9_ANDEXCAVATEDUPHILLTUNNELPASSESTHROUGHAFORMATIONOFTHEUPPERCRETACEOUSAGEWITHNODULARMARL,CARBONATEDCLAYSTONE,THINANDTHICKLAMINATEDLIMESTONEWATERINGRESSCHANGESFROM0TO11L/MININSIXDIFFERENTZONESITISFOUNDTHATTHEROCKCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHCHANGEDFROM20TO45MPA,TENSILESTRENGTHFROM1TO4MPA,SPECIFICENERGYFROM11TO16MJ/M3,PLASTICLIMITFROM15TO29,LIQUIDLIMITFROM27TO43ANDWATERABSORPTIONFROM4TO18INVOLUMEDETAILEDINSITUOBSERVATIONSSHOWTHATINDRYZONESFORTHESAMEROCKSTRENGTHTHEINCLINATIONOFTHETUNNELANDTHESTRATAHELPTOINCREASETHEINSTANTANEOUSCUTTINGRATEFROM10TO25SOLIDBANKM3/CUTTINGHOURTHEEFFECTOFWATERONCUTTINGRATEISDRAMATICINTHEZONESWHERETHEPLASTICLIMITANDTHEAMOUNTOFAL2O3ISLOW,INSTANTANEOUSCUTTINGRATEINCREASESFROM34TO50SOLIDBANKM3/CUTTINGHOURWITHINCREASINGWATERCONTENTFROM35TO11L/MINHOWEVER,INTHESTRATAHAVINGHIGHWATERABSORPTIONCHARACTERISTICANDHIGHAMOUNTOFAL2O3,CUTTINGRATEDECREASESCONSIDERABLYDUETOTHESTICKYMUD,CAUSINGPROBLEMTOTHECUTTERHEADEXCAVATION,MUCKLOADINGANDSUPPORTWORKSAREPERFORMEDSEPARATELYDUETOSAFETYCONCERNSINTHEWETANDINCLINEDSECTIONSWHICHREDUCEDTHEMACHINEUTILIZATIONTIMEFROM38TO8THEINFORMATIONGATHEREDISBELIEVEDTOFORMA中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第2页SOUNDBASISINCONTRIBUTINGTHEPERFORMANCEPREDICTIONOFROADHEADERSINDIFFICULTGROUNDCONDITIONS_2004ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSTUNNELEXCAVATION;ROADHEADERPERFORMANCEPREDICTION;CORECUTTINGTEST;SPECIFICENERGY1INTRODUCTIONTHEAPPLICATIONOFROADHEADERSINDIFFICULTGROUNDCONDITIONS,INRECENTYEARS,HASINCREASEDCONSIDERABLYINBOTHCIVILANDMININGENGINEERINGFIELDSTHEPREDICTIONOFINSTANTANEOUSNETCUTTINGRATEANDMACHINEUTILIZATIONTIME,DETERMININGDAILYADVANCERATES,PLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINTHETIMESCHEDULINGOFTHETUNNELINGPROJECTS,HENCE,INDETERMININGTHEECONOMYOFTUNNELEXCAVATIONALTHOUGHMANYROADHEADERPERFORMANCEPREDICTIONMODELSWEREPUBLISHEDINTHEPAST,THEPUBLISHEDDATAONDIFFICULTGROUNDCONDITIONSSUCHASTHEEFFECTSOFTUNNELINCLINATION,WATERINGRESS,EXCESSIVEFRACTUREZONES,ETCONDAILYADVANCERATESWEREQUITESCARCESANDBAK1985ANDDOUGLAS1985USEDAROCKCLASSIFICATIONSYSTEMTOEXPLAINTHECHANGESOFROADHEADERADVANCERATESATSANMANUELCOPPERMINEINANINCLINEDDRIFTATAN11GRADETHEYCONCLUDEDTHATFORAPERFORMANCEPREDICTIONMODEL,ENGINEERINGASPECTSOFTHEROADHEADERSHADTOBEALSOINCORPORATEDWITHTHEGEOMECHANICALFACTORSFIELDDATAONROADHEADERMACHINEPERFORMANCEININCLINEDTUNNELSWEREALSOPUBLISHEDBYUNRUGANDWHITSELL1984FORA14_SLOPEINPYROCOALMINE,BYNAVINETAL1985AT13_AND15_INCLINESINOILSHALEMINEANDBYLIVINGSTONEANDDORRICOTT1995INBALLARATEASTGOLDMINETHEMAJORITYOFPERFORMANCEPREDICTIONMODELSWEREDEVELOPEDFORHORIZONTALTUNNELSBILGIN1983DEVELOPEDAMODELBASEDONSPECIFICENERGYOBTAINEDFROMDRILLINGRATEOFAPERCUSSIVEDRILLMODELSFORWIDELYJOINTEDROCKFORMATIONSWEREDESCRIBEDBYSCHNEIDER1988,THUROANDPLINNINGER1998,1999,GEHRING1989,1997,DUNETAL1997ANDUEHIGASHIETAL1987THEYREPORTEDTHATFORAGIVENCUTTINGPOWER,CUTTINGRATESOFROADHEADERSDECREASEDDRAMATICALLYWITHINCREASINGVALUESOFROCKCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHCOPURETAL1997,1998STATEDTHATIFTHEPOWERANDTHEWEIGHTOFTHEROADHEADERSWERECONSIDEREDTOGETHER,INADDITIONTOROCKCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH,THECUTTINGRATEPREDICTIONSWEREMOREREALISTICANOTHERCONCEPTOFPREDICTINGMACHINEINSTANTANEOUSCUTTINGRATEWASTOUSESPECIFICENERGYDESCRIBEDASTHEENERGYSPENTTOEXCAVATEAUNITVOLUMEOFROCKMATERIALFARMERANDGARRITY1987ANDPOOLE1987SHOWEDTHATFORAGIVENPOWEROFROADHEADER,EXCAVATIONRATEINSOLIDBANKM3/CUTTINGHOURMIGHTBEPREDICTEDUSINGSPECIFICENERGYVALUESGIVENASINTHEFOLLOWINGEQUATION,中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第3页WHERESEISTHESPECIFICENERGY,RCISTHEROCKCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHANDEISTHEROCKELASTICMODULUSWIDELYACCEPTEDROCKCLASSIFICATIONANDASSESSMENTFORTHEPERFORMANCEESTIMATIONOFROADHEADERSISBASEDONTHESPECIFICENERGYFOUNDFROMCORECUTTINGTESTSMCFEATSMITHANDFOWELL,1977,1979;FOWELLANDJOHNSON,1982;FOWELLETAL,1994DETAILEDLABORATORYANDINSITUINVESTIGATIONSCARRIEDOUTBYMCFEATSMITHANDFOWELL1977,1979SHOWEDTHATTHEREWASACLOSERELATIONSHIPBETWEENSPECIFICENERGYVALUESOBTAINEDFROMCORECUTTINGTESTSANDCUTTINGRATESFORMEDIUMANDHEAVYWEIGHTROADHEADERSSEPARATELYTHEYREPORTEDALSOTHATTOOLCONSUMPTIONMIGHTBEPREDICTEDFROMWEIGHTLOSSOFCUTTERUSEDINCORECUTTINGTESTROCKCUTTABILITYCLASSIFICATIONBASEDONCORECUTTINGTESTISUSUALLYCRITICIZEDASTHATTHEEFFECTOFROCKDISCONTINUITIESARENOTREFLECTEDINPERFORMANCEPREDICTIONBILGINETAL1988,1990,1996,1997DEVELOPEDAPERFORMANCEEQUATIONBASEDONROCKCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHANDROCKQUALITYDESIGNATIONASGIVENBELOWWHEREICRISTHEINSTANTANEOUSCUTTINGRATEINSOLIDBANKM3/CUTTINGHOUR,PISTHEPOWEROFCUTTINGHEADINHP,RMCIISTHEROCKMASSCUTTABILITYINDEX,RCISTHEUNIAXIALCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHINMPAANDRQDISTHEROCKQUALITYDESIGNATIONINPERCENTDUNETAL1997COMPAREDTHEMODELSDESCRIBEDBYBILGINETAL1988,1990ANDMCFEATSMITHANDFOWELL1977,1979INARESEARCHWORKCARRIEDOUTATKUMBALDAMINEWHEREAVOESTALPINEAM75ROADHEADERWASUTILIZEDTWODISTINCTGROUPSOFDATAWEREEVIDENTTHEDATAGROUPEDAROUNDBILGINLINEWASSTRONGLYINFLUENCEDBYTHEJOINTINGANDWEAKNESSZONESPRESENTINROCKMASSTHEOTHERGROUPOFDATAONTHELINEPRODUCEDBYMCFEATSMITHANDFOWELLCORRESPONDEDTOAREASWHERELESSJOINTINGANDFEWERWEAKNESSZONESWEREPRESENTONEOFTHEMOSTACCEPTEDMETHODTOPREDICTTHECUTTINGRATEOFANYEXCAVATINGMACHINEISTOUSE,CUTTINGPOWER,SPECIFICENERGYOBTAINEDFROMFULLSCALECUTTINGTESTSANDENERGYTRANSFERRATIOFROMTHECUTTINGHEADTOTHEROCKFORMATIONASINTHEFOLLOWINGEQUATIONROSTAMIETAL,1994;ROSTAMIANDOZDEMIR,1996WHEREICRISTHINSTANTANEOUSPRODUCTIONRATEINSOLIDBANKM3/CUTTINGHOUR,PISTHECUTTINGPOWEROFTHEMECHANICALMINERINKW,SEOPTISTHEOPTIMUMSPECIFICENERGYINKWH/M3ANDKISENERGYTRANSFERCOEFFICIENTDEPENDINGONTHEMECHANICALMINERUTILIZEDROSTAMIETAL1994STRONGLYEMPHASIZEDTHATTHEPREDICTEDVALUEOFCUTTINGRATEWASMOREREALISTICIFSPECIFICENERGYVALUEIN中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第4页EQUATIONWASOBTAINEDFROMFULLSCALELINEARCUTTINGTESTSINOPTIMUMCONDITIONSUSINGREALLIFECUTTERSROSTAMIETAL1994POINTEDOUTTHATKCHANGEDBETWEEN045AND055FORROADHEADERSANDFROM085TO090FORTBMSBILGINETAL2000SHOWEDINTHEIREXPERIMENTALANDNUMERICALSTUDIESTHATPERFORMANCEOFMECHANICALMINERSWASAFFECTEDUPTOACERTAINDEGREEBYTHEEARTHAND/OROVERBURDENPRESSUREANDSTRESSCOPURETAL2001SHOWEDTHATSPECIFICENERGYOBTAINEDFROMFULLSCALELINEARCUTTINGTESTSINOPTIMUMCUTTINGCONDITIONSWASHIGHLYCORRELATEDTOROCKUNIAXIALCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHANDBRAZILIANTENSILESTRENGTHTHEEFFECTOFTUNNELINCLINATION,WATERINGRESSANDTHEPRESENCEOFCLAYONROADHEADERPERFORMANCEWASNOTCLEARLYSHOWNINTHEABOVEMENTIONEDWORKSTHEMAINOBJECTIVEOFTHERESEARCHSTUDYDESCRIBEDINTHISPAPERISTOCONTRIBUTETHEPERFORMANCEPREDICTIONMODELSINDIFFICULTGROUNDCONDITIONSHEREKETUNNELISCHOSENFORTHISPURPOSETHEFIRST50MOFTHETUNNELISHORIZONTALLATER225MISINCLINEDWITH9_ANDEXCAVATEDUPHILLTHEREISEXCESSIVEWATERINGRESSANDCLAYINSOMESECTIONSDETAILEDINSITUOBSERVATIONSAREMADEDURINGTHETUNNELEXCAVATIONANDROCKSAMPLESARECOLLECTEDFORTESTINGINTHELABORATORIESOFTHEMININGENGINEERINGDEPARTMENTOFISTANBULTECHNICALUNIVERSITYFORGROUNDCHARACTERIZATIONANTANEOUSCUTTINGRATEOFTHEROADHEADERUSEDINTHEPROJECTISEXPLAINEDBYSOMEGEOLOGICALANDGEOTECHNICALFACTORSFACTORSAFFECTINGMACHINEUTILIZATIONTIMEISALSOEXPLAINEDINDETAIL2DESCRIPTIONOFTHETUNNELPROJECTTHEHEREKETUNNEL,LOCATEDINTURKEYINTHECITYOFKOCAELINEXTTOISTANBUL,WASCONSTRUCTEDFORMATERIALTRANSPORTATIONBETWEENTHENUHCEMENTDOCKANDNUHCEMENTPLANTTUNNELINGWASTHEBESTCHOICETOAVOIDTRAFFICDISRUPTION,SINCETHEREWASARAILWAY,HIGHWAYANDFREEWAYONTHESURFACETHECONTRACTORFIRMSTFACOWASAWARDEDTHETUNNELINGPROJECTTHETUNNELINCLUDED50MOFHORIZONTALSECTIONCHAINAGE0–50M,WHEREEXCAVATIONSTARTEDUP,AND225MOF9_INCLINEDSECTIONCHAINAGE50–275MTHEEXCAVATIONWASPERFORMEDINAHORIZONTALLYSTRAIGHTALIGNMENTTHROUGHSEDIMENTARYFORMATIONSINCLUDINGDRYCHAINAGE0–50AND150–275MANDWETSECTIONSCHAINAGE50–150EXCAVATIONWASPERFORMEDBYUSINGASHIELDEDROADHEADER,HERRENKNECHTSM1WITH90KWOFCUTTERHEADPOWER,INTHEEXCAVATIONDIAMETEROF348MTWOSHAFTSWERESUNKINTHEPLANTSIDEOFTHETUNNELTHEFIRSTSHAFTWASPLANNEDTOBEUSEDFORCEMENTTRANSPORTATIONFROMTHEPLANTTOTHEDOCKVIASTEEL

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