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外文翻译--搅拌摩擦焊在运输行业上的应用 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--搅拌摩擦焊在运输行业上的应用 英文版.pdf

MATERIALSDESIGN,VOL18,NOS4R6,PP269273,1997Q1998PUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERSCIENCELTDPRINTEDINGREATBRITAINALLRIGHTSRESERVED02613069R981900Q000PIIS0261–30699700062–9FRICTIONSTIRWELDINGFORTHETRANSPORTATIONINDUSTRIESWMTHOMASU,EDNICHOLASTWI,ABINGTONHALL,ABINGTON,CAMBRIDGECB16AL,UKRECEIVED16JUNE1997;ACCEPTED17JUNE1997THISPAPERWILLFOCUSONTHERELATIVELYNEWJOININGTECHNOLOGY}FRICTIONSTIRWELDINGFSWLIKEALLFRICTIONWELDINGVARIANTS,THEFSWPROCESSISCARRIEDOUTINTHESOLIDPHASEGENERICALLYSOLIDPHASEWELDINGISONEOFTHEOLDESTFORMSOFMETALLURGICALJOININGPROCESSESKNOWNTOMANFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGISACONTINUOUSHOTSHEARAUTOGENOUSPROCESSINVOLVINGANONCONSUMABLEROTATINGPROBEOFHARDERMATERIALTHANTHESUBSTRATEITSELFINADDITION,FSWPRODUCESSOLIDPHASE,LOWDISTORTION,GOODAPPEARANCEWELDSATRELATIVELYLOWCOSTESSENTIALLY,APORTIONOFASPECIALLYSHAPEDROTATINGTOOLISPLUNGEDBETWEENTHEABUTTINGFACESOFTHEJOINTONCEENTEREDINTOTHEWELD,RELATIVEMOTIONBETWEENTHEROTATINGTOOLANDTHESUBSTRATEGENERATESFRICTIONALHEATTHATCREATESAPLASTICISEDREGIONAROUNDTHEIMMERSEDPORTIONOFTHETOOLTHECONTACTINGSURFACEOFTHESHOULDEREDREGIONOFTHETOOLANDTHEWORKPIECETOPCONTACTINGSURFACEALSOGENERATESFRICTIONALHEATTHESHOULDEREDREGIONPROVIDESADDITIONALFRICTIONTREATMENTTOTHEWELDREGIONASWELLASPREVENTINGPLASTICISEDMATERIALBEINGEXPELLEDTHETOOLISTHENTRANSLATEDWITHRESPECTTOTHEWORKPIECEALONGTHEJOINTLINE,WITHTHEPLASTICISEDMATERIALCOALESCINGBEHINDTHETOOLTOFORMASOLIDPHASEJOINTASTHETOOLMOVESFORWARDALTHOUGHTHEWORKPIECEDOESHEATUPDURINGFSW,THETEMPERATUREDOESNOTREACHTHEMELTINGPOINTFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGCANBEUSEDTOJOINMOSTALUMINIUMALLOYS,ANDSURFACEOXIDEPRESENTSNODIFFICULTYTOTHEPROCESSTRIALSUNDERTAKENUPTOTHEPRESENTTIMESHOWTHATANUMBEROFLIGHTWEIGHTMATERIALSSUITABLEFORTHEAUTOMOTIVE,RAIL,MARINE,ANDAEROSPACETRANSPORTATIONINDUSTRIESCANBEFABRICATEDBYFSWQ1998PUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSFRICTIONSTIRWELDING;TRANSPORTATION;SOLIDPHASEINTRODUCTIONRECENTLY,ANOVELFRICTIONWELDINGPROCESSFORNONFERROUSMATERIALSHASCAPTUREDTHEATTENTIONOFTHEFABRICATIONINDUSTRYTHISRELATIVELYNEWPROCESSCALLEDFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGFSWISASOLIDPHASEPROCESSGIVINGGOODQUALITYBUTTANDLAPJOINTS14THEFSWPROCESSHASPROVEDTOBEIDEALFORCREATINGHIGHQUALITYWELDSINANUMBEROFMATERIALS,INCLUDINGTHOSEWHICHAREEXTREMELYDIFFICULTTOWELDBYCONVENTIONALFUSIONPROCESSES5THEBASICPRINCIPLEOFTHEPROCESSISILLUSTRATEDINFIGURE1THEPROCESSOPERATESBYGENERATINGFRICTIONALHEATBETWEENAROTATINGTOOLOFHARDERMATERIALTHANTHEWORKPIECEBEINGWELDED,INSUCHAMANNERASTOTHERMALLYCONDITIONTHEABUTTINGWELDREGIONINTHESOFTERMATERIALTHETOOLISSHAPEDWITHALARGERDIAMETERSHOULDERANDASMALLERDIAMETER,SPECIALLYPROFILEDPROBETHEPROBEFIRSTMAKESCONTACTASITISPLUNGEDINTOTHEJOINTREGIONTHISINITIALPLUNGINGFRICTIONCONTACTHEATSACYLINDRICALCOLUMNOFMETALAROUNDTHEPROBEASWELLASASMALLREGIONOFMATERIALUNDERNEATHTHEPROBETHEDEPTHOFPENETRATIONISCONTROLLEDBYTHELENGTHOFTHEPROBEBELOWTHESHOULDEROFTHETOOLTHECONTACTINGSHOULDERAPPLIESADDITIONALFRICTIONALUCORRESPONDENCETOWMTHOMASTELQ4401223891162;FAXQ4401223892588;EMAILWMTHOMASTWICOUKHEATTOTHEWELDREGIONANDPREVENTSHIGHLYPLASTICISEDMATERIALFROMBEINGEXPELLEDDURINGTHEWELDINGOPERATIONONCETHESHOULDERMAKESCONTACTTHEADJACENTTHERMALLYSOFTENEDREGIONTAKESUPAFRUSTUMSHAPECORRESPONDINGTOTHATOFTHEOVERALLTOOLGEOMETRYTHETHERMALLYSOFTENEDREGIONAPPEARSMUCHWIDERATTHETOPSURFACEINCONTACTWITHTHESHOULDER,TAPERINGDOWNTOTHEPROBEDIAMETERTHECOMBINEDFRICTIONALHEATFROMTHEPROBEANDTHESHOULDERCREATESAPLASTICISEDALMOSTHYDROSTATICCONDITIONAROUNDTHEIMMERSEDPROBEANDTHECONTACTINGSURFACEOFTHESHOULDEREDREGIONOFTHEWORKPIECETOPSURFACEMATERIALFLOWSAROUNDTHETOOLANDCOALESCESBEHINDTHETOOLASRELATIVETRAVERSEBETWEENSUBSTRATEANDTHEROTATINGTOOLTAKESPLACEFRICTIONSTIRWELDINGCANBEREGARDEDASAAUTOGENOUSKEYHOLEJOININGTECHNIQUETHECONSOLIDATEDWELDSARESOLIDPHASEINNATUREANDDONOTSHOWFUSIONWELDINGDEFECTSNOCONSUMABLEFILLERMATERIAL,SHIELDINGGAS,OREDGEPREPARATIONISNORMALLYNECESSARYTHEDISTORTIONISSIGNIFICANTLYLESSTHANTHATCAUSEDBYANYFUSIONWELDINGTECHNIQUEEXPLORATORYDEVELOPMENTWORKHASENCOMPASSEDALUMINIUMMATERIALSFROM1TO75MMTHICKFSWWELDINGTRIALSEARLYEXPLORATORYDEVELOPMENTTRIALSWERECARRIEDOUTMATERIALSDESIGNVOLUME18NUMBERS4/61997269FRICTIONSTIRWELDINGFORTHETRANSPORTATIONINDUSTRIESWMTHOMASANDEDNICHOLASFIGURE1FRICTIONSTIRWELDINGTECHNIQUEFIGURE2TRANSVERSEMACROSECTIONOF50MMTHICK6082T6ALUMINIUMALLOYPLATEMATERIALWELDEDFROMBOTHSIDES,SHOWINGWELDNUGGETPROFILEANDFLOWCONTOURSWITH6082T6ALUMINIUMALLOYMATERIALINTHICKNESSESRANGINGFROM16TO127MMRECENTTRIALSHAVEEXTENDEDTHETHICKNESSRANGEUPWARDSTO75MMINTWOPASSESMETALLOGRAPHICEXAMINATIONASERIESOF50AND75MMTHICKWELDSIN6082T6CONDITIONALUMINIUMALLOY,WHICHDEMONSTRATETHEPOSSIBILITIESFORTHEPROCESSFORTHICKPLATEARESHOWNINFIGURES24THEMACROSECTIONSFROMTHESEWELDSARECHARACTERISEDBYWELLDEFINEDWELDNUGGETSANDFLOWCONTOURS,ALMOSTSPHERICALINSHAPE,THESECONTOURSAREDEPENDANTONTHETOOLDESIGNANDTHEWELDINGPARAMETERSANDPROCESSCONDITIONSUSEDFORHEATTREATABLEMATERIALSAWELLDEFINEDHEATAFFECTEDZONESURROUNDSTHEWELDNUGGETREGIONANDEXTENDSTOTHESHOULDERDIAMETEROFTHEWELDATTHEPLATESURFACETHEWELDNUGGETITSELFISTHEREGION,WHEREFULLDYNAMICRECRYSTALLISATIONOCCURSTHATCOMPRISESOFAFINEEQUIAXEDGRAI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