会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > PDF文档下载

外文翻译--搅拌摩擦焊在运输行业上的应用 英文版.pdf

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:612.39KB   全文页数:5页
  • 资源格式: PDF        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

外文翻译--搅拌摩擦焊在运输行业上的应用 英文版.pdf

MaterialsDesign,Vol.18,Nos.4r6,pp.269273,1997Q1998PublishedbyElsevierScienceLtdPrintedinGreatBritain.Allrightsreserved02613069r9819.00q0.00PIIS0261–30699700062–9FrictionstirweldingforthetransportationindustriesW.M.ThomasU,E.D.NicholasTWI,AbingtonHall,Abington,CambridgeCB16AL,UKReceived16June1997accepted17June1997Thispaperwillfocusontherelativelynewjoiningtechnology}frictionstirweldingFSW.Likeallfrictionweldingvariants,theFSWprocessiscarriedoutinthesolidphase.Genericallysolidphaseweldingisoneoftheoldestformsofmetallurgicaljoiningprocessesknowntoman.Frictionstirweldingisacontinuoushotshearautogenousprocessinvolvinganonconsumablerotatingprobeofhardermaterialthanthesubstrateitself.Inaddition,FSWproducessolidphase,lowdistortion,goodappearanceweldsatrelativelylowcost.Essentially,aportionofaspeciallyshapedrotatingtoolisplungedbetweentheabuttingfacesofthejoint.Onceenteredintotheweld,relativemotionbetweentherotatingtoolandthesubstrategeneratesfrictionalheatthatcreatesaplasticisedregionaroundtheimmersedportionofthetool.Thecontactingsurfaceoftheshoulderedregionofthetoolandtheworkpiecetopcontactingsurfacealsogeneratesfrictionalheat.Theshoulderedregionprovidesadditionalfrictiontreatmenttotheweldregionaswellaspreventingplasticisedmaterialbeingexpelled.Thetoolisthentranslatedwithrespecttotheworkpiecealongthejointline,withtheplasticisedmaterialcoalescingbehindthetooltoformasolidphasejointasthetoolmovesforward.AlthoughtheworkpiecedoesheatupduringFSW,thetemperaturedoesnotreachthemeltingpoint.Frictionstirweldingcanbeusedtojoinmostaluminiumalloys,andsurfaceoxidepresentsnodifficultytotheprocess.Trialsundertakenuptothepresenttimeshowthatanumberoflightweightmaterialssuitablefortheautomotive,rail,marine,andaerospacetransportationindustriescanbefabricatedbyFSW.Q1998PublishedbyElsevierScienceLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsfrictionstirweldingtransportationsolidphaseIntroductionRecently,anovelfrictionweldingprocessfornonferrousmaterialshascapturedtheattentionofthefabricationindustry.ThisrelativelynewprocesscalledFric.tionStirWeldingFSWisasolidphaseprocessgivinggoodqualitybuttandlapjoints14.TheFSWprocesshasprovedtobeidealforcreatinghighqualityweldsinanumberofmaterials,includingthosewhichareextremelydifficulttoweldbyconventionalfusionprocesses5.ThebasicprincipleoftheprocessisillustratedinFigure1.Theprocessoperatesbygeneratingfrictionalheatbetweenarotatingtoolofhardermaterialthantheworkpiecebeingwelded,insuchamannerastothermallyconditiontheabuttingweldregioninthesoftermaterial.Thetoolisshapedwithalargerdiametershoulderandasmallerdiameter,speciallyprofiledprobe.Theprobefirstmakescontactasitisplungedintothejointregion.Thisinitialplungingfrictioncontactheatsacylindricalcolumnofmetalaroundtheprobeaswellasasmallregionofmaterialunderneaththeprobe.Thedepthofpenetrationiscontrolledbythelengthoftheprobebelowtheshoulderofthetool.ThecontactingshoulderappliesadditionalfrictionalUCorrespondencetoW.M.Thomas.Tel.q4401223891162faxq4401223892588emailwmthomastwi.co.ukheattotheweldregionandpreventshighlyplasticisedmaterialfrombeingexpelledduringtheweldingoperation.Oncetheshouldermakescontacttheadjacentthermallysoftenedregiontakesupafrustumshapecorrespondingtothatoftheoveralltoolgeometry.Thethermallysoftenedregionappearsmuchwideratthetopsurfaceincontactwiththeshoulder,taperingdowntotheprobediameter.Thecombinedfrictionalheatfromtheprobeandtheshouldercreatesaplasticisedalmosthydrostaticconditionaroundtheimmersedprobeandthecontactingsurfaceoftheshoulderedregionoftheworkpiecetopsurface.Materialflowsaroundthetoolandcoalescesbehindthetoolasrelativetraversebetweensubstrateandtherotatingtooltakesplace.Frictionstirweldingcanberegardedasaautogenouskeyholejoiningtechnique.Theconsolidatedweldsaresolidphaseinnatureanddonotshowfusionweldingdefects.Noconsumablefillermaterial,shieldinggas,oredgepreparationisnormallynecessary.Thedistortionissignificantlylessthanthatcausedbyanyfusionweldingtechnique.Exploratorydevelopmentworkhasencompassedaluminiummaterialsfrom1to75mmthick.FSWweldingtrialsEarlyexploratorydevelopmenttrialswerecarriedoutMaterialsDesignVolume18Numbers4/61997269FrictionstirweldingforthetransportationindustriesW.M.ThomasandE.D.NicholasFigure1FrictionstirweldingtechniqueFigure2Transversemacrosectionof50mmthick6082T6aluminiumalloy.Platematerialweldedfrombothsides,showingweldnuggetprofileandflowcontourswith6082T6aluminiumalloymaterialinthicknessesrangingfrom1.6to12.7mm.Recenttrialshaveextendedthethicknessrangeupwardsto75mmintwopasses.MetallographicexaminationAseriesof50and75mmthickweldsin6082T6conditionaluminiumalloy,whichdemonstratethepossibilitiesfortheprocessforthickplateareshowninFigures24.Themacrosectionsfromtheseweldsarecharacterisedbywelldefinedweldnuggetsandflowcontours,almostsphericalinshape,thesecontoursaredependantonthetooldesignandtheweldingparametersandprocessconditionsused.Forheattreatablematerialsawelldefinedheataffectedzonesurroundstheweldnuggetregionandextendstotheshoulderdiameteroftheweldattheplatesurface.Theweldnuggetitselfistheregion,wherefulldynamicrecrystallisationoccursthatcomprisesofafineequiaxedgrainstructure.Themeasuredgrainsizeisintheorderof24mmindiameter.Typicallytheparentmetalchemistryisretained,withoutanysegregationofalloyingelements.Ahardnesstraversetakenfrom50mmthicktestweldrecordedthefollowingvaluesvParentmetal100HV2.5vWeldnugget65HV2.5vHAZregion52HV2.5FractographySamplesofwelded50mmthick6082T6platewerenotchedintheparentmaterial,andtheweldnuggetregionandthenfracturedbybending.Thefracturesurfaceswereexaminedusingscanningelectronmicroscopy.BoththeweldnuggetandtheparentmaterialfailedinaductilemannerbythemicrovoidcoalescencemechanismasshowninFigure3.However,therewasanabsenceofrelativelylargemicrovoidsintheweldnuggetsampleandthismaybeaconsequenceofthebreakupoftheprimaryconstituentparticlesduringstirwelding.MechanicalintegrityForplatethicknessupto50mmthick,transverseMaterialsDesignVolume18Numbers4/61997270FrictionstirweldingforthetransportationindustriesW.M.ThomasandE.D.Nicholas.Figure3Fractographycomparisonbetweenweldnuggetandparentmetalin50mmthick6082T6aluminiumalloyplate.aFractureinweld.nugget.Scanningmicroscopyofnickbreakbend,fractureface.bFractureinparentmetal.Scanningmicroscopyofnickbreakbend,fracturefaceFigure4Threepointbendandtensiletestin75mmthick6082T6aluminiumalloyFSWplatesectionswerehammerbendtestedto1808.Whiletransversesectionstakenfrom75mmthickplatewerethreepointbendtestedasshowninFigure4.AnumberoftensiletestswerecarriedoutwithfailuretypicallyoccurringintheHAZregionat175Nmm2asshowninFigure4.Thelocalisedreductioninspecimenthicknessduringthetensiletestingcorrespondswithregionsofreductioninhardness.ProcesscharacteristicsExperimentalresearchworkisbeingcarriedouratTWItoevaluatearangeofmaterialsanddevelopotherFSWtoolsdesignedtoimprovetheflowofplasticisedmaterialaroundtheprobeitselfandtoenablesubstantiallythickerplatestobejoinedandenablerelativelyhightraverseratestobeachieved.Figure5illustratesthenaturaldynamicorbitinherentlyassociatedwitheverytypeofrotarymachine.Thiseccentricitymusttoagreaterorlesserextentbepartofthefrictionstirweldingprocesscharacteristics.Eccentricityallowshydromechanicallyincompressibleplasticisedmaterialtoflowmoreeasilyaroundtheprobe.Itfollowsthatanominalbiasoffcentreornoncircularprobewillalsoallowplasticisedmaterialtopassaroundtheprobe.Essentiallyitistherelationshipbetweenthegreatervolumeofthedynamicorbitoftheprobeandthevolumeofthestaticdisplacementoftheprobe,thathelpsprovideapathfortheflowofplasticisedmaterialfromtheleadingedgetothetrailingedgeoftherotatingtool.Anumberoftoolgeometriesandtoolattitudefordifferentmaterialshavebeenreportedintheliterature3,6,7.Fortoolspositionedperpendiculartotheworkpiecetheleadingedgeoftherotationtoolprovidesafrictionalpreheateffectheatandsubsequentthermalsofteningoftheworkpieceinfrontoftheprobe.Thispreheatcanbeofadvantagewhendealingwithharderordifficulttoweldmaterials.Thegreatertheareaoftheshoulderedregionoftherotatingtoolmakingcontactwiththejointsurfacethegreaterthefrictionalheatavailable.Increasingthediameteroftheshoulderedregion,however,haspracticallimitationsandtendstoproducesideflashontheweldsurface.PotentialfortheFSWprocessinthetransportationindustryThepotentialscopeforFSWinitiallylieswithjoiningmaterialslikealuminium,copper,copperalloys,lead,titanium,zincetc.TheapplicationsrangefromthefollowingvAirframes,fueltanks,andthinalloyskinsintheaerospaceMaterialsDesignVolume18Numbers4/61997271FrictionstirweldingforthetransportationindustriesW.M.ThomasandE.D.NicholasFigure5Dynamicorbit}planviewofrotatingtoolandprobevSheetbodyworkandenginesupportframesfortheautomotiveindustryvRailwaywagonandcoachwork,andbulkcarriertanksforthetransportationindustryvHulls,decks,andinternalstructuresforhighspeedferriesandLPGstoragevesselsfortheshipbuildingindustryFigure6FSWseamweldingoflappedsheetwithroller_tracksupportMaterialsDesignVolume18Numbers4/61997272

注意事项

本文(外文翻译--搅拌摩擦焊在运输行业上的应用 英文版.pdf)为本站会员(英文资料库)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5