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外文翻译--数字控制的发展及数控用传感器.doc

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外文翻译--数字控制的发展及数控用传感器.doc

英文原文THEDEVELOPMENTOFNCANDTRANSDUCERSFORNCMACHINETOOLSTHEFIRSTNCMACHINESUSEDVACUUINTUBES,ELECTRICALRELAYS,ANDCOMPLICATEDMACHINECONTROLINTERFACESTHESECIONDGENERATIONOFMACHINESUTILIZEDIMPROVEDMINIATUREELECTRONICTUBES,ANDLATERSOLIDSTATECIRCUITSASCOMPUTERTECHONOLOGYIMPROVED,NCUNDERWENTONEOFTHEMOSTRAPIDCHANGESKNOWNINHISTORYTHETHIRDGENERATIONUSEDMUCHIMPROVEDINTEGRATEDCIRCUITSCOMPUTERHARDWAREBECAMEPROGRESSICELULESSEXPENSIVEANDMORERELIABLEANDNCCONTROLBUILDERSINTRODUCEDFORTHEFIRSTTIMEREADONLYMEMORYROMTECHNOLOGYROMWASTYPICALLYUSEDFORPROGRAMSTORAGEINSPECIALPURPOSEAPPLICATIONS,LEADINGTOTHEAPPEARANCEOFTHECOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLCNCSYSTEM,CNCWASSUCCESSFULLYINTRODUCEDTOPRACTICALLYEVERYMANUFACTURINGPROCESSDRILLING,MILLINGANDTURNINGWEREPERFORMEDONMACHINGINGCENTERSANDTURNINGCENTERSCNCTOOKOVERGLASSCUTTING,PATTERNMAKING,ELECTRICALDISCHARGEMACHING,STEELMILLROLLGRINDING,COORDINATEMEASURING,ELECTRONBEAMWELDING,TUBEBENDING,DRAFTING,PRINTEDCIRCUITMANUFACTURING,COILWINDING,FUNCTIONALTESTING,ROBOTS,ANDMANYOTHERPROCESSESASETOFPREPROGRAMMEDSUBROUTINES,NAMEDCANNEDCYCLES,WEREDEVELOPEDFORYSEINROUTINEOPERATIONSTHEYWERERECORDEDINTOTHEROMSANDREMAINEDTHEREEVENAFTERPOWERWASSHUTOFFFORTHEFIRSTTIME,THISCONCEPTMADEITPOSSIBLETOREADTHEMACHINGINGPROGRAMINTOMEMORYANDTOOPERATETHEMACHINEFROMMEMORYINADDITIONTOTHEADVANTAGESOFEDITING,THEPROBLEMSCAUSEDBYERRONEOUSTAPEREADINGDISAPPEAREDALONGWITHTHEMANYCANNEDCYCLEOPTIONS,CNCBUILDERSINTRODYCEDDISPLAYSFORVISUALEDITINGOFPARTPROGRAMSINMEMIRYVARIOUSINCYCLEPROBLEMSGENERATEDALARMSANDHUNDREDSOFDIAFNOSTICMESSAGESWHICHCOULDBEDISPLAYEDASAPPLICABLEPRACTICALLYEVERYFUNCTIONOFTHEMACHINEWASTIEDINTOTHESYSTEMANDMONITOREDDURINGOPERATIONACONSTANTSURFACESPEEDCONTROLWASINCORPORATEDANDCONTINUOUSLYANTICIPATEDTHEMOSTEFFICIENTSPINDLESPEEDOFTHENEXTCUTTOMINIMIZETIMELOSTFORSPINDLEACCELERATINTHECONVENTIONALLINEARANDCIRCULARINTERPOLATIONINCARTESIARETANGULARCOORDINATESWERESUPPLEMENTEDBYPOLARCOORDINATESANDHELICALINTERPOLATIONSAFEZONES,WHICHCOULDBESETTHROUGHPROGRAMMEDCODESORINTERNALPARAMETERS,CREATEANELECTRONICCRASHBARRIERTOPREVENTTOOLCOLLISIONMANUFACTURINGINMETALCUTTINGINDUSTRYTHEIMPROVEMENTINDRIVESWASASIMPORTANTFORTHESYSTEMASTHECONTRIBUTIONOFTHEMICROPROCESSORORTHEMINICOMPUTERTHEFEEDDRIVES,USUALLYKNOWNASSERVODRIVES,CONSISTOFAMOTORANDITSCONTROLWHICHRECEIVESITSMOTIONINSTRUCTIONSFROMTHECNCTHEIRPERFORMANCEISESSENTIALTOTHEACCURACY,RELIABILITY,ANDFLEXIBILITYOFTHECNCSYSTEMTHEOPENLOOPSYSTEMISNORMALLYUSEDINSIMPLEPOINTTOPOINT,ORPOSITIONINGSYSTEMS,ALTHOUGHIMPROVEMENTSINTECHNOLOGYHAVEMADEITPOSSIBLETOINSTALLTHESYSTEMINCONTIURINGSYSTEMSASWELLTHECLOSEDLOOPCONFIGURATIONISMOREACCURATEANDRELIABLE,ASREFLECTEDBYITSHIGHERCOSTALTHOUGHMANYCNCSYSTEMSTILLUSEHYDRAULICORPULESMOTORS,THEDCDRIVESHAVEGAINEDDOMINANCEONAMUCHLARGERSCALEINMOSTCASES,THEDRIVEPACKAGESAREPURCHASEDFROMSPECIALIZEDDRIVESYSTEMBUILDERSTHESEDIRECTCURRENTDCPERMANENTMAGNETWOUNDFIELDSERVIOMATORSRANGEFROM3,000REVOLUTIONSPERMINUTETOLESSTHAN1RPMWETHOUTSTALLINGTHEYDEVELOPPEAKTORQUECAPABILITIESWITHHIGHSLIDEACCELERATIONANDLOWINERTIAFOROPTIMIZEDSYSTEMRESPONSEMOSTDRIVESYSTEMSOFFERACHOICEBETWEENTRANSISTORIZEDSILICONECONTROLLEDRECTIGIERSANDPULSEWIDTHMODULATIONOVERTHEFULLRANGEOFAMPLIFIEDVOLTAGESTHESEDRIVESCANNOWDRIVEVIRTUALLYANYLEADSCREWTHEIRHIGHRESPONSEINNERCURRENTLOOPSPROVIDERELIABLEREGULATIONOFTORQUELOADDISTURBANCES,THEYCANALSOBEBUILTWITHHIGHGAINPREAMPLOFIERSTOCLOSEHIGHBANDWIDTHVELOCITYOOPSTHEDCDRIVESPROVIDETHEANSWERTITHEMOSTESSENTIALNEEDSOFACCELERATION,DECELERATION,STOPPING,ANDCONSTANTVELOCITY,WITHINHERENTSHAFTSTIFFNESSFORSUCCESSFULOPERATIONOFTHECNCSYSTEMTHESAMEDRIVESYSTEMSACTUATEROBOTS,TRANSFERLINESFLIFHTSIMULATORS,GRAPHICPLOTTERS,ECTASTHESEDIVESAREINFINITELYVARIABLEANDFULLYREGENERATIVE,THEYCANPROVIDEFIRMAXIMUMPERFORMANCEANDCONTROLOVERTHEWHOLERANGEOFTHEMOTORBYELIMINATINGGEARBOXESANDCLUTCHES,THECOSTOCDRIVESFORTHETHIRDGENERATIONCNCSYSTEMSWASREDUCEDSUBSTANTIALLYTHEFOURTHGENERATIONMICROPROCESSORCNCINCORPORATEDINMANYCASESTHECONTROVERSIALBIBLEMEMORYTHEBIBLESAREMAGNETICGARNETCRYSTALSGROWNONNONVOLATILEDATASTORAGEALTHOUGHATTHISSTAGEITISNOTCOMPETITIVEINTHELARGECOMPUTERS,THEBIBLEMEMORYISCLOSINGTHECOSTGAPWITHDISKSTORAGEDEVICESINSENSITIVETOADVERSETEMPERATURECHANGES,DUST,ANDVEBRATION,THEBUBBLEMEMORYHASDEMONSTRATEDSUPERIOERELIABILITYINSHOPENVERONMENTGENERALNUMERICSINTRODUCEDITSFOURTHGENERATIONCNCUSINGBUBBLEMEMORY;HOWEVERHITACHI,ANOTHERELECTRONICGIANT,BELIEVESTHATBUBBLEMEMORYWILLPROVIDETHEECONOMICALANSWERTODIRECTNUMERICALCONTROLDNCAMONGTHESTRENGTHSOFTHEFOURTHGENERATIONMECROPROCESSORCNCMCNCAREADDEDPARTPROGRAMMEMORYSTORAGE,REDUCTIONOFPRINTEDCIRCUITBOARDS,PROGRAMMABLEINTERFACE,FASTERMEMORYACCESS,PARAMETRICSUBROUTINES,ANDMACROCAPABILITIESTHESYSTEMUSERCANNOWWRITESPECIFICCANNEDCYCLESDIRECTEDTOPARTICULARAPPLICATIONSUSERMACROS,FARMOREECONOMICALANDEFFICIENTTHANCONVENTIONALCANNEDCYCLESMATHEMATICALCALCULATIONSWITHDOLOOPSUBROUTINESUSINGVARIABLESCANNOWBEINCORPORATEDINTHEPARTPROGRAMTHEMICROPROCESSORCONTROLSBOTHCOMPUTATIONSANDMOTIONCOMMANDSTHUS,FOLLOWINGANINPROCESSGAGING,ANOUTOFTOLERANCECONDITIONWILLBEFEDBACK,ANDTHETOOLOFFSETWILLBEAUTOMATICALLYMODIFIEDTOACHIEVETHEDESIREDPARTDIMENSIONSPOSITIONINGFEEDBACKDEVICESFORNCCANBECLASSIFIEDINTOTWOGROUPS,VIZROTARYANDLINEARTRANSDUCERSROTARYTRANSDUCERSMAYBECONNECTEDTOTHELEADSCREWEITHYERDIRECTLYORTHROUGHPRECISIONGEARINGTHISFEEDBACKDEVICEMEASURESINDIRECTLYTHEPOSITIONOFTHESLIDEASITMEASURESSOMEANGLEANDTHEFEEDTRAINRATIORELATESTHESAMETOTHELINEARMOVEMENTOFTHESLIDEONTHEOTHERHAND,LINEARTRANSDUCERSINDICATETHEPOSITIONOFTHESLIDEDIRECTLYINTHISCASEONEPARTOFTHETRANSDUCERISFIXEDTOTHEMACHINETOOLSTRUCTURETHEOTHERPARTISATTACHEDTOASLIDEWHICHMOVESOVERTHESTATIONARYPARTROTARYTRANSDUCERSROTARYTRANSDUCERSAREQUITEPOPULARWITHNCMACHINEMANUFACTURERSBECAUSEOFTHEIRCOMPACTSIZEANDTHEFLEXIBILITYWITHWHICHTHESECANBEUSEDTHEREARETWOPRIMARYTYPESOFROTARYTRANSDUCERSRESOLVERSANDENCODERSTHERESOLVERISANANALOGDEVICEWHOSEOUTPUTISCONVERTEDTODIGITALFORM,WHEREASTHEENCODERISANUMERICALDEVICETHATOUTPUTSDIGITALDATADIRECTLYRESOLVERRESOLVERSLIKESYNCHROSARESIMPLE,SMALL,CYLINDRICALACMOTORSINCONSTRUCTIONTHESTATOROFASIMPLESYNCHROCONTAINSTHREEWINDINGS120APARTWHILETHATOFARESOLVERHASTWOWINDINGS90APARTASTHEROTORTURNS,SYNCHROSANDRESOLVERSBEHAVEASROTATINGTRANSFORMERSANDANINDUCTIVECOUPLINGEXISTSBETWEENTHESTATORANDROTORTYPICALLY,BYEXCITINGTHEROTORWINDINGSAVOLTAGEISINDUCEDINTHESTATORWINDINGSTHEMAGNITUDEOFTHEINDUCEDVOLTAGEISPROPORTIONALTOTHECOSINEOFTHEANGLEBETWEENTHEROTORCOILAXISANDTHESTATORCOILAXISROTARYINDUCTOSYNITISLIKEARESOLVERWITHALARGENUMBEROFPOLESSAY144OR360POLESANDWITHONEROTORCOILDUETOALARGENUMBEROFPOLES,THEOUTPUTSIGNALCYCLESPERREVOLUTIONINCREASEMANIFOLD,VIZHALFTHENUMBEROFPOLESASWASMENTIONEDEARLIERINTHECASEOFRESOLVERROTARYENCODERSROTARYENCODERSAREWIDELYUSEDWIDELYUSEDINNCMACHINETOOLSASPOSITIONANDMOTIONSENSORSTHESECANBECLASSIFIEDASEITHERINCREMENTALENCODERSORABSOLUTEENCODERSINCREMENTALENCODERSPULSEGENERATINGENCODERSTHEOPTICALINCREMENTALENCODERCONSISTSOFAGLASSDISCWITHACCURATELYETCHEDLINESATREGULARINTERVALSTYPICALLYTHEDIAMETEROFTHEDISCSMAYVARYFROM60MMTO150MMWITHLINES10TO2500THEDISCROTATESBETWEENALIGHTSOURCEANDONEORMOREOFPHOTODIODESTHELINESMAKEANDBREAKTHISPHOTOELECTRICBEAMANDTHEGENERATEDPULSESIGNALISAMPLIFIEDTOGIVEASQUAREWAVEOUTPUTANENCODERWITH360LINESACCORDINGLYGIVES360PULSESPERREVOLUTIONACCORDINGLY,IFANENCODERWITH2500LINESISDIRECTLYCONNECTEDTOALEADSCREWOF25MMPITCHTHENAPULSEWILLBEGENERATEDFOREVERY001MMMOVEMENTOFTHESLIDETHISRESOLUTIONCOULDBEFURTHERIMPROVEDBYMECHANICALAMPLIFICATION,VIZRACKANDPINION,PRECISIONGEARINGANDTIMINGBELTSTECIFSODESIREDTHEDIRECTIONOFROTATIONMAYBETYPICALLYSENSEDBYUSINGTWOTRACKSOFLINESANDTHEREFOREEMPLOYINGSYSTEMREADINGTHESAMEDISCINTHISCASETHETWOSETSOFLINESAREPHASESHIFTEDBY90THESIGNALSFROMBOTHTHESETRACKSAREFEDTODIRECTIONSENSINGLOGICCIRCUITWHICHDIFFERENTIATESEACHEDGEOFTHETWOSIGNALSANDCHECKSTHEIRINTERRELATIONSHIPANINDEXPULSEONEPERREVOLUTIONCANBEUSEDTOSERVEASAZEROREFERENCEPOSITIONFROMWHICHANGULARINCREMENTSOFTHESHAFTARETOBECOUNTEDLINEARTRANSDUCERSTHEPRINCIPLESINVOLVEDINTHEPOERATIONOFTHESETRANSDUCERSAREQUITESIMILARTOTHOSEDISCUSSEDFORROTARYTRANSDUCERSASTHESEMEASURETHEPOSITIONOFTHESLIDEDIRECTLY,THESEDONOTNEEDHIGHLYPRECISEINTERMEDIATEMEMBERSNAMELYSCREWANDNUT,ANDGEARINGFURTHER,THEERRORSDUETOTHISINTERPOSINGFEEDTRAINARESENTMAINTYPESAREDESCRIBEDBELOW;GLASSSCALESWITHLINEGRATIONGTHETRANSPARENTINDEXGRATINGSENSINGDEVICEANDTHEGLASSSCALESINTHISCASEHAVESIMILARLINEGRADUATIONTHERELATIVEMOVEMENTBETWEENTHETWOSCALESRESULTSINALTERNATETRANSPARENTANDOPAQUEREGIONSTYPICALWIDTHOFTHELINESANDSPACESIS20MICRONSEACHTHELIGHTPASSINGTHROUGHTHESEREGIONSISSENSEDBYPHOTODIODESTHERESISTANCEOFTHESEPHOTODIODESCHANGESWITHTHEINTENSITYOFFALLINGLIGHTRESULTINGINTOELECTRICALPULSESTHEPERIODICSIGNALSAREPROCESSEDWITHINTHECOUNTERINSUCHAMANNERTHATASINGLEFORWARDCOUNTINGPULSEISPRODUCEDEVERY5TO10MICRONSOFSCALEDISPLACEMENTTHETOTALTRAVELISDETERMINEDBYCOUNTINGTHESEPULSESLINEARINDUCTOSYNITCONSISTSOFASCALEUSUALLYFIXEDTOTHEMACHINETOOLBEDANDASLIDERTHESCALEISMADEFROMSTEELORALUMINIUMSECTIONSOFABOUT250MMLENGTHANINSULATINGLAYERCOVERSTHISBASEMATERIALTHECOIL,INACONTINUOUSRECTANGUGLARWAVEFORMPATTERNWITHATYPICALCYCLICPITCHOF2MMISBONDEDTOTHESCALETHESLIDERABOUT100MMLONGHASTWOSEPARATEBUTIDENTICALCOILTRACKS

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