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外文翻译--数控切削技术综述.doc

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外文翻译--数控切削技术综述.doc

CNCCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYREVIEWNUMERICALCONTROLHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYHIGHSPEEDMACHINING,HSM,ORHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,HSC,ISONEOFTHEADVANCEDMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYTOIMPROVETHEMACHININGEFFICIENCYANDQUALITY,THESTUDYOFRELATEDTECHNOLOGYHASBECOMEANIMPORTANTRESEARCHDIRECTIONOFADVANCEDMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYATHOMEANDABROADCHINAISABIGMANUFACTURINGCOUNTRY,INTHEWORLDOFINDUSTRYTRANSFERTOACCEPTTHEFRONTINSTEADOFBACKENDOFTHETRANSFER,TOMASTERTHECORETECHNOLOGYOFADVANCEDMANUFACTURING,ORINANEWROUNDOFINTERNATIONALINDUSTRIALSTRUCTUREADJUSTMENT,OURCOUNTRYMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYWILLFURTHERBEHINDIMMINENTRESEARCHONTHETHEORYANDAPPLICATIONOFADVANCEDTECHNOLOGY1,HIGHSPEEDCNCMACHININGMEANINGHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTHEORYPUTFORWARDBYTHEGERMANPHYSICISTCARLJSALOMONINTHELASTCENTURYANDEARLYTHIRTYSHECONCLUDEDBYALOTOFEXPERIMENTSINTHENORMALRANGEOFCUTTINGSPEED,CUTTINGSPEEDIFTHEINCREASE,WILLCAUSETHECUTTINGTEMPERATURERISE,EXACERBATINGTHEWEAROFCUTTINGTOOL;HOWEVER,WHENTHECUTTINGSPEEDISINCREASEDTOACERTAINVALUE,ASLONGASMORETHANTHEINFLECTIONPOINT,WITHTHEINCREASEOFTHECUTTINGSPEED,CUTTINGTEMPERATURECANNOTRISE,BUTWILLDECLINE,SOASLONGASTHECUTTINGSPEEDISHIGHENOUGH,ITCANBESOLVEDVERYWELLINHIGHCUTTINGTEMPERATURECAUSEDBYTOOLWEARISNOTCONDUCIVETOTHECUTTINGPROBLEM,OBTAINEDGOODPROCESSINGEFFICIENCYWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRY,THISTHEORYISGRADUALLYPAIDMOREATTENTIONTO,ANDATTRACTEDALOTOFATTENTION,ONTHEBASISOFTHISTHEORYHASGRADUALLYFORMEDTHEFIELDOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYOFNC,RELATIVELYEARLYRESEARCHONNCHIGHSPEEDMACHININGTECHNOLOGYINDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES,THROUGHTHETHEORETICALBASISOFTHERESEARCH,BASICRESEARCHANDAPPLIEDRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTAPPLICATION,ATPRESENTAPPLICATIONSHAVEENTEREDTHESUBSTANTIVESTAGEINSOMEAREASTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGPROCESSINGCATEGORY,GENERALLYHAVETHEFOLLOWINGSEVERALKINDSOFCLASSIFICATIONMETHODS,ONEISTOSEETHATCUTTINGSPEED,CUTTINGSPEEDOVERCONVENTIONALCUTTINGSPEEDIS510TIMESOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGALSOHASTHESCHOLARTOSPINDLESPEEDASTHEDEFINITIONOFHIGHSPEEDPROCESSINGSTANDARDS,THATTHESPINDLESPEEDISHIGHERTHANTHATOF8000R\/MINFORHIGHSPEEDMACHININGANDFROMTHEMACHINETOOLSPINDLEDESIGNPOINTOFVIEW,WITHTHEPRODUCTOFDNDIAMETEROFSPINDLEANDSPINDLESPEED,IFTHEVALUEOFDNTO52000105MMR\/MIN,ISCONSIDEREDTOBEOFHIGHSPEEDMACHININGINPRACTICE,DIFFERENTPROCESSINGMETHODS,DIFFERENTMATERIALS,HIGHSPEEDCUTTINGSPEEDCORRESPONDINGTODIFFERENTISGENERALLYBELIEVEDTHATTHETURNINGSPEEDOF7007000M\/MIN,MILLINGSPEEDREACHESM\/MIN3006000,THATISINTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGINADDITION,FROMTHEPRACTICALCONSIDERATIONS,HIGHSPEEDMACHININGCONCEPTNOTONLYCONTAINSTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGPROCESS,INTEGRATIONANDOPTIMIZATIONALSOCONTAINSTHEPROCESSOFCUTTING,ISACANOBTAINGOODECONOMICBENEFITSANDHIGHSPEED,ISTHEUNITYOFTECHNOLOGYANDBENEFITHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYISINTHEMACHINETOOLSTRUCTUREANDMATERIALS,MACHINETOOLDESIGN,MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY,HIGHSPEEDSPINDLESYSTEM,HIGHPERFORMANCEANDFASTFEEDINGSYSTEM,AHIGHPERFORMANCECNCSYSTEM,TOOLHOLDERSYSTEM,HIGHPERFORMANCETOOLMATERIALANDTOOLDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY,HIGHEFFICIENCYANDHIGHPRECISIONMEASUREMENTANDTESTINGTECHNOLOGY,THEMECHANISMOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,HIGHSPEEDCUTTINGPROCESSANDOTHERRELATEDHARDWAREANDSOFTWARETECHNOLOGYAREFULLYINTEGRATEDINTOTHEDEVELOPMENTFOUNDATIONTHEREFORE,HIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYISACOMPLEXSYSTEMENGINEERING,ISAWITHTHERELATEDTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTANDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHECONCEPTOF2,THESUPERIORITYOFHIGHSPEEDCNCMACHININGDUETOTHELARGEAMPLITUDEOFTHEINCREASEOFTHECUTTINGSPEED,HIGHSPEEDMACHININGTECHNOLOGYNOTONLYIMPROVESTHECUTTINGPRODUCTIVITY,ANDCOMPAREDWITHTHECONVENTIONALCUTTINGALSOHASSOMEOBVIOUSADVANTAGESFIRST,SMALLCUTTINGFORCEINHIGHSPEEDMILLING,CUTTINGADOPTSTHEFORMOFSMALLQUANTITIES,HIGHCUTTINGSPEED,THECUTTINGFORCEISREDUCEDBY30COMPAREDTOTHECONVENTIONALCUTTING,ESPECIALLYTHERADIALCUTTINGFORCEGREATLYSPINDLEBEARING,TOOL,WORKPIECEISREDUCEDBOTHTOREDUCETOOLWEAR,ANDEFFECTIVECONTROLOFTHEVIBRATIONMACHININGSYSTEM,IMPROVETHEMACHININGACCURACYSECOND,THEMATERIALREMOVALRATEISHIGHTHEUSEOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,CUTTINGSPEEDANDFEEDRATEAREIMPROVEDGREATLY,THESAMETIMETHEMATERIALREMOVALRATEISIMPROVEDGREATLYTHUSGREATLYIMPROVETHEPROCESSINGEFFICIENCYTHIRD,THERMALDEFORMATIONSMALLINTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,CUTTINGHEAT,MOSTOFTHETIMETOTHEWORKPIECEBYTHEOUTFLOWOFHIGHSPEEDCHIPAWAY,SOTHEHEATINGTIMEOFTHEMACHINEDSURFACEISSHORT,NOTBECAUSEOFTHETEMPERATURERISELEADSTOTHERMALDEFORMATION,ISHELPFULTOIMPROVETHESURFACEACCURACY,PHYSICALANDMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFTHEMACHINEDSURFACEPROCESSINGMETHODISBETTERTHANTHECOMMONFOURTH,HIGHPRECISIONMACHININGHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGUSUALLYFEEDISRELATIVELYSMALL,SOTHATTHEMACHINEDSURFACEROUGHNESSISGREATLYREDUCED,ATTHESAMETIMEASTHECUTTINGFORCEISSMALLERTHANTHECONVENTIONALVIBRATIONCUTTING,MACHININGSYSTEMISREDUCED,THEMACHININGPROCESSMORESMOOTHLY,SOTHATGOODQUALITY,CANREALIZEHIGHACCURACY,LOWDEGREEOFROUGHMACHININGFIFTH,THEGREENENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONWHENHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,WORKPIECEMACHININGTIMEISSHORTENED,THEUSEOFENERGYANDEQUIPMENTRATE,HIGHPROCESSINGEFFICIENCY,LOWPROCESSINGENERGYCONSUMPTION,ATTHESAMETIME,DUETOTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGCANBEACHIEVEDEVENWITHOUTDRYCUTTING,REDUCETHECUTTINGFLUID,REDUCEPOLLUTIONANDCONSUMPTIONRESEARCHANDAPPLICATIONOFNUMERICALCONTROLHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGY,3INVIEWOFTHEABOVECHARACTERISTICSOFHIGHSPEEDMACHINING,THETECHNOLOGYHASGREATAPPLICATIONPOTENTIALINTHEFIELDOFTRADITIONALPROCESSINGWEAKFIRSTOFALL,THEWORKPIECEFORTHINWALLPARTSANDSLENDER,USESTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,THECUTTINGFORCEISSIGNIFICANTLYREDUCED,THEHEATISCHIPPINGAWAY,CANBEVERYGOODFORUSINGTHETRADITIONALMETHODOFTHEDEFORMATIONPROBLEMCAUSEDDUETOTHEINFLUENCEOFCUTTINGFORCEANDCUTTINGHEAT,GREATLYIMPROVINGTHEPROCESSINGQUALITYSECONDLY,BECAUSEOFTHECUTTINGRESISTANCEISSMALL,TOREDUCETOOLWEAR,MATERIALSOFHIGHMANGANESESTEEL,HARDENEDSTEEL,AUSTENITICSTAINLESSSTEEL,COMPOSITEMATERIALS,WEARRESISTANTCASTIRONISDIFFICULTTOBEPROCESSEDBYTRADITIONALMETHODS,CANBESTUDIEDUSINGNUMERICALCONTROLHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYTOPROCESSINADDITION,INTHEAUTOMOTIVE,AEROSPACE,MOLD,MANUFACTURINGFIELD,SOMEINTEGRALCOMPONENTSREQUIRERELATIVELYLARGEMATERIALREMOVALRATE,THEFEEDSPEEDCNCHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGWITHTHECUTTINGSPEEDINCREASEANDTHECORRESPONDINGINCREASEINUNITTIME,SOTHATTHEMATERIALREMOVALRATEISGREATLYIMPROVED,THUSINTHEMOLDMANUFACTURING,AUTOMOBILEMANUFACTURING,AEROSPACEMANUFACTURINGAPPLICATIONOFNUMERICALCONTROLHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGY,WILLPRODUCETHEENORMOUSECONOMICBENEFITSFOURTH,BECAUSEOFTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,MACHININGPROCESSISSTABLE,THEVIBRATIONISSMALL,COMPAREDWITHTHECONVENTIONALCUTTING,HIGHSPEEDCUTTINGCANSIGNIFICANTLYIMPROVETHEPRECISIONOF12,CANBECANCELLEDCOMPLETELYFINISHING,ANDSUBSEQUENT,ADOPTNUMERICALCONTROLHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGY,CANACHIEVEANDROUGH,FINISHINGONTHEOVERALLSTRUCTUREOFCOMPLEXPARTSINAMACHINE,REDUCESTHELIKELIHOODOFLOCATINGERRORTRANSFERPROCESS,WHICHISALSOCONDUCIVETOIMPROVETHEMACHININGACCURACYTHEREFORE,HIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYHASAWIDEAPPLICATIONPROSPECTINPRECISIONMANUFACTURINGALUMINIUMMOULDSUCHASABUSINESSPROCESS,THEMOLDCAVITYLENGTHIS1500MM,THEREQUIREDSIZEERROROF005MM,SURFACEROUGHNESSRA08ΜM,MANUFACTURINGPROCESSTHEORIGINALROUGHPLANINGSEMIFINISHPLANINGFINISHINGMANUALSCRAPINGMANUALPOLISHING,MANUFACTURINGCYCLEIS60HOURSUSINGHIGHSPEEDMILLING,AFTERSEMIFINISHMACHININGANDFINISHMACHINING,THEPROCESSINGCYCLEISONLY6HOURS,NOTONLYIMPROVEEFFICIENCY,BUTALSOGREATLYIMPROVETHEQUALITYOFMOLD4,RESEARCHONKEYTECHNOLOGIESOFHIGHSPEEDCNCMACHININGNCHIGHSPEEDMACHININGISACOMPLEXSYSTEMSENGINEERING,INVOLVESCUTTINGMECHANISM,CUTTINGMACHINE,CUTTER,CUTTINGPROCESSMONITORINGANDPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGYANDOTHERRELATEDHARDWAREANDSOFTWARETECHNOLOGY,IMPLEMENTATIONANDDEVELOPMENTOFNUMERICALCONTROLHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTECHNOLOGY,RELYONTHISSYSTEMOFVARIOUSELEMENTS,THEKEYTECHNOLOGYTOREALIZEHIGHSPEEDCNCCUTTINGTECHNOLOGYCANNOTDOWITHOUT,SPECIFICALLYINTHEFOLLOWINGASPECTS1THEMECHANISMOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTHEVARIOUSMATERIALSINHIGHSPEEDMACHININGCONDITIONS,THECHIPFORMATIONMECHANISM,VARIATIONOFCUTTINGFORCE,CUTTINGHEAT,TOOLWEARPATTERNSANDEFFECTSONTHESURFACEQUALITY,THEBASICTHEORYABOVEEXPERIMENTSANDRESEARCH,WILLBECONDUCIVETOPROMOTINGTHEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGPROCESSFORDETERMININGANDCUTTINGTHEAMOUNTOFCHOICE,ANDPROVIDEATHEORETICALBASISFORTHEPROCESSINGOFSPECIFICPARTSANDMATERIALFORMULATION,WHICHBELONGSTOTHETECHNICALPRINCIPLEATPRESENT,TODETERMINETHEPROCESSSPECIFICATIONOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGANDCUTTINGFERROUSMETALSANDDIFFICULTTOMACHINEMATERIALS,ISONEOFTHEDIFFICULTIESINTHEPRODUCTIONOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTING,ANDISALSOTHEFOCUSOFRESEARCHINTHEFIELDOFHIGHSPEEDMACHINING2TECHNOLOGYOFHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGMACHINETOOLMODULEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGMACHINENEEDSHIGHSPEEDSPINDLESYSTEM,FEEDINGSYSTEMANDHIGHSPEEDCNCCONTROLSYSTEMABLETOWORKINVERYHIGHSPEEDUNDERTHEHIGHSPEEDPROCESSINGREQUIREMENTSOFSPINDLEUNIT,THEABOVEGENERALSPINDLESPEED10000R\/MIN,SOMEEVENASHIGHAS60000100000R\/MIN,ANDTOENSUREGOODDYNAMICANDTHERMALPROPERTIESTHEKEYPARTISTHEMAINSHAFTBEARING,ITDECIDESTHELIFEOFHIGHSPEEDSPINDLEANDLOADCAPACITY,ONEOFTHECORECOMPONENTSANDHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGMACHINETOOLSPINDLESTRUCTURE,IMPROVEMENTANDPERFORMANCEIMPROVEMENTISONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTTECHNOLOGYOFHIGHSPEEDMACHINETOOLSANOTHERIMPORTANTELEMENTOFTHETECHNOLOGYISHIGHSPEEDFEEDSYSTEMWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMACHINETOOLSPINDLESPEEDINCREASING,INORDERTOENSUREEACHCUTTERTEETHORFEEDINGAMOUNTPERROTATIONINVARIANT,MACHINETOOLFEEDSPEEDANDACCELERATIONISALSOACORRESPONDINGINCREASE,THESAMETIMETOIMPROVETRAVELSPEEDTHEREFORE,MACHINETOOLFEEDSYSTEMMUSTMOVEQUICKLYANDFASTANDACCURATEPOSITIONING,WHICHISOBVIOUSLYONTHEMACHINETOOLGUIDE,SERVOSYSTEM,WORKINGTABLE,PUTFORWARDNEWANDHIGHERREQUIREMENTS,ISTHEKEYTECHNOLOGYOFHIGHSPEEDMACHINETOOLTECHNOLOGYCONTROLUNIT3THEHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTOOLTECHNOLOGYMODULEHIGHSPEEDMACHININGPROCESSSYSTEMCOMPOSEDOFMACHINETOOLS,TOOLANDWORKPIECE,TOOLISTHEMOSTACTIVEFACTORTHECUTTINGTOOLISONEOFTHEKEYTECHNOLOGYTOENSUREHIGHSPEEDCUTTINGSMOOTHLYWITHTHESUBSTANTIALINCREASEOFCUTTINGVELOCITY,HAVEPUTFORWARDDIFFERENTFROMTRADITIONALSPEEDCUTTINGREQUIREMENTSOFCUTTINGTOOLMATERIALS,GEOMETRICPARAMETERSOFCUTTINGTOOL,CUTTERBODYSTRUCTURE,HIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTOOLMATERIALANDTOOLMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYHASUNDERGONETREMENDOUSCHANGES,HIGHSPEEDMACHINING,TOENSUREPRODUCTIVITYANDHIGHMACHININGPRECISION,BUTALSOTOTOENSURESAFETYANDRELIABILITYTHEREFORE,HIGHSPEEDCUTTINGTOOLSYSTEMMUSTMEETWITHACLAMPREPEATPOSITIONINGACCURACYOFGEOMETRICACCURACYGOODANDHIGHLOADING,CLAM

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