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外文翻译--新加坡住宅区物业管理体系的选择.doc

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外文翻译--新加坡住宅区物业管理体系的选择.doc

本科毕业设计(论文)外文翻译原文ChoiceofpropertymanagementsystemforresidentialstratadevelopmentsinSingaporeCasestudyoftworesidentialstratadevelopmentsThissectionpresentsacasestudyoftworesidentialstratadevelopmentsinSingapore–referredtohereasStrataDevelopmentAandStrataDevelopmentB.Thecasestudyprovidesinsightsintothetwodevelopmentschoiceofpropertymanagementsystemanditsimplications.BasedoninterviewswiththepropertymanagerandManagingAgentofthetwodevelopments,thedifferentpropertymanagementsystemsareexaminedtoestablishhowappropriateandsuitabletheyareforeachstratadevelopment.Theseprovidevaluablelessonsforotherresidentialstratadevelopmentsontheimplicationsofeachpropertymanagementsystem.ChoiceofresidentialstratadevelopmentsforcasestudyThetwodevelopmentswereselectedforthecasestudybasedonthefollowingcriteriaLocationThetwostratdevelopmentsarelocatedincloseproximitytoeachotherinaprimeresidentialareainSingapore.Assuch,theysharesimilarlocationalattributeslikedistancetoamenitiesandaccesstopublictransport.AgeTheconstructionofthetwostratadevelopmentswerecompletedaroundthesametime,StrataDevelopmentAin1977andStrataDevelopmentBin1979.Theimplicationoftheageofthestratadevelopmentsisthatitprovidesagoodcomparisonwithregardtothephysicaldeteriorationandtheextentofupkeepandmaintenancerequiredforbothofthestratadevelopments.TenureThetwostratadevelopmentssharesimilartenures–bothhold999yearleaseholdtitles.DifferentmanagementsystemsStrataDevelopmentAhasalwaysemployedaninhousemanagementteamfortheirstratadevelopmentwhileStrataDevelopmentBhasalwaysemployedaManagingAgenttomanagetheirstratadevelopment.2DataavailabilityTheChairsoftheManagementCouncils,aswellasboththepropertymanagerandManagingAgentofbothstratadevelopmentswereresponsiveandforthcomingwithregardstotheinformationrequiredforthisstudy.StratadevelopmentAStrataDevelopmentAisaresidentialstratadevelopmentwithinaprimeresidentialarea.Thedevelopmentconsistsof470units,whichinclude38townhousesandsixshophouses,withtherestoftheunitsbuiltintofivehighrisetowerblocks.Thetenureofthepropertyis999yearsleasehold.Sincethedevelopmentwascompletedin1977,ithasemployedaninhousemanagementteamtooverseeitspropertyandfacilitymanagementneeds.Therewasjustonetime–arelativelybriefperiodofaboutsixmonths–whenaManagingAgentwasengagedasaconsultantthiswaswhenthestratadevelopmentwasseekinganewpropertymanager.Eventhen,theManagingAgentwasneverinvolvedinthelineofauthorityoftheManagementCounciloroftheinhousemanagementteam.Rather,theroleoftheappointedManagingAgentwasmerelytoactasaconsultantonanyissuestheManagementCouncilorpropertymanagermayhaveencounteredinthemanagementofthestratadevelopmentduringtheinterim.TheinhousemanagementteamforStrataDevelopmentAcomprisesof28staffmembers.ThepropertymanageracknowledgesthatitisrareforaresidentialstratadevelopmentinSingaporetoemployaninhousemanagementteamofthissize.Thepropertymanagerheadstheteam,allofwhomareunderthedirectpayrollofthedevelopmentsManagementCorporationFigure3.Thepropertymanager,whoholdsaPolytechnicDiplomainPropertyManagement,isassistedbyapropertyofficer,achiefsecurityofficer,anadministrativeofficerandtwoaccountsofficers.Inaddition,thepropertyofficerleadsateamofsixmaintenancestaffthattakecareofthedailyphysicalmaintenanceofthestratadevelopment,includingtheperiodicservicingofthestratadevelopmentswatertanksandpumps,andreplacementandrepairofanyfaultyelectricaldevices.Thechiefsecurityofficerleadsateamofsixteensecurityguards,whosejobincludesthemanningofthedevelopmentsthreeentryexitpoints,andthepatrollingofthestratadevelopmenttoensurethesafetyoftheresidentsinthestratadevelopment.Theonlyaspectoftherunningofthestratadevelopmentwhichisnothandledbytheinhousemanagementteamiscleaningandwastedisposal,whichissubcontractedtoanexternalcleaning3company.ByhavingtheentireteamunderthedirectemploymentoftheManagementCorporation,theissueofcommandandcontrolismoreefficaciousaswhencomparedtothesituationifthestratadevelopmentwasrunbyaManagingAgent.Byhavingallthestaffreporttohim,thepropertymanagerhasabettergraspofthedaytodayhappeningsinthestratadevelopment.Withthisoverview,heisabletorespondmorequicklytosituationsoremergenciesthatarise.Thepropertymanageralsopointedoutthatinhisexperienceatthedevelopment,beyondthephysicalaspectsofrunninganinhousemanagementteamhehasfoundthatthestaffintheteamdemonstrateahighdegreeofcommitmentandloyaltytotheiremployer.ThismaybecontrastedwithastratadevelopmentmanagedbyaManagingAgent,wherethestaffareemployedbytheManagingAgentsfirmandtypicallyrotatedbetweendevelopments.Insuchacase,itismorelikelythattheircommitmentisdirectedtowardstheiremployertheManagingAgentsfirm,ratherthantotheManagementCouncilsthattheyareassignedtoworkwith,whichmayinturnchangefromtimetotime.ThestudyofStrataDevelopmentAalsorevealsthattheemploymentofaninhousemanagementteamnotonlyallows,butrequirestheManagementCounciltoassumegreaterpowerandcontroloverhowthestratadevelopmentisrun,thanifitwerehandledbyaManagingAgent.Suchcontrolcantranslateintobettermanagementofboththedailyactivitiesoftherunningofthestratadevelopment,aswellastheformulationandcontinuedimplementationoflongtermgoalsandstrategiesoftheManagementCouncil.However,itmustbeemphasizedthatthesuccessofsuchasystemislargelydependantonacommittedandcompetentManagementCouncilholdingoffice.TheCouncilwouldhavetobecomprisedofdedicatedvolunteermemberspreparedtooverseetheinhousemanagementteam,togetherwiththeirpropertymanageratthehelm.BasedonthestudyofStrataDevelopmentAsManagementCouncil,itisnotedthatsuchaManagementCouncilmainlycomprisesretirees,oftenwithknowledgeandexperienceinrealestatematters,andwhoarewillingtoundertakethesupervisionoftheirinhouseteaminordertomeettheirownexpectations.Itappearsthateventheageprofile,educationalbackgroundandemploymentstatusofthesubsidiaryproprietorsbecomerelevanttotheissue.ThemainobjectiveofsuchaManagementCouncilseemstobetoretain4controloverpracticallyallaspectsoftherunningandoperationsoftheplaceCouncilmembersalsosharetheviewthatthiswillbedilutediftheyemployaManagingAgent.AstheManagementCounciliselectedbytheSubsidiaryProprietorsatGeneralMeeting,itisimpliedthatthemajorityofSubsidiaryProprietorsareinfavourofsuchamodeofManagement.StratadevelopmentBStrataDevelopmentBisaresidentialstratadevelopmentalsosituatedwithinthesameprimeresidentialarea.LikeStrataDevelopmentA,thepropertyhasa999yearleaseholdtitle.Itcomprises623units,intwoeightstoreyhighblocksofterraces,three14storeyslabblocksandtwo16storeypointblock.Sinceitscompletionandoccupationin1979,thedevelopmenthascontinuedtoengagethesameManagingAgentfirmforitspropertyandfacilitymanagementneeds.ThisseemstocontradicttheearlierdiscussionaboveonthepossiblelackofcontinuityasoneofthedisadvantageswhenemployingaManagingAgent.ItwillberecalledthattheinitialdurationofaManagingAgentsappointmentundersection66oftheBMSMAisonlyamaximumofthreeyears.AchangeofManagingAgentcanleadtodisruptionintherunningofthedevelopment.However,thecaseofStrataDevelopmentBprovesthatcontinuityisnotabenefitreservedjustforinhousemanagementteams–thedevelopmenthasretainedtheservicesofthesameManagingAgentfirmsinceitsinceptionin1979.DespitetheturnoverofmembersofeachnewManagementCouncil,theManagingAgentinStrataDevelopmentBhasactedastheconstantandplaysaregulatoryroleintheequation.ThishasprovenbeneficialtothestratadevelopmentastheManagingAgentcanadvisetheincomingManagementCouncilonanypendingissues,aswellascontinuewithitslongtermplanandstrategiesforthedevelopment.ThevalueofaManagingAgentsfirmsresourcesdiscussedearlierwasparticularlyevidentinthecaseofStrataDevelopmentBin2004,whenthepropertyofficerofthedevelopmenttenderedhisresignationtotheManagingAgentsfirm.Withintheshortperiodofamonth,areplacementpropertyofficerhadtobeappointed,andasmoothhandingoverofdutiesforthenewpropertyofficerfromhispredecessorhadtobeensured.Whilethismighthavebeenamoredifficulttaskifthedevelopmentwasmanagedbyaninhousemanagementteam,theresourcesoftheManagingAgentsfirmallowedaswiftreplacementthroughtheirexistingpoolof

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