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外文翻译--机械与液压的发展前景.doc

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外文翻译--机械与液压的发展前景.doc

TheprospectsforthedevelopmentofmechanicalandhydraulicWiththecontinuousdevelopmentofhumansociety,thelandcouldbeopenresourcesdepleted,theworldisgraduallyturningtotheocean,openanduseofmarineresourceshasplayedanincreasinglyimportantroleinthedevelopmentofcountries.Disputesbetweencountriesandregionsoftheresultingfriction.Sincethebeginningofthenewcentury,withtheoceanreefsandthescrambleforresourcesintensifies,sealanessecuritysituationdeterioratingsituationofthecompetinginterestsatseawillbemoresevere,especiallyintheUnitedStates,Japan,Russia,IndiaandothercountriesforthegrowthoftheNavyadoptedamultikindsofmeasures,warlordscontendsituation.Intheeraoffullimplementationoftheopenseabackgroundconditions,thetheNavyshoulderthesacredmissiontosafeguardnationalsecurity,todefenditssovereignty,safeguardnationalmaritimerightsandinterests.Atthesametimeduetothegrowingeconomicsituationofourcountryandourincreasinglypowerfulmilitarytechnology,andtheoutsideworldhasgraduallycloseup.However,Chinahasarelativelywidefieldofports,maritimetransportisthebestwaytocontacttheoutsideworld.Maritimetrafficwillbeusedinships,landcontactmustusethespringboard,soIwillbethespringboarddevicedesign.Springboardastheirownshipanimportantpartoftheshipclosetotheshore,canbeusedastheaccessbridgesupportequipment.Realitywehaveseenboardingladdergivesusthefeelingisveryheavy,inconvenientforcruiseshipsisfeasible,butifforaircraftcarriersorwarships,itcertainlydoesnotmeettherequirementsoncethepierisnotitwillcausetrouble,itisnecessarytodevelopalightweightandconvenientandsafetobeabletoadapttoamilitaryboardingladdersystem,thisismytopichavetodotoachievetherequirements.Idesignedaspringboarddevicenotonlydesignedanumberofmechanicaltransmission,hydraulictransmissionstillintheoriginalbasis.Withhydraulicdriveoftheoutstandingadvantageseasytoimplementfrequentstarting,commutationandvariablespeed,andlessimpactontheshipspowerplantinertia,highprecisionpositioncontrolforceandtorqueoftheoutputcanbelarge,butthelinespeedandthespeedcanbeverylow,verysmallsizeandweightwidespeedrange.Therefore,thehydraulicdriveisnowwidelyusedinalltypesofvessels.TheissueisChinasfirstaircraftcarrier,thehydraulicdesignoftheboardingladder.Springboardboardingladderismainlyusedforwarshipstothepierandweightlimitsuppliesthroughormigrate.Theboardingladdersystemtotheelectriccanalsobemanuallymanuallybyhandpump,theuseofthehandpumpisdesignedtopreventtheboardingladderincaseofpowerfailurecannotbeused.Inrecentyears,Chinasnationaleconomymaintainedamomentumofrapiddevelopment,majornationalinfrastructureprojectsinfullswing,thesustainabledevelopmentofdomesticagriculturalmachinery,constructionmachinery,aviation,railway,highway,automobile,shipbuildingandotherindustries,strongdemandforproductionandconstructionwilldrivethecontinuedgrowthofthehydraulictechnology.Bytheearly2000s,thegeneraltrendofdevelopmentofthemachinerymanufacturingindustryasthefourmodernizations1Flexibilitytheprocessequipmentandprocessroutecanbeappliedtotheneedsoftheproductionofavarietyofproducts,canbeappliedtotherapidreplacementoftheprocess,replacetheproductneeds2Agileproductstomarketfortheshortestpreparationtimereduction,machineryfactorysteeringmechanismflexibility3Intelligentanimportantpartoftheflexibleautomation,itisanewdevelopmentandextensionoftheflexibleautomation.Humansnotonlytogetridoftheheavymanuallabor,butalsofromthetediouscalculations,analysisofmentalliberation,inordertohavemoreenergytoengageinhighlevelcreativework.Theintellectualizedpromoteflexibleproductionsystemhasbetterjudgmentandabilitytoadapt.Theearly2000s,theupgradingofproductswillcontinuetospeedupawidevarietyofneedsincreasing.AccordingtothestatisticsoftheUnitedStates,JapanandEuropeandotherdevelopedcountries,from1975to1995,thetypeofmechanicalpartsincreasedby40to50,from75to85ofthestaffdonotdealdirectlywiththematerial,turntodealwiththeinformation.80to88oftheactivitydoesnotdirectlyincreasethevalueaddedproducts,productprocess,organizationandmanagementofincreasinglycomplex.Design,processpreparationworkaboutorderingmorethan60ofthetotaltimeforthecompletionoftheuser.Ontheotherhand,inthefiercemarketcompetition,supplyandproductqualityoftenplaysamoreimportantrolethanprice.Agilityisamajorissueinfrontofthemachinerymanufacturingindustry.Technicallytoachievetheflexibility,tobringaboutchangeintheorganizationofproduction,thesearemachinerymanufacturingenterprisesurgentevent4informationtechnologymachinerymanufacturingindustrywillnolongermatterandenergybymeansofthepowerofinformationtoproducevalue,butbythehelpofthepowerofmatterandenergyproductionvalue.Therefore,theinformationindustryandintelligenceindustrywillbecometheleadingindustryofthesociety.Machinerymanufacturingwillalsobeledbytheinformation,andtheuseofadvancedproductionmode,newmechanicalmanufacturingofadvancedmanufacturingsystems,advancedmanufacturingtechnologyandadvancedorganizationalmanagementway.Thebeginningofthe21stcentury,animportantfeatureofthemachinerymanufacturingindustryinitsglobalization,networking,virtualization,intelligentandgreenenvironmentalprotectioncoordinationmanufacturing.Idesignedaspringboarddevicenotonlydesignedanumberofmechanicaltransmission,hydraulictransmissionstillintheoriginalbasis.Withhydraulicdriveoftheoutstandingadvantageseasytoimplementfrequentstarting,commutationandvariablespeed,andlessimpactontheshipspowerplantinertia,highprecisionpositioncontrolforceandtorqueoftheoutputcanbelarge,butthelinespeedandthespeedcanbeverylow,verysmallsizeandweightwidespeedrange.Therefore,thehydraulicdriveisnowwidelyusedinalltypesofvessels.Acompletehydraulicsystemconsistsoffiveparts,namely,powercomponents,actuators,controlcomponents,auxiliarycomponentsAnnex,andhydraulicoil.PowercomponentsTheroleofthepowerelementistheprimemovermechanicalenergyisconvertedintofluidpressure,meansofpumpsinthehydraulicsystem,itprovidespowertotheentirehydraulicsystem.Hydraulicpumpstructuregenerallyintheformofgearpumps,vanepumpsandpistonpumps.ActuatorActuatorssuchashydrauliccylindersandhydraulicmotorspressureoftheliquidcanbeconvertedtomechanicalenergytodrivetheloadforlinearreciprocatingorrotarymotion.ControlcomponentsThecontrolelementi.e.,thevarioushydraulicvalvestocontrolandregulatethepressureoftheliquid,flowrateanddirectioninthehydraulicsystem.Accordingtothedifferentcontrolfunctions,hydraulicvalvescanbedividedintothepressurecontrolvalves,flowcontrolvalvesanddirectionalcontrolvalves.Pressurevalvesafetyvalveisdividedintobenefitsflowcontrolvalve,pressurereducingvalves,sequencevalves,pressurerelayflowcontrolvalveincludesathrottlevalve,regulatingvalve,flowdiversionvalvedirectionalcontrolvalveincludesaonewayvalve,pilotoperatedcheckvalve,shuttlevalve,valve.Dependingonthecontrolmode,thehydraulicvalvescanbedividedintotheswitchcontrolvalvesetpointcontrolvalvesandproportionalcontrolvalve.AuxiliarycomponentsAuxiliarycomponentsincludingfueltanks,filters,tubingandfittings,seals,quickchangefittings,highpressureballvalve,hoseassemblies,pressurejoints,pressuregauge,oillevel,oiltemperaturemeter.HydraulicoilThehydraulicoilistheenergytransferinthehydraulicsystemoftheworkingmedium,avarietyofmineraloil,emulsion,oilhydraulicmoldingHopseveralcategories.Alittlemechanicalknowledgeallknow,theenergywillbeconvertedtoeachother,andtousethisknowledgetoexplainthepowerlossofthehydraulicsystemonthehydraulicsystemisbest,however,thehydraulicsystempowerontheonehandwillcauseenergyloss,sothatthesystemtheoverallefficiencyisdecreased,ontheotherhand,losethispartoftheenergywillbetransformedintoheat,sothatthetemperatureriseofthehydraulicoil,oildeterioration,resultinginhydraulicequipmentfailure.Therefore,thedesignofthehydraulicsystem,meettherequirements,butalsogivefullconsiderationtoreducethepowerlossofthesystem.First,fromthepowersourcepumptoconsider,takingintoaccountthediversificationoftheactuatorworkingconditions,highflow,lowpressuresystemsometimesneedssometimesneedsmallflowandhighpressure.SoIchosetolimitpressurevariabledisplacementpumpisappropriate,becausethistypeofpumpflowvarieswithchangesinsystempressure.Whenthesystempressureisreduced,theflowrateisrelativelylarge,canmeetrapidstrokeoftheactuator.Flowwhenthesystempressureincreasesanddecreasesaccordingly,tomeettheworkingstrokeoftheactuator.Thiswillnotonlymeettherequirementsoftheactuator,butalsomakemorereasonablepowerconsumption.Second,hydraulicoilflowingthroughthevarioustypesofhydraulicvalvesinevitableexistenceofpressurelossandflowlosses,accountforalargeproportionofthispartoftheenergylossinthetotalenergyloss.Therefore,areasonableselectionhydraulicpressurevalvetoadjustthepressureisalsoanimportantaspecttoreducethepowerloss.Flowvalvesystemflowadjustmentrangetoselectandtoensurethattheminimumstableflowtomeettherequirements,thepressureofthepressurevalveinthehydraulicequipmenttomeetthenormalworkofthecase,trytotakealowerpressure.Iftheactuatorhasagovernorsrequest,thenselectthespeedcontrolloop,itisnecessarytomeettherequirementsofthegovernor,butalsominimizepowerloss.CommonspeedcontrolloopThrottlingSpeedControlCircuit,volume,speedcontrolloop,thevolumethrottlespeedcontrolloop.ThrottlingSpeedlooppowerloss,lowspeedstability.Volumespeedcontrolloopisneitheroverflowlosses,nothrottlinglosses,highefficiency,lowspeedstability.Ifyouwanttomeetbothrequirementsatthesametime,canbeuseddifferentialpressurevariablevolumepumpandthrottlecontrolCircuits,andtothedifferentialpressureacrossthethrottleassmallaspossibleinordertoreducethepressureloss.Fourth,areasonablechoiceofhydraulicoil.Thehydraulicoilflowinginthepipeline,willappearinthestickiness,whileexcessivestickinesswillbegeneratedwhenagreaterinternalfriction,resultinginfluidheat,whileincreasingtheresistancetofluidflow.Whentheviscosityistoolow,couldeasilyleadtoleakage,andwillreducethevolumetricefficiencyofthesystem,therefore,generallychoosethesuitableviscosityandviscositytemperaturecharacteristicsofgoodoil.Further,whenthefluidflowinthepipeline,butalsothereisfrictionalpressurelossandthelossofpartialpressureofasshortaspossible,thereforethedesignofconduitpipe,whilereducingelbow.IstoavoidtheabovereferredSomeworkinthehydraulicsystempowerloss,butthefactorsaffectingthepowerlossofthehydraulicsystemtherearemany,sowhentheparticulardesignofahydraulicsystemneedstobeconsolidatedtoconsidervariousotherrequirements.1pollutionandwearofcomponentsOilpollutantscausedbythewearandtearofthecomponentsofvariousformsofsolidparticlesintomotionpairgap,cuttingwearorfatiguewearonthesurfaceofthepart.Highspeedflowofsolidparticlesonthesurfaceoftheimpactofthecomponentscausedbyerosivewear.Oilinthewaterandoiloxidativedeteriorationofproductcomponentshaveacorrosiveeffect.Inaddition,theoilintheaircausedbycavitation,resultingintheelementsurfaceerosionanddestruction.2elementcloggedwithclampingfailureBasedontheparametersmeasuredfaultdiagnosissystemisahydraulicsystemisworkingproperly,thekeydependsontwomainoperatingparametersofpressureandflowisinnormalworkingcondition,aswellasspeedandotherparametersofthesystemtemperatureandactuatorsisnormalornot.Thehydraulicsystemfailurephenomenonisavarietyofthecauseofthemalfunctionisacombinationoffactors.Thesamefactorsmaycausedifferentsymptoms,thesamefaultmaycorrespondtoavarietyofdifferentreasons.Forexampleoilpollutionmaycausefailureofthehydraulicsystempressure,flowdirection,whichbroughtgreatdifficultiestothehydraulicsystemfaultdiagnosis.Parametermeasurementoffaultdiagnosisthinkingisthis,anyhydraulicsystemisworkingproperly,thesystemparameterstoworkaroundthedesignandsettingworkiftheseparameters

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