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外文翻译--机械与液压的发展前景.doc

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外文翻译--机械与液压的发展前景.doc

THEPROSPECTSFORTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMECHANICALANDHYDRAULICWITHTHECONTINUOUSDEVELOPMENTOFHUMANSOCIETY,THELANDCOULDBEOPENRESOURCESDEPLETED,THEWORLDISGRADUALLYTURNINGTOTHEOCEAN,OPENANDUSEOFMARINERESOURCESHASPLAYEDANINCREASINGLYIMPORTANTROLEINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFCOUNTRIESDISPUTESBETWEENCOUNTRIESANDREGIONSOFTHERESULTINGFRICTIONSINCETHEBEGINNINGOFTHENEWCENTURY,WITHTHEOCEANREEFSANDTHESCRAMBLEFORRESOURCESINTENSIFIES,SEALANESSECURITYSITUATIONDETERIORATINGSITUATIONOFTHECOMPETINGINTERESTSATSEAWILLBEMORESEVERE,ESPECIALLYINTHEUNITEDSTATES,JAPAN,RUSSIA,INDIAANDOTHERCOUNTRIESFORTHEGROWTHOFTHENAVYADOPTEDAMULTIKINDSOFMEASURES,WARLORDSCONTENDSITUATIONINTHEERAOFFULLIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEOPENSEABACKGROUNDCONDITIONS,THETHENAVYSHOULDERTHESACREDMISSIONTOSAFEGUARDNATIONALSECURITY,TODEFENDITSSOVEREIGNTY,SAFEGUARDNATIONALMARITIMERIGHTSANDINTERESTSATTHESAMETIMEDUETOTHEGROWINGECONOMICSITUATIONOFOURCOUNTRYANDOURINCREASINGLYPOWERFULMILITARYTECHNOLOGY,ANDTHEOUTSIDEWORLDHASGRADUALLYCLOSEUPHOWEVER,CHINAHASARELATIVELYWIDEFIELDOFPORTS,MARITIMETRANSPORTISTHEBESTWAYTOCONTACTTHEOUTSIDEWORLDMARITIMETRAFFICWILLBEUSEDINSHIPS,LANDCONTACTMUSTUSETHESPRINGBOARD,SOIWILLBETHESPRINGBOARDDEVICEDESIGNSPRINGBOARDASTHEIROWNSHIPANIMPORTANTPARTOFTHESHIPCLOSETOTHESHORE,CANBEUSEDASTHEACCESSBRIDGESUPPORTEQUIPMENTREALITYWEHAVESEENBOARDINGLADDERGIVESUSTHEFEELINGISVERYHEAVY,INCONVENIENTFORCRUISESHIPSISFEASIBLE,BUTIFFORAIRCRAFTCARRIERSORWARSHIPS,ITCERTAINLYDOESNOTMEETTHEREQUIREMENTSONCETHEPIERISNOTITWILLCAUSETROUBLE,ITISNECESSARYTODEVELOPALIGHTWEIGHTANDCONVENIENTANDSAFETOBEABLETOADAPTTOAMILITARYBOARDINGLADDERSYSTEM,THISISMYTOPICHAVETODOTOACHIEVETHEREQUIREMENTSIDESIGNEDASPRINGBOARDDEVICENOTONLYDESIGNEDANUMBEROFMECHANICALTRANSMISSION,HYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONSTILLINTHEORIGINALBASISWITHHYDRAULICDRIVEOFTHEOUTSTANDINGADVANTAGESEASYTOIMPLEMENTFREQUENTSTARTING,COMMUTATIONANDVARIABLESPEED,ANDLESSIMPACTONTHESHIPSPOWERPLANT;INERTIA,HIGHPRECISIONPOSITIONCONTROL;FORCEANDTORQUEOFTHEOUTPUTCANBELARGE,BUTTHELINESPEEDANDTHESPEEDCANBEVERYLOW,VERYSMALLSIZEANDWEIGHT;WIDESPEEDRANGETHEREFORE,THEHYDRAULICDRIVEISNOWWIDELYUSEDINALLTYPESOFVESSELSTHEISSUEISCHINASFIRSTAIRCRAFTCARRIER,THEHYDRAULICDESIGNOFTHEBOARDINGLADDERSPRINGBOARDBOARDINGLADDERISMAINLYUSEDFORWARSHIPSTOTHEPIERANDWEIGHTLIMITSUPPLIESTHROUGHORMIGRATETHEBOARDINGLADDERSYSTEMTOTHEELECTRICCANALSOBEMANUALLYMANUALLYBYHANDPUMP,THEUSEOFTHEHANDPUMPISDESIGNEDTOPREVENTTHEBOARDINGLADDERINCASEOFPOWERFAILURECANNOTBEUSEDINRECENTYEARS,CHINASNATIONALECONOMYMAINTAINEDAMOMENTUMOFRAPIDDEVELOPMENT,MAJORNATIONALINFRASTRUCTUREPROJECTSINFULLSWING,THESUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTOFDOMESTICAGRICULTURALMACHINERY,CONSTRUCTIONMACHINERY,AVIATION,RAILWAY,HIGHWAY,AUTOMOBILE,SHIPBUILDINGANDOTHERINDUSTRIES,STRONGDEMANDFORPRODUCTIONANDCONSTRUCTIONWILLDRIVETHECONTINUEDGROWTHOFTHEHYDRAULICTECHNOLOGYBYTHEEARLY2000S,THEGENERALTRENDOFDEVELOPMENTOFTHEMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYASTHEFOURMODERNIZATIONS1FLEXIBILITYTHEPROCESSEQUIPMENTANDPROCESSROUTECANBEAPPLIEDTOTHENEEDSOFTHEPRODUCTIONOFAVARIETYOFPRODUCTS,CANBEAPPLIEDTOTHERAPIDREPLACEMENTOFTHEPROCESS,REPLACETHEPRODUCTNEEDS;2AGILEPRODUCTSTOMARKETFORTHESHORTESTPREPARATIONTIMEREDUCTION,MACHINERYFACTORYSTEERINGMECHANISMFLEXIBILITY;3INTELLIGENTANIMPORTANTPARTOFTHEFLEXIBLEAUTOMATION,ITISANEWDEVELOPMENTANDEXTENSIONOFTHEFLEXIBLEAUTOMATIONHUMANSNOTONLYTOGETRIDOFTHEHEAVYMANUALLABOR,BUTALSOFROMTHETEDIOUSCALCULATIONS,ANALYSISOFMENTALLIBERATION,INORDERTOHAVEMOREENERGYTOENGAGEINHIGHLEVELCREATIVEWORKTHEINTELLECTUALIZEDPROMOTEFLEXIBLEPRODUCTIONSYSTEMHASBETTERJUDGMENTANDABILITYTOADAPTTHEEARLY2000S,THEUPGRADINGOFPRODUCTSWILLCONTINUETOSPEEDUPAWIDEVARIETYOFNEEDSINCREASINGACCORDINGTOTHESTATISTICSOFTHEUNITEDSTATES,JAPANANDEUROPEANDOTHERDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES,FROM1975TO1995,THETYPEOFMECHANICALPARTSINCREASEDBY40TO50,FROM75TO85OFTHESTAFFDONOTDEALDIRECTLYWITHTHEMATERIAL,TURNTODEALWITHTHEINFORMATION80TO88OFTHEACTIVITYDOESNOTDIRECTLYINCREASETHEVALUEADDEDPRODUCTS,PRODUCTPROCESS,ORGANIZATIONANDMANAGEMENTOFINCREASINGLYCOMPLEXDESIGN,PROCESSPREPARATIONWORKABOUTORDERINGMORETHAN60OFTHETOTALTIMEFORTHECOMPLETIONOFTHEUSERONTHEOTHERHAND,INTHEFIERCEMARKETCOMPETITION,SUPPLYANDPRODUCTQUALITYOFTENPLAYSAMOREIMPORTANTROLETHANPRICEAGILITYISAMAJORISSUEINFRONTOFTHEMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYTECHNICALLYTOACHIEVETHEFLEXIBILITY,TOBRINGABOUTCHANGEINTHEORGANIZATIONOFPRODUCTION,THESEAREMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGENTERPRISESURGENTEVENT;4INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGYMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYWILLNOLONGERMATTERANDENERGYBYMEANSOFTHEPOWEROFINFORMATIONTOPRODUCEVALUE,BUTBYTHEHELPOFTHEPOWEROFMATTERANDENERGYPRODUCTIONVALUETHEREFORE,THEINFORMATIONINDUSTRYANDINTELLIGENCEINDUSTRYWILLBECOMETHELEADINGINDUSTRYOFTHESOCIETYMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGWILLALSOBELEDBYTHEINFORMATION,ANDTHEUSEOFADVANCEDPRODUCTIONMODE,NEWMECHANICALMANUFACTURINGOFADVANCEDMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMS,ADVANCEDMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYANDADVANCEDORGANIZATIONALMANAGEMENTWAYTHEBEGINNINGOFTHE21STCENTURY,ANIMPORTANTFEATUREOFTHEMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYINITSGLOBALIZATION,NETWORKING,VIRTUALIZATION,INTELLIGENTANDGREENENVIRONMENTALPROTECTIONCOORDINATIONMANUFACTURINGIDESIGNEDASPRINGBOARDDEVICENOTONLYDESIGNEDANUMBEROFMECHANICALTRANSMISSION,HYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONSTILLINTHEORIGINALBASISWITHHYDRAULICDRIVEOFTHEOUTSTANDINGADVANTAGESEASYTOIMPLEMENTFREQUENTSTARTING,COMMUTATIONANDVARIABLESPEED,ANDLESSIMPACTONTHESHIPSPOWERPLANT;INERTIA,HIGHPRECISIONPOSITIONCONTROL;FORCEANDTORQUEOFTHEOUTPUTCANBELARGE,BUTTHELINESPEEDANDTHESPEEDCANBEVERYLOW,VERYSMALLSIZEANDWEIGHT;WIDESPEEDRANGETHEREFORE,THEHYDRAULICDRIVEISNOWWIDELYUSEDINALLTYPESOFVESSELSACOMPLETEHYDRAULICSYSTEMCONSISTSOFFIVEPARTS,NAMELY,POWERCOMPONENTS,ACTUATORS,CONTROLCOMPONENTS,AUXILIARYCOMPONENTSANNEX,ANDHYDRAULICOILPOWERCOMPONENTSTHEROLEOFTHEPOWERELEMENTISTHEPRIMEMOVERMECHANICALENERGYISCONVERTEDINTOFLUIDPRESSURE,MEANSOFPUMPSINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEM,ITPROVIDESPOWERTOTHEENTIREHYDRAULICSYSTEMHYDRAULICPUMPSTRUCTUREGENERALLYINTHEFORMOFGEARPUMPS,VANEPUMPSANDPISTONPUMPSACTUATORACTUATORSSUCHASHYDRAULICCYLINDERSANDHYDRAULICMOTORSPRESSUREOFTHELIQUIDCANBECONVERTEDTOMECHANICALENERGYTODRIVETHELOADFORLINEARRECIPROCATINGORROTARYMOTIONCONTROLCOMPONENTSTHECONTROLELEMENTIE,THEVARIOUSHYDRAULICVALVESTOCONTROLANDREGULATETHEPRESSUREOFTHELIQUID,FLOWRATEANDDIRECTIONINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMACCORDINGTOTHEDIFFERENTCONTROLFUNCTIONS,HYDRAULICVALVESCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHEPRESSURECONTROLVALVES,FLOWCONTROLVALVESANDDIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVESPRESSUREVALVESAFETYVALVEISDIVIDEDINTOBENEFITSFLOWCONTROLVALVE,PRESSUREREDUCINGVALVES,SEQUENCEVALVES,PRESSURERELAY;FLOWCONTROLVALVEINCLUDESATHROTTLEVALVE,REGULATINGVALVE,FLOWDIVERSIONVALVE;DIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVEINCLUDESAONEWAYVALVE,PILOTOPERATEDCHECKVALVE,SHUTTLEVALVE,VALVEDEPENDINGONTHECONTROLMODE,THEHYDRAULICVALVESCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHESWITCHCONTROLVALVESETPOINTCONTROLVALVESANDPROPORTIONALCONTROLVALVEAUXILIARYCOMPONENTSAUXILIARYCOMPONENTSINCLUDINGFUELTANKS,FILTERS,TUBINGANDFITTINGS,SEALS,QUICKCHANGEFITTINGS,HIGHPRESSUREBALLVALVE,HOSEASSEMBLIES,PRESSUREJOINTS,PRESSUREGAUGE,OILLEVEL,OILTEMPERATUREMETERHYDRAULICOILTHEHYDRAULICOILISTHEENERGYTRANSFERINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMOFTHEWORKINGMEDIUM,AVARIETYOFMINERALOIL,EMULSION,OILHYDRAULICMOLDINGHOPSEVERALCATEGORIESALITTLEMECHANICALKNOWLEDGEALLKNOW,THEENERGYWILLBECONVERTEDTOEACHOTHER,ANDTOUSETHISKNOWLEDGETOEXPLAINTHEPOWERLOSSOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMONTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMISBEST,HOWEVER,THEHYDRAULICSYSTEMPOWERONTHEONEHANDWILLCAUSEENERGYLOSS,SOTHATTHESYSTEMTHEOVERALLEFFICIENCYISDECREASED,ONTHEOTHERHAND,LOSETHISPARTOFTHEENERGYWILLBETRANSFORMEDINTOHEAT,SOTHATTHETEMPERATURERISEOFTHEHYDRAULICOIL,OILDETERIORATION,RESULTINGINHYDRAULICEQUIPMENTFAILURETHEREFORE,THEDESIGNOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEM,MEETTHEREQUIREMENTS,BUTALSOGIVEFULLCONSIDERATIONTOREDUCETHEPOWERLOSSOFTHESYSTEMFIRST,FROMTHEPOWERSOURCEPUMPTOCONSIDER,TAKINGINTOACCOUNTTHEDIVERSIFICATIONOFTHEACTUATORWORKINGCONDITIONS,HIGHFLOW,LOWPRESSURESYSTEMSOMETIMESNEEDS;SOMETIMESNEEDSMALLFLOWANDHIGHPRESSURESOICHOSETOLIMITPRESSUREVARIABLEDISPLACEMENTPUMPISAPPROPRIATE,BECAUSETHISTYPEOFPUMPFLOWVARIESWITHCHANGESINSYSTEMPRESSUREWHENTHESYSTEMPRESSUREISREDUCED,THEFLOWRATEISRELATIVELYLARGE,CANMEETRAPIDSTROKEOFTHEACTUATORFLOWWHENTHESYSTEMPRESSUREINCREASESANDDECREASESACCORDINGLY,TOMEETTHEWORKINGSTROKEOFTHEACTUATORTHISWILLNOTONLYMEETTHEREQUIREMENTSOFTHEACTUATOR,BUTALSOMAKEMOREREASONABLEPOWERCONSUMPTIONSECOND,HYDRAULICOILFLOWINGTHROUGHTHEVARIOUSTYPESOFHYDRAULICVALVESINEVITABLEEXISTENCEOFPRESSURELOSSANDFLOWLOSSES,ACCOUNTFORALARGEPROPORTIONOFTHISPARTOFTHEENERGYLOSSINTHETOTALENERGYLOSSTHEREFORE,AREASONABLESELECTIONHYDRAULICPRESSUREVALVETOADJUSTTHEPRESSUREISALSOANIMPORTANTASPECTTOREDUCETHEPOWERLOSSFLOWVALVESYSTEMFLOWADJUSTMENTRANGETOSELECTANDTOENSURETHATTHEMINIMUMSTABLEFLOWTOMEETTHEREQUIREMENTS,THEPRESSUREOFTHEPRESSUREVALVEINTHEHYDRAULICEQUIPMENTTOMEETTHENORMALWORKOFTHECASE,TRYTOTAKEALOWERPRESSUREIFTHEACTUATORHASAGOVERNORSREQUEST,THENSELECTTHESPEEDCONTROLLOOP,ITISNECESSARYTOMEETTHEREQUIREMENTSOFTHEGOVERNOR,BUTALSOMINIMIZEPOWERLOSSCOMMONSPEEDCONTROLLOOPTHROTTLINGSPEEDCONTROLCIRCUIT,VOLUME,SPEEDCONTROLLOOP,THEVOLUMETHROTTLESPEEDCONTROLLOOPTHROTTLINGSPEEDLOOPPOWERLOSS,LOWSPEEDSTABILITYVOLUMESPEEDCONTROLLOOPISNEITHEROVERFLOWLOSSES,NOTHROTTLINGLOSSES,HIGHEFFICIENCY,LOWSPEEDSTABILITYIFYOUWANTTOMEETBOTHREQUIREMENTSATTHESAMETIME,CANBEUSEDDIFFERENTIALPRESSUREVARIABLEVOLUMEPUMPANDTHROTTLECONTROLCIRCUITS,ANDTOTHEDIFFERENTIALPRESSUREACROSSTHETHROTTLEASSMALLASPOSSIBLEINORDERTOREDUCETHEPRESSURELOSSFOURTH,AREASONABLECHOICEOFHYDRAULICOILTHEHYDRAULICOILFLOWINGINTHEPIPELINE,WILLAPPEARINTHESTICKINESS,WHILEEXCESSIVESTICKINESSWILLBEGENERATEDWHENAGREATERINTERNALFRICTION,RESULTINGINFLUIDHEAT,WHILEINCREASINGTHERESISTANCETOFLUIDFLOWWHENTHEVISCOSITYISTOOLOW,COULDEASILYLEADTOLEAKAGE,ANDWILLREDUCETHEVOLUMETRICEFFICIENCYOFTHESYSTEM,THEREFORE,GENERALLYCHOOSETHESUITABLEVISCOSITYANDVISCOSITYTEMPERATURECHARACTERISTICSOFGOODOILFURTHER,WHENTHEFLUIDFLOWINTHEPIPELINE,BUTALSOTHEREISFRICTIONALPRESSURELOSSANDTHELOSSOFPARTIALPRESSUREOFASSHORTASPOSSIBLE,THEREFORETHEDESIGNOFCONDUITPIPE,WHILEREDUCINGELBOWISTOAVOIDTHEABOVEREFERREDSOMEWORKINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMPOWERLOSS,BUTTHEFACTORSAFFECTINGTHEPOWERLOSSOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMTHEREAREMANY,SOWHENTH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