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外文翻译--机械加工介绍.doc

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外文翻译--机械加工介绍.doc

题目机械加工介绍学院专业班级姓名学号指导教师外文文献1MachiningProcessingIntroduction1LatheLathesaremachinetoolsdesignedprimarilytodoturning,facingandboring,Verylittleturningisdoneonothertypesofmachinetools,andnonecandoitwithequalfacility.Becauselathesalsocandodrillingandreaming,theirversatilitypermitsseveraloperationstobedonewithasinglesetupoftheworkpiece.Consequently,morelathesofvarioustypesareusedinmanufacturingthananyothermachinetool.Theessentialcomponentsofalathearethebed,headstockassembly,tailstockassembly,andtheleadscrewandfeedrod.Thebedisthebackboneofalathe.Itusuallyismadeofwellnormalizedoragedgrayornodularcastironandprovidessheavy,rigidframeonwhichalltheotherbasiccomponentsaremounted.Twosetsofparallel,longitudinalways,innerandouter,arecontainedonthebed,usuallyontheupperside.SommakersuseaninvertedVshapeforallfourways,whereasothersutilizeoneinvertedVandoneflatwayinoneorbothsets,theyareprecisionmachinedtoassureaccuracyofalignment.Onmostmodernlathesthewayaresurfacehardenedtoresistwearandabrasion,butprecautionshouldbetakeninoperatingalathetoassurethatthewaysarenotdamaged.Anyinaccuracyinthemusuallymeansthattheaccuracyoftheentirelatheisdestroyed.2Theheadstockismountedinafoxedpositionontheinnerways,usuallyattheleftendofthebed.Itprovidesapoweredmeansofrotatingthewordatvariousspeeds.Essentially,itconsistsofahollowspindle,mountedinaccuratebearings,andasetoftransmissiongearssimilartoatrucktransmissionthroughwhichthespindlecanberotatedatanumberofspeeds.Mostlathesprovidefrom8to18speeds,usuallyinageometricratio,andonmodernlathesallthespeedscanbeobtainedmerelybymovingfromtwotofourlevers.Anincreasingtrendistoprovideacontinuouslyvariablespeedrangethroughelectricalormechanicaldrives.Becausetheaccuracyofalatheisgreatlydependentonthespindle,itisofheavyconstructionandmountedinheavybearings,usuallypreloadedtaperedrollerorballtypes.Thespindlehasaholeextendingthroughitslengththroughwhichlongbarstockcanbefed.Thesizeofmaximumsizeofbarstockthatcanbemachinedwhenthematerialmustbefedthroughspindle.Thetailsticdassemblyconsists,essentially,ofthreeparts.Alowercastingfitsontheinnerwaysofthebedandcanslidelongitudinallythereon,withmeansforclampingtheentireassemblyinanydesiredlocationanuppercastingfitsontheloweroneandcanbemovedtransverselyuponit,onsometypeofkeyedways,topermitaligningtheassemblyisthetailstockquill.Thisishollowsteelcylinder,usuallyabout51to76mm2to3inchesindiameter,thatcanbemovedseveralincheslongitudinallyinandoutoftheuppercastingbymeansofahandwheelandscrew.Thesizeofalatheisdesignatedbytwodimensions.Thefirstisknownasthe3swing.Thisisthemaximumdiameterofworkthatcanberotatedonalathe.Itisapproximatelytwicethedistancebetweenthelineconnectingthelathecentersandthenearestpointontheways,thesecondsizedimensionisthemaximumdistancebetweencenters.Theswingthusindicatesthemaximumworkpiecediameterthatcanbeturnedinthelathe,whilethedistancebetweencentersindicatesthemaximumlengthofworkpiecethatcanbemountedbetweencenters.Enginelathesarethetypemostfrequentlyusedinmanufacturing.Theyareheavydutymachinetoolswithallthecomponentsdescribedpreviouslyandhavepowerdriveforalltoolmovementsexceptonthecompoundrest.Theycommonlyrangeinsizefrom305to610mm12to24inchesswingandfrom610to1219mm24to48inchescenterdistances,butswingsupto1270mm50inchesandcenterdistancesupto3658mm12feetarenotuncommon.Mosthavechippansandabuiltincoolantcirculatingsystem.Smallerenginelatheswithswingsusuallynotover330mm13inches–alsoareavailableinbenchtype,designedforthebedtobemountedonabenchonabenchorcabinet.Althoughenginelathesareversatileandveryuseful,becauseofthetimerequiredforchangingandsettingtoolsandformakingmeasurementsontheworkpiece,thyarenotsuitableforquantityproduction.Oftentheactualchipproductiontineislessthan30ofthetotalcycletime.Inaddition,askilledmachinistisrequiredforalltheoperations,andsuchpersonsarecostlyandofteninshortsupply.However,muchoftheoperatorstimeisconsumedbysimple,repetitiousadjustmentsandinwatchingchipsbeingmade.Consequently,toreduceoreliminatetheamount

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