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外文翻译--机械设计-新型搅拌机.doc

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外文翻译--机械设计-新型搅拌机.doc

MECHANICALDESIGNTHENEWBLENDERTHEDESIGNPROCESSDESIGNINGSTARTSWITHANEEDREALEXISTINGAPPARATUSMAYNEEDIMPROVEMENTSINDURABILITY,EFFICIENCY,WEIGHT,SPEED,ORCOSTNEWAPPARATUSMAYBENEEDEDTOPERFORMAFUNCTIONPREVIOUSLYDONEBYMEN,SUCHASCOMPUTATION,ASSEMBLY,ORSERVICINGWITHTHEOBJECTIVEWHOLLYORPARTLYINTHEDESIGNPRELIMINARYSTAGE,SHOULDALLOWTODESIGNTHEPERSONNELFULLYTODISPLAYTHECREATIVITY,NOTEACHKINDOFRESTRAINTEVENIFHASHADMANYIMPRACTICALIDEAS,ALSOCANINTHEDESIGNEARLYTIME,NAMELYINFRONTOFTHEPLANBLUEPRINTISCORRECTEDONLYTHEN,ONLYTHENDOESNOTSENDTOSTOPSUPTHEINNOVATIONTHEMENTALITYUSUALLY,MUSTPROPOSESEVERALSETSOFDESIGNPROPOSALS,THENPERFORMTHECOMPARISONHASTHEPOSSIBILITYVERYMUCHINTHEPLANWHICHFINALLYDESIGNATED,HASUSEDCERTAINNOTINPLANSOMEIDEASWHICHACCEPTSWHENTHEGENERALSHAPEANDAFEWDIMENSIONSOFTHESEVERALCOMPONENTSBECOMEAPPARENT,ANALYSISCANBEGININEARNESTTHEANALYSISWILLHAVEASITSOBJECTIVESATISFACTORYORSUPERIORPERFORMANCE,PLUSSAFETYANDDURABILITYWITHMINIMUMWEIGHT,ANDACOMPETITIVECOSTOPTIMUMPROPORTIONSANDDIMENSIONSWILLBESOUGHTFOREACHCRITICALLYLOADEDSECTION,TOGETHERWITHABALANCEBETWEENTHESTRENGTHSOFTHESEVERALCOMPONENTSMATERIALSANDTHEIRTREATMENTWILLBECHOSENTHESEIMPORTANTOBJECTIVESCANBEATTAINEDONLYBYANALYSISBASEDUPONTHEPRINCIPLESOFMECHANICS,SUCHASTHOSEOFSTATICFORREACTIONFORCESANDFORTHEOPTIMUMUTILIZATIONOFFRICTION;OFDYNAMICSFORINERTIA,ACCELERATION,ANDENERGY;OFELASTICITYANDSTRENGTHOFMATERIALSFORSTRESSANDDEFLECTION;OFPHYSICALBEHAVIOROFMATERIALS;ANDOFFLUIDMECHANICSFORLUBRICATIONANDHYDRODYNAMICDRIVESTHEANALYSESMAYBEMADEBYTHESAMEENGINEERWHOCONCEIVEDTHEARRANGEMENTOFMECHANISMS,OR,INALARGECOMPANY,THEYMAYBEMADEBYASEPARATEANALYSISDIVISIONORRESEARCHGROUPDESIGNISAREITERATIVEANDCOOPERATIVEPROCESS,WHETHERDONEFORMALLYORINFORMALLY,ANDTHEANALYSTCANCONTRIBUTETOPHASESOTHERTHANHISOWNPRODUCTDESIGNREQUIRESMUCHRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTMANYCONCEPTSOFANIDEAMUSTBESTUDIED,TRIED,ANDTHENEITHERUSEDORDISCARDEDALTHOUGHTHECONTENTOFEACHENGINEERINGPROBLEMISUNIQUE,THEDESIGNERSFOLLOWTHESIMILARPROCESSTOSOLVETHEPROBLEMSPRODUCTLIABILITYSUITSDESIGNERSANDFORCEDINMATERIALSELECTION,USINGTHEBESTPROGRAMINTHEPROCESSOFMATERIAL,THEMOSTCOMMONPROBLEMSFORFIVEADONTUNDERSTANDORNOTUSEABOUTTHELATESTAPPLICATIONMATERIALSTOTHEBESTINFORMATION,BFAILEDTOFORESEEANDCONSIDERTHEREASONABLEUSEMATERIALMAYSUCHASPOSSIBLE,DESIGNERSSHOULDFURTHERFORECASTANDCONSIDERDUETOIMPROPERUSEPRODUCTSINRECENTYEARS,MANYPRODUCTSLIABILITYINLITIGATION,THEUSEOFPRODUCTSANDHURTTHEPLAINTIFFACCUSEDMANUFACTURER,ANDWONTHEDECISION,COFTHEMATERIALSUSEDALLORSOMEOFTHEDATA,DATA,ESPECIALLYWHENTHEUNCERTAINTYLONGTERMPERFORMANCEDATAISSO,DQUALITYCONTROLMETHODISNOTSUITABLEANDUNPROVEN,EBYSOMECOMPLETELYINCOMPETENTPERSONSCHOOSEMATERIALSTHROUGHTOTHEABOVEFIVEQUESTIONSANALYSIS,MAYOBTAINTHESEQUESTIONSISDOESNOTHAVETHESUFFICIENTREASONEXISTENCETHECONCLUSIONMAYFORAVOIDTHESEQUESTIONSTOTHESEQUESTIONSRESEARCHANALYSESTHEAPPEARANCEINDICATINGTHEDIRECTIONALTHOUGHUSESTHEBESTCHOICEOFMATERIALMETHODNOTTOBEABLETOAVOIDHAVINGTHEPRODUCTRESPONSIBILITYLAWSUIT,DESIGNSTHEPERSONNELANDTHEINDUSTRYCARRIESONTHECHOICEOFMATERIALACCORDINGTOTHESUITABLEPROCEDURE,MAYGREATLYREDUCETHELAWSUITTHEQUANTITYMAYSEEFROMTHEABOVEDISCUSSION,THECHOICEMATERIALPEOPLESHOULDTOTHEMATERIALNATURE,THECHARACTERISTICANDTHEPROCESSINGMETHODHAVECOMPREHENSIVEANDTHEBASICUNDERSTANDINGFINALLY,ADESIGNBASEDUPONFUNCTION,ANDAPROTOTYPEMAYBEBUILTIFITSTESTSARESATISFACTORY,THEINITIALDESIGNWILLUNDERGOCERTAINMODIFICATIONSTHATENABLEITTOBEMANUFACTUREDINQUANTITYATALOWERCOSTDURINGSUBSEQUENTYEARSOFMANUFACTUREANDSERVICE,THEDESIGNISLIKELYTOUNDERGOCHANGESASNEWIDEASARECONCEIVEDORASFURTHERANALYSESBASEDUPONTESTSANDEXPERIENCEINDICATEALTERATIONSSALESAPPEALSOMERULESFORDESIGNINTHISSECTIONITISSUGGESTEDTHAT,APPLIEDWITHACREATIVEATTITUDE,ANALYSESCANLEADTOIMPORTANTIMPROVEMENTSANDTOTHECONCEPTIONANDPERFECTIONOFALTERNATE,PERHAPSMOREFUNCTIONAL,ECONOMICAL,ANDDURABLEPRODUCTSTOSTIMULATECREATIVETHOUGHT,THEFOLLOWINGRULESARESUGGESTEDFORTHEDESIGNERANDANALYSTTHEFIRSTSIXRULESAREPARTICULARLYAPPLICABLEFORTHEANALYST1ACREATIVEUSEOFNEEDOFPHYSICALPROPERTIESANDCONTROLPROCESS2RECOGNIZEFUNCTIONALLOADSANDTHEIRSIGNIFICANCE3ANTICIPATEUNINTENTIONALLOADS4DEVISEMOREFAVORABLELOADINGCONDITIONS5PROVIDEFORFAVORABLESTRESSDISTRIBUTIONANDSTIFFNESSWITHMINIMUMWEIGHT6USEBASICEQUATIONSTOPROPORTIONANDOPTIMIZEDIMENSIONS7CHOOSEMATERIALSFORACOMBINATIONOFPROPERTIES8SELECTCAREFULLY,STOCKANDINTEGRALCOMPONENTS9MODIFYAFUNCTIONALDESIGNTOFITTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSANDREDUCECOST10PROVIDEFORACCURATELOCATIONANDNONINTERFERENCEOFPARTSINASSEMBLYMACHINERYDESIGNCOVERSTHEFOLLOWINGCONTENTS1PROVIDESANINTRODUCTIONTOTHEDESIGNPROCESS,PROBLEMFORMULATION,SAFETYFACTORS2REVIEWSTHEMATERIALPROPERTIESANDSTATICANDDYNAMICLOADINGANALYSIS,INCLUDINGBEAM,VIBRATIONANDIMPACTLOADING3REVIEWSTHEFUNDAMENTALSOFSTRESSANDDEFECTIONANALYSIS4INTRODUCESFATIGUEFAILURETHEORYWITHTHEEMPHASISONSTRESSLIFEAPPROACHESTOHIGHCYCLEFATIGUEDESIGN,WHICHISCOMMONLYUSEDINTHEDESIGNOFROTATIONMACHINERY5DISCUSSESTHOROUGHLYTHEPHENOMENAOFWEARMECHANISMS,SURFACECONTACTSTRESSES,ANDSURFACEFATIGUE6INVESTIGATESSHAFTDESIGNUSINGTHEFATIGUEANALYSISTECHNIQUES7DISCUSSESFLUIDFILMANDROLLINGELEMENTBEARINGTHEORYANDAPPLICATION8GIVESATHOROUGHINTRODUCTIONTOTHEKINEMATICS,DESIGNANDSTRESSANALYSISOFSPURGEARS,ANDASIMPLEINTRODUCTIONTOHELICAL,BEVEL,ANDWORMGEARING9DISCUSSESSPRINGDESIGNINCLUDINGCOMPRESSION,EXTENSIONANDTORSIONSPRINGS10DEALSWITHSCREWSANDFASTENERSINCLUDINGPOWERSCREWANDPRELOADFASTENERS11INTRODUCESTHEDESIGNANDSPECIFICATIONOFDISKANDDRUMCLUTCHESANDBRAKESMACHINEDESIGNTHECOMPLETEDESIGNOFAMACHINEISACOMPLEXPROCESSTHEMACHINEDESIGNISACREATIVEWORKPROJECTENGINEERNOTONLYMUSTHAVETHECREATIVITYINTHEWORK,BUTALSOMUSTINASPECTANDSOONMECHANICALDRAWING,KINEMATICS,ENGINEERIGMATERIAL,MATERIALSMECHANICSANDMACHINEMANUFACTURETECHNOLOGYHASTHEDEEPELEMENTARYKNOWLEDGEONEOFTHEFIRSTSTEPSINTHEDESIGNOFANYPRODUCTISTOSELECTTHEMATERIALFROMWHICHEACHPARTISTOBEMADENUMEROUSMATERIALSAREAVAILABLETOTODAYSDESIGNERSTHEFUNCTIONOFTHEPRODUCT,ITSAPPEARANCE,THECOSTOFTHEMATERIAL,ANDTHECOSTOFFABRICATIONAREIMPORTANTINMAKINGASELECTIONACAREFULEVALUATIONOFTHEPROPERTIESOFAMATERIALMUSTBEMADEPRIORTOANYCALCULATIONSCAREFULCALCULATIONSARENECESSARYTOENSURETHEVALIDITYOFADESIGNINCASEOFANYPARTFAILURES,ITISDESIRABLETOKNOWWHATWASDONEINORIGINALLYDESIGNINGTHEDEFECTIVECOMPONENTSTHECHECKINGOFCALCULATIONSANDDRAWINGDIMENSIONSISOFUTMOSTIMPORTANCETHEMISPLACEMENTOFONEDECIMALPOINTCANRUINANOTHERWISEACCEPTABLEPROJECTALLASPECTSOFDESIGNWORKSHOULDBECHECKEDANDRECHECKEDTHECOMPUTERISATOOLHELPFULTOMECHANICALDESIGNERSTOLIGHTENTEDIOUSCALCULATIONS,ANDPROVIDEEXTENDEDANALYSISOFAVAILABLEDATAINTERACTIVESYSTEMS,BASEDONCOMPUTERCAPABILITIES,HAVEMADEPOSSIBLETHECONCEPTSOFCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGNCADANDCOMPUTERAIDEDMANUFACTURINGCAMHOWDOESTHEPSYCHOLOGISTFREQUENTLYDISCUSSCAUSESTHEMACHINEWHICHTHEPEOPLEADAPTSTHEMTOOPERATEDESIGNSPERSONNELSBASICRESPONSIBILITYISDILIGENTLYCAUSESTHEMACHINETOADAPTTHEPEOPLETHISCERTAINLYISNOTANEASYWORK,BECAUSECERTAINLYDOESNOTHAVETOALLPEOPLETOSAYINFACTALLISTHEMOSTSUPERIOROPERATINGAREAANDTHEOPERATINGPROCESSANOTHERIMPORTANTQUESTION,PROJECTENGINEERMUSTBEABLETOCARRYONTHEEXCHANGEANDTHECONSULTATIONWITHOTHERCONCERNEDPERSONNELINTHEINITIALSTAGE,DESIGNSTHEPERSONNELTOHAVETOCARRYONTHEEXCHANGEANDTHECONSULTATIONONTHEPRELIMINARYDESIGNWITHTHEADMINISTRATIVEPERSONNEL,ANDISAPPROVEDTHISGENERALLYISTHROUGHTHEORALDISCUSSION,THESCHEMATICDIAGRAMANDTHEWRITINGMATERIALCARRIESONIFFRONTSUES,THEMACHINEDESIGNGOALISTHEPRODUCTIONCANMEETTHEHUMANNEEDTHEPRODUCTTHEINVENTION,THEDISCOVERYANDTECHNICALKNOWLEDGEITSELFCERTAINLYNOTNECESSARILYCANBRINGTHEADVANTAGETOTHEHUMANITY,ONLYHASWHENTHEYAREAPPLIEDCANPRODUCEONTHEPRODUCTTHEBENEFITTHUS,SHOULDREALIZETOCARRIESONBEFORETHEDESIGNINASPECIFICPRODUCT,MUSTFIRSTDETERMINEWHETHERTHEPEOPLEDONEEDTHISKINDOFPRODUCTMUSTREGARDASTHEMACHINEDESIGNISTHEMACHINEDESIGNPERSONNELCARRIESONUSINGCREATIVEABILITYTHEPRODUCTDESIGN,THESYSTEMANALYSISANDAFORMULATIONPRODUCTMANUFACTURETECHNOLOGYGOODOPPORTUNITYGRASPSTHEPROJECTELEMENTARYKNOWLEDGETOHAVETOMEMORIZESOMEDATAANDTHEFORMULAISMOREIMPORTANTTHANTHEMERELYSERVICEDATAANDTHEFORMULAISINSUFFICIENTTOTHECOMPLETELYDECISIONWHICHMAKESINAGOODDESIGNNEEDSONTHEOTHERHAND,SHOULDBEEARNESTPRECISELYCARRIESONALLOPERATIONSFOREXAMPLE,EVENIFPLACESWRONGADECIMALPOINTPOSITION,ALSOCANCAUSETHECORRECTDESIGNTOTURNWRONGLYAGOODDESIGNPERSONNELSHOULDDARETOPROPOSETHENEWIDEA,MOREOVERISWILLINGTOUNDERTAKETHECERTAINRISK,WHENTHENEWMETHODISNOTSUITABLE,USEORIGINALMETHODTHEREFORE,DESIGNSTHEPERSONNELTOHAVETOHAVETOHAVETHEPATIENCE,BECAUSESPENDSTHETIMEANDTHEENDEAVORCERTAINLYCANNOTGUARANTEEBRINGSSUCCESSFULLYABRANDNEWDESIGN,THEREQUESTSCREENABANDONSOBSOLETELYMANY,KNOWSVERYWELLTHEMETHODFORTHEPEOPLEBECAUSEMANYPERSONOFCONSERVATIVENESS,DOESTHISCERTAINLYISNOTANEASYMATTERAMECHANICALDESIGNERSHOULDUNCEASINGLYEXPLORETHEIMPROVEMENTEXISTINGPRODUCTTHEMETHOD,SHOULDEARNESTLYCHOOSEORIGINALLY,THEPROCESSCONFIRMATIONPRINCIPLEOFDESIGNINTHISPROCESS,WITHHASNOTUNIFIEDITAFTERTHECONFIRMATIONNEWIDEAHEREISTOINTRODUCETHEDESIGNCONCEPTOFANEWTYPEOFMIXERTHEINCREASINGADOPTIONOFHAPTICMODALITYINHUMANCOMPUTERINTERACTIONPARADIGMSHASLEDTOAHUGEDEMANDFORNEWTOOLSTHATHELPNOVICEUSERSTOAUTHORANDEDITHAPTICAPPLICATIONSCURRENTLY,THEHAPTICAPPLICATIONDEVELOPMENTPROCESSISATIMECONSUMINGEXPERIENCETHATREQUIRESPROGRAMMINGEXPERTISETHECOMPLEXITYOFHAPTICAPPLICATIONSDEVELOPMENTRISESFROMTHEFACTTHATTHEHAPTICAPPLICATIONCOMPONENTSSUCHASTHEHAPTICAPI,THEDEVICE,THEHAPTICRENDERINGALGORITHMS,ETCNEEDTOINTERACTWITHTHEGRAPHICCOMPONENTSINORDERTOACHIEVESYNCHRONICITYADDITIONALLY,THEREISALACKOFAPPLICATIONPORTABILITYASTHEAPPLICATIONISTIGHTLYCOUPLEDTOASPECIFICDEVICETHATNECESSITATESTHEUSEOFITSCORRESPONDINGAPITHEREFORE,DEVICEANDAPIHETEROGENEITYLEADTOTHEFRAGMENTATIONANDDISORIENTATIONOFBOTHRESEARCHERSANDDEVELOPERSINVIEWOFALLTHESECONSIDERATIONS,THEREISACLEARNEEDFORANAUTHORINGTOOLTHATCANBUILDHAPTICAPPLICATIONSWHILEHIDINGPROGRAMMINGDETAILSFROMTHEAPPLICATIONMODELERSUCHASAPI,DEVICE,ORVIRTUALMODELTHEBLENDERDESIGNPHILOSOPHYISBASEDONTHREEMAINTASKSDATASTORAGE,EDITING,ANDVISUALIZATIONITFOLLOWSADATAVISUALIZEEDITDEVELOPMENTCYCLEFORTHE3DMODELINGPIPELINEA3DSCENEISREPRESENTEDUSINGDATASTRUCTURESWITHINTHEBLENDERARCHITECTURETHEMODELERVIEWSTHESCENE,MAKESCHANGESUSINGTHEEDITINGINTERFACEWHICHDIRECTLYMODIFIEST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