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外文翻译--步行隐藏式手扶纸钵育苗蔬菜移栽机的发展 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--步行隐藏式手扶纸钵育苗蔬菜移栽机的发展 英文版.pdf

G.V.PrasannaKumara,,H.RaheaDepartmentofAgriculturalEngineering,NorthArunachalPradesh,IndiabAgriculturalandFoodEngineeringDepartment,articleinfoArticlehistoryReceived1May2011Receivedinrevisedformª2011IAgrE.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.productionof129millionmetrictonsandyieldof16.2metrictonshaC01intheyear2008e2009GovernmentofIndia,2009.About175typesofvegetablesaregrowninIndiaincluding82fieldvegetablesand41roottuberandbulbcropsRandhawa,1998Subramanian,Varadarajan,Asokan,2000.Mostofthelycopersicum,eggplantSolanummelongenaandpeppersCapsicumspp.arefirstsowninnurserybedsandlatertransplantedmanuallyeitheronridgesoronawellpreparedseedbedGhaiArora,2007.Manualtransplantingofseedlingsislabourintensive,expensive,timeconsumingandCorrespondingauthor.Tel.þ913602257379faxþ913602258533/2257872.Availableatwww.sciencedirect.combiosystemsengineering1102011189e197Emailaddressgvpkyahoo.comG.V.P.Kumar.1.IntroductionIndiaisthesecondlargestproducerofvegetableswiththevegetableslikecucurbitsCucurbitaspp.,beansPhaseolusspp.,okraAbelmoschusesculentusandleafyvegetablesaresowndirectlyinthefield.VegetablesliketomatoSolanumevaluatedfortransplantingtomatoat45C245cmspacinginthefieldataforwardspeedof0.9kmhC01.Fieldcapacityofthetransplanterwasfoundtobe0.026hahC01.Itresultedinthesavingof68labourand80timeovertheconventionalmethodofmanualtransplanting.Theplantingrateofthetransplanterwasfoundtobe32potseedlingsminC01with4missedplantingand5tiltedplanting.Thesoilcoveringefficiencyofthedevelopedvegetabletransplanterwasabout81andthequalityoftransplantingwassatisfactory.17July2011Accepted1August2011Publishedonline30August201115375110/eseefrontmatterª2011IAgrE.doi10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.08.001manbEasternRegionalInstituteofScienceandTechnology,Nirjuli791109,Itanagar,IndianInstituteofTechnology,Kharagpur721302,WestBengal,IndiaA9.75kWwalkbehindtypehandtractorpowered2rowfullyautomaticvegetabletransplanterforindividualpaperpotseedlingswasdevelopedbyconsideringthepoweravailability,paperpotdimensionsandspaceavailabilityinthehandtractorafterthecompleteremovalofrotavatortillageassembly.Itconsistedoftwosetsoffeedingconveyor,meteringconveyor,seedlingdroptube,furrowopener,soilcoveringdevice,anautomaticfeedingmechanism,adepthadjustmentwheelandhitchingarrangement.Horizontalslattypechainconveyorwasusedasfeedingconveyorandhorizontalpushertypechainconveyorwasusedasmeteringconveyor.Theautomaticfeedingmechanism,withatimingshaft,camandclutch,wasusedtocoordinatetheworkingoffeedingandmeteringconveyors.Thevegetabletransplantercarried108seedlingsontwofeedingconveyorsinuprightorientation,fedthemtothemeteringconveyorsandplantedtheminuprightorientationinfurrows.TheperformanceofthevegetabletransplanterwasvegetabletransplanterforpaperpotseedlingsDevelopmentofawalkbehindtypehandtractorpoweredResearchPaperjournalhomepagewww.elseviPublishedbyElsevierLtd.er.com/locate/issn/15375110Allrightsreserved.2.PaperpotseedlingsformechanicaltransplantingPaperpotsseedlingsweregrowninaluminiumtraysinadoublelayerpolyethylenecoveredunheatedgreenhouse.Thereadytoplantpaperpotseedlingoftomato21daysafterseedingandfollowing4daysofhardeningisshowninFig.1.Eachseedlingwasgrowninadoublelayeredcubicalpaperpotof50cm3volumefilledwithvermicompost,soilandsandintheproportionof11½1½byvolume.ThevolumeofpotandtheproportionofingredientsinthesoilbasedvermicompostamendedmixweredeterminedbyconductingexperimentsintwodifferentseasonsKumarRaheman,2010andapplyingoptimisationtechniquestothebiomassgrowthdata.Paperpotsattheendofseedlingstagehadwidedimensionalvariationsduetononuniformwettingofpottingmixandpotwallsduringwateringofseedlingsinpaperpots,nonuniformdryingofpottingmixafterwatering,physicalpressurefromotherneighbouringpotsinthetrayanduncontrolleddryingofpottingmixduringtheseedlinghardeningprocess.ThefinaldimensionsandweightofthepaperpotwithmixarepresentedinTable1.theflightsArmstrongHanacek,1984Sakaue,1992Shaw,biosystemsengineering1102011189e197190oftenresultsinnonuniformplantdistributionKumarRaheman,2008Manes,Dixit,Sharda,Singh,Singh,2010Parish,2005.Tractormounted2rowand3rowsemiautomaticvegetabletransplantershavebeendevelopedinIndiaforbarerootseedlingsandplugsDARE,2006,pp.109e128Manesetal.,2010.Pockettypemeteringdeviceshavebeenprovidedinthetransplantersforbarerootseedlings.Thefieldcapacityandlabourrequirementhavebeenreportedtobe0.082e0.092hahC01and44.4manhhaC01respectivelyataforwardspeedof0.8e1.0kmhC01.Rotarycuptypemeteringdeviceshavebeenprovidedinthetransplantersforplugs.Theyhadafieldcapacityof0.14hahC01andlabourrequirementof28.6manhhaC01whenoperatedataforwardspeedof1.4kmhC01.Thequalityoftransplantingwasreportedtobesatisfactoryforboththemachines.FarmersinIndiaallocatearelativelylowproportionoftheirlandforvegetablesBirthal,Joshi,Thorat,2007.Further,smalllandholdingslessthan2hacontributeabout61ofthetotalvegetableproductionKumar,Pal,Joshi,2004,pp.9e34,buttheycompriseabout78ofthetotaloperationalholdingsGovernmentofIndia,2002.Insmallholdings,6.75e10.58kWwalkbehindtypehandtractorsratherthanlargertractorsarepopularpowersourcesforcarryingoutdifferentagriculturaloperationsDewanganTewari,2008.Therefore,thereisagenuineneedtodevelopahandtractorpoweredvegetabletransplanterforuseinsmallplotsandsmalllandholdings.Thehandtractorpoweredvegetabletransplanterhastobeafullyautomaticmachineasanoperatorcouldnotsimultaneouslycontrolandmanoeuvrethehandtractorandfeedtheseedlingstothemeteringunit.Fullyautomaticvegetabletransplantersrequireeitherplugsorpotseedlings.Asinitialinvestmentonproductionofplugsishighandmechanismsemployedfortheremovalofseedlingsfromthetrayarecomplex,useofpotseedlingsseemstobeabetteroptionKumarRaheman,2008.PaperpotsmadewithnewspaperhavebeenusedforraisingseedlingsFuruki,Yamanishi,Matsumoto,Honma,Takada,2003KumarRaheman,2010Ueno,Matsumura,Miyaji,2002,pp.19e32.Paststudiesrevealthatfullyautomaticvegetabletransplanterscapableoffeedingandmeteringindividualpaperpotseedlinghavenotyetbeendeveloped.Designofvegetabletransplantersdependsuponthetypeofseedlingsused.Itisnotpossibletoobtainthereadytoplantpaperpotseedlingswithpotsofuniformdimensionsandfirmness.Inordertoovercomethedifficultyofhandlingpaperpotsofnonuniformdimensionsandfirmness,pastresearchersNambuTanimura,1992Suggsetal.,1987Tsuga,2000Yonetani,Matsumoto,Okishio,1999madestrandsorchainsofpaperpots.Thestrandofpotswasfedtoamechanisminthetransplanterthatcutthestrandatuniformintervalsanddroppedindividualpotsinsoil.Hence,thedesignofdevicesforseedlingpickup,meteringandplantinginafullyautomatictransplanterforindividualpaperpotseedlingsmustaccommodatethevariabilityindimensionsofthepots.Thegoalofthisworkwastodevelopawalkbehindtypehandtractorpoweredfullyautomaticvegetabletransplanterforpaperpotseedlingsandevaluateitsperformanceunderactualfieldconditions.3.ConceptualworkingofvegetabletransplanterforpaperpotseedlingsSeveraldeviceshavebeendevelopedforpickingup,meteringandplantingofplugsShaw,1999,potandbarerootseedlingsKumarRaheman,2008.Manyofthesedevicescannotbeusedfortheremovalofpaperpotseedlingsfromatray.However,slightmodificationofthehorizontalconveyorwithflightstocarrytheseedlingsinuprightorientationbetweenFig.1eReadytoplantpaperpotseedlingsoftomato.meteringconveyor.Asthemeteringconveyorcontinuouslydevice.Itwasdesignedforattachingto9.75kWVSTShakti130DIwalkbehindtypehandtractorVSTTillerTractorsLtd.,Bengaluru,India.Therotavatortillageassemblyisanintegralpartofthehandtractorandhastoberemovedcompletelytoattachthevegetabletransplantertothehandtractor.Thefeedingconveyorwaspoweredfromthedriveshaftoftherotavatorofthehandtractor.Themeteringconveyorwaspoweredfromthegroundwheelshaftofthehandtractor.Thetractivepowerofthehandtractorwasutilisedbythefurrowopenerandsoilcoveringdevicestoovercomesoilresistance.Table1eFinaldimensionsandweightofpaperpotwithmix.ParticularsMeanC6std.dev.Maximumwidthandbreadth,mm45.0C63.0Widthandbreadthatthebottom,mm36.0C62.0Height,mm36.0C62.0Maximumdiagonallength,mm64.0C64.0Weightofpaperpotseedlingatpottingmixmoisturecontentof5C62,10C62and15C62drybasis,g65.0C62.0,68.0C62.0and74.0C62.0,respectively.biosystemsengineering1102011189e197191pushestheseedlingstowardsthefurrow,itisimportanttofeedthesinglepotseedlinginanuprightorientationbetweentheflightsatthespecifiedinterval.Inordertoachievethis,potseedlingshavetobearrangedintheformofarectangulararraywithseedlingsineachlinealignedtoenterthespacebetweentheflightsasandwhentheyreachthemeteringconveyor.Insteadofarrangingseedlingsintheformofarectangulararrayintrays,theycanbearrangedonaslattypehorizontalconveyorsuchthateachseedlingontheslatisfeddirectlybetweentheflightsofthemeteringconveyorattheappropriatetimeinterval.Thisconveyorisreferredtoasthefeedingconveyor.AnautomaticfeedingmechanismAFMwasprovidedtocoordinatetheworkingoffeedingandmeteringconveyorssothatalineararrayofpotseedlingsisfedtothemeteringconveyorattheappropriatetime.TheconceptualworkingofthearraytypevegetabletransplanterAVTisshowninFig.2.Itisafullyautomatictransplanterasseedlingsplacedonceonthefeedingconveyorarefedautomaticallytothemeteringconveyorandthenplantedinthefurrowwithouthumanintervention.4.DevelopmentofAVTTheAVTconsistedoffeedingconveyor,meteringconveyor,AFM,seedlingdroptube,furrowopenerandsoilcovering1999isabletoaccommodatesmallvariationsindimensionsofpaperpots.Hence,ahorizontalpushertypeconveyorwithflightstopushthepotseedlingwasselectedformeteringindividualpaperpotseedlingsanditisreferredtoastheMeteringconveyorFeedingconveyorGuidechannelPaperpotseedlinginSeedlingdischargepointabFig.2eConceptualworkingofvegetabletransplanterforpaperfeedingconveyor,bFeedingofonelineararrayofseedlingstocontinuouslytowardstheseedlingdischargepoint.FlightuprightorientationcpotseedlingsaArrangementofpaperpotseedlingson4.1.NumberofrowsandspacefortheattachmentofAVTinhandtractorAstractivepowerislowandinefficient,thenumberofrowsofseedlingstobeplantedbytheAVTwasdecidedbasedonmaximumutilisationofthetractivepowerofthehandtractor.Forwardspeedofthehandtractorduringtransplantingwasassumedtobeintherangeof0.9e1.5kmhC01basedontherangeofforwardspeedatwhichthe2WDtractorshavebeenoperatedwhenattachedtosemiautomatictransplantersinIndiaDARE,2006,pp.109e128Manesetal.,2010.Theselectedrangeofforwardspeedofthehandtractorcouldbeobtainedwhenoperatedin1stlowgearat50e90throttle.Theengineperformancecurvesindicatedthebrakehorsepoweroftheengineat50throttle1200rpmas4.5kW.About20ofengineoutputpowerisavailableatthewheelaxleofthehandtractorwhenitisfittedandoperatingitsrotavatorBholeTiwari,1977.Assumingtractiveefficiencyas40Kathirvel,Manian,Balasubramanian,2001,tractivepowerofthehandtractorwas0.36kW.Consideringtheaveragevalueofunitdraftas30.92NcmC02Roul,Raheman,Pansare,Manchavaram,2008,thedraftrequirementofashoveltypefurrowopener5cmwidthofcutwhileoperatingat8cmdepthwas0.618kN.Thedraftrequiredforthesoilcoveringdeviceswasassumedtobe20ofthedraftrequiredbythefurrowopener,basedonthefactthatthesoilcoveringdevicesoperateatshallowerdepthandonsoilalreadydisturbedbythefurrowopener.Drawbarpowerrequiredataforwardspeedof0.9kmhC01forasetoffurrowopenerandsoilcoveringdeviceswas0.185kW.Therefore,thenumberofsetsoffurrowopenerandsoilcoveringdevicesthatcouldbeoperatedwiththeavailablethemeteringconveyor,cConveyingoftheseedlingstractivepower¼0.36O0.185¼1.94z2.Hence,itwasdecidedtodevelopa2rowvegetabletransplanter.The2rowAVTconsistedoftwosetsoffeedingconveyor,meteringconveyor,seedlingdroptube,furrowopenerandsoilcoveringdevice,andanAFM,depthadjustmentwheelandhitchingarrangement.3Dsolidmodellingofthe2rowAVTFig.3wasdoneinMechanicalDesktopR6PowerPackAutodesk,Inc.,SanRafael,USA.Thesolidmodellinghelpedindeterminingthespaceavailableforvariouscomponentsandidentifyingthepossiblecollisionofmachineelementsduringmotion.MechanicaldesignofindividualcomponentsofAVTwascarriedoutconsideringthepoweravailability,dimensionsofthepaperpotandspaceavailabilityinthehandtractorafterthecompleteremovalofrotavatortillageassembly.Duringthedesignprocess,theoverallwidthofAVTwastakenas1.5m.Afterthecompleteremovaloftherotavatorassembly,aspace1.0mlongwasavailablebehindthetransmissioncasingofthehandtractorfortheattachmentofAVT.Therefore,spaceavailablefortheaccommodationofAVTbehindthehandtractorwas1.0mC21.5m.4.2.Feedingandmeteringconveyorshorizontalpushertypechainconveyor.Thefeedingconveyoroperatesonlyforthetimerequiredtomoveonelineararrayofpotseedlingsontheslattowardsthemeteringconveyor.TheengagementanddisengagementofdrivepowertothefeedingconveyoratappropriatetimeswasdoneusinganAFM.Overalllengthandwidthofeachfeedingconveyorwas800and600mm,respectively.Itensuredaspaceof300mmwidthand800mmlengthbetweenthetwofeedingconveyorsforprovidinganAFM.Italsoensuredaspaceof200mmlengthovertheentirewidthofAVTforprovidingfurrowopenersandsoilcoveringdevices.Eachslatofthefeedingconveyorcarried6potseedlingsatacentretocentredistanceof76.2mm.Eachfeedingconveyorhad18slats.Thetwofeedingconveyorsweresupportedonacommonframe.Theframewassupportedonacommonlateral.Thelateralwasrigidlyhitchedtotheboltsonthegearboxofthehandtractor.ThedriveshaftsofthetwofeedingconveyorswerecoupledandpoweredfromthedriveshaftoftherotavatorthroughAFM.Eachmeteringconveyorhad21flightsataspacingof76.2mmandhaditsownframe.Theframewasplacedontheframeofthefeedingconveyorinsuchawaythatflightsofthemeteringconveyoraredirectlyabovethetopsurfaceofthelastslatofthefeedingconveyortowardsthedriveshaftend.Thedriveshaftsofthetwometeringconveyorswerepoweredbiosystemsengineering1102011189e197192Thepurposeofthefeedingconveyoristocarrythepotseedlingsinarectangulararrayandfeedalineararrayofpotseedlingsinuprightorientationoneachslatintothespacebetweentheflightsofthecontinuouslyoperatingmeteringconveyor,withoutanydamageandtiltingofpots.Itwasdesignedasadoublestrandedhorizontalslattypechainconveyor.Thefunctionofthemeteringconveyoristocontinuouslypushthepotseedlingsinuprightorientationtowardstheseedlingdroptubeonebyoneanddropatthedesiredinrowspacing.ItwasdesignedasasinglestrandedFig.3eIsometricviewoftheAVTfromacommonhorizontalshaft,which,inturn,waspoweredbythegroundwheelshaftofthehandtractor.Adogclutchwasprovidedtodisengagethepowertothemeteringconveyorwhileturninginthefield.4.3.AFMAFMconsistedofatimingshaft,acamandaclutchasshowninFig.4.TheinputshaftoftheAFM7waspoweredfromthedriveshaftoftherotavatorofhandtractor,andtheoutputattachedtothehandtractor.

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