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外文翻译--步行隐藏式手扶纸钵育苗蔬菜移栽机的发展 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--步行隐藏式手扶纸钵育苗蔬菜移栽机的发展 英文版.pdf

GVPRASANNAKUMARA,,HRAHEADEPARTMENTOFAGRICULTURALENGINEERING,NORTHARUNACHALPRADESH,INDIABAGRICULTURALANDFOODENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT,ARTICLEINFOARTICLEHISTORYRECEIVED1MAY2011RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM2011IAGREPUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPRODUCTIONOF129MILLIONMETRICTONSANDYIELDOF162METRICTONSHAC01INTHEYEAR2008E2009GOVERNMENTOFINDIA,2009ABOUT175TYPESOFVEGETABLESAREGROWNININDIAINCLUDING82FIELDVEGETABLESAND41ROOTTUBERANDBULBCROPSRANDHAWA,1998;SUBRAMANIAN,VARADARAJAN,ASOKAN,2000MOSTOFTHELYCOPERSICUM,EGGPLANTSOLANUMMELONGENAANDPEPPERSCAPSICUMSPPAREFIRSTSOWNINNURSERYBEDSANDLATERTRANSPLANTEDMANUALLYEITHERONRIDGESORONAWELLPREPAREDSEEDBEDGHAIARORA,2007MANUALTRANSPLANTINGOFSEEDLINGSISLABOURINTENSIVE,EXPENSIVE,TIMECONSUMINGANDCORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL913602257379;FAX913602258533/2257872AVAILABLEATWWWSCIENCEDIRECTCOMBIOSYSTEMSENGINEERING1102011189E197EMAILADDRESSGVPKYAHOOCOMGVPKUMAR1INTRODUCTIONINDIAISTHESECONDLARGESTPRODUCEROFVEGETABLESWITHTHEVEGETABLESLIKECUCURBITSCUCURBITASPP,BEANSPHASEOLUSSPP,OKRAABELMOSCHUSESCULENTUSANDLEAFYVEGETABLESARESOWNDIRECTLYINTHEFIELDVEGETABLESLIKETOMATOSOLANUMEVALUATEDFORTRANSPLANTINGTOMATOAT45C245CMSPACINGINTHEFIELDATAFORWARDSPEEDOF09KMHC01FIELDCAPACITYOFTHETRANSPLANTERWASFOUNDTOBE0026HAHC01ITRESULTEDINTHESAVINGOF68LABOURAND80TIMEOVERTHECONVENTIONALMETHODOFMANUALTRANSPLANTINGTHEPLANTINGRATEOFTHETRANSPLANTERWASFOUNDTOBE32POTSEEDLINGSMINC01WITH4MISSEDPLANTINGAND5TILTEDPLANTINGTHESOILCOVERINGEFFICIENCYOFTHEDEVELOPEDVEGETABLETRANSPLANTERWASABOUT81ANDTHEQUALITYOFTRANSPLANTINGWASSATISFACTORY17JULY2011ACCEPTED1AUGUST2011PUBLISHEDONLINE30AUGUST201115375110/ESEEFRONTMATTER2011IAGREDOI101016/JBIOSYSTEMSENG201108001MANBEASTERNREGIONALINSTITUTEOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,NIRJULI791109,ITANAGAR,INDIANINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY,KHARAGPUR721302,WESTBENGAL,INDIAA975KWWALKBEHINDTYPEHANDTRACTORPOWERED2ROWFULLYAUTOMATICVEGETABLETRANSPLANTERFORINDIVIDUALPAPERPOTSEEDLINGSWASDEVELOPEDBYCONSIDERINGTHEPOWERAVAILABILITY,PAPERPOTDIMENSIONSANDSPACEAVAILABILITYINTHEHANDTRACTORAFTERTHECOMPLETEREMOVALOFROTAVATORTILLAGEASSEMBLYITCONSISTEDOFTWOSETSOFFEEDINGCONVEYOR,METERINGCONVEYOR,SEEDLINGDROPTUBE,FURROWOPENER,SOILCOVERINGDEVICE,ANAUTOMATICFEEDINGMECHANISM,ADEPTHADJUSTMENTWHEELANDHITCHINGARRANGEMENTHORIZONTALSLATTYPECHAINCONVEYORWASUSEDASFEEDINGCONVEYORANDHORIZONTALPUSHERTYPECHAINCONVEYORWASUSEDASMETERINGCONVEYORTHEAUTOMATICFEEDINGMECHANISM,WITHATIMINGSHAFT,CAMANDCLUTCH,WASUSEDTOCOORDINATETHEWORKINGOFFEEDINGANDMETERINGCONVEYORSTHEVEGETABLETRANSPLANTERCARRIED108SEEDLINGSONTWOFEEDINGCONVEYORSINUPRIGHTORIENTATION,FEDTHEMTOTHEMETERINGCONVEYORSANDPLANTEDTHEMINUPRIGHTORIENTATIONINFURROWSTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHEVEGETABLETRANSPLANTERWASVEGETABLETRANSPLANTERFORPAPERPOTSEEDLINGSDEVELOPMENTOFAWALKBEHINDTYPEHANDTRACTORPOWEREDRESEARCHPAPERJOURNALHOMEPAGEWWWELSEVIPUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERLTDERCOM/LOCATE/ISSN/15375110ALLRIGHTSRESERVED2PAPERPOTSEEDLINGSFORMECHANICALTRANSPLANTINGPAPERPOTSSEEDLINGSWEREGROWNINALUMINIUMTRAYSINADOUBLELAYERPOLYETHYLENECOVEREDUNHEATEDGREENHOUSETHEREADYTOPLANTPAPERPOTSEEDLINGOFTOMATO21DAYSAFTERSEEDINGANDFOLLOWING4DAYSOFHARDENINGISSHOWNINFIG1EACHSEEDLINGWASGROWNINADOUBLELAYEREDCUBICALPAPERPOTOF50CM3VOLUMEFILLEDWITHVERMICOMPOST,SOILANDSANDINTHEPROPORTIONOF111BYVOLUMETHEVOLUMEOFPOTANDTHEPROPORTIONOFINGREDIENTSINTHESOILBASEDVERMICOMPOSTAMENDEDMIXWEREDETERMINEDBYCONDUCTINGEXPERIMENTSINTWODIFFERENTSEASONSKUMARRAHEMAN,2010ANDAPPLYINGOPTIMISATIONTECHNIQUESTOTHEBIOMASSGROWTHDATAPAPERPOTSATTHEENDOFSEEDLINGSTAGEHADWIDEDIMENSIONALVARIATIONSDUETONONUNIFORMWETTINGOFPOTTINGMIXANDPOTWALLSDURINGWATERINGOFSEEDLINGSINPAPERPOTS,NONUNIFORMDRYINGOFPOTTINGMIXAFTERWATERING,PHYSICALPRESSUREFROMOTHERNEIGHBOURINGPOTSINTHETRAYANDUNCONTROLLEDDRYINGOFPOTTINGMIXDURINGTHESEEDLINGHARDENINGPROCESSTHEFINALDIMENSIONSANDWEIGHTOFTHEPAPERPOTWITHMIXAREPRESENTEDINTABLE1THEFLIGHTSARMSTRONGHANACEK,1984;SAKAUE,1992;SHAW,BIOSYSTEMSENGINEERING1102011189E197190OFTENRESULTSINNONUNIFORMPLANTDISTRIBUTIONKUMARRAHEMAN,2008;MANES,DIXIT,SHARDA,SINGH,SINGH,2010;PARISH,2005TRACTORMOUNTED2ROWAND3ROWSEMIAUTOMATICVEGETABLETRANSPLANTERSHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDININDIAFORBAREROOTSEEDLINGSANDPLUGSDARE,2006,PP109E128;MANESETAL,2010POCKETTYPEMETERINGDEVICESHAVEBEENPROVIDEDINTHETRANSPLANTERSFORBAREROOTSEEDLINGSTHEFIELDCAPACITYANDLABOURREQUIREMENTHAVEBEENREPORTEDTOBE0082E0092HAHC01AND444MANHHAC01RESPECTIVELYATAFORWARDSPEEDOF08E10KMHC01ROTARYCUPTYPEMETERINGDEVICESHAVEBEENPROVIDEDINTHETRANSPLANTERSFORPLUGSTHEYHADAFIELDCAPACITYOF014HAHC01ANDLABOURREQUIREMENTOF286MANHHAC01WHENOPERATEDATAFORWARDSPEEDOF14KMHC01THEQUALITYOFTRANSPLANTINGWASREPORTEDTOBESATISFACTORYFORBOTHTHEMACHINESFARMERSININDIAALLOCATEARELATIVELYLOWPROPORTIONOFTHEIRLANDFORVEGETABLESBIRTHAL,JOSHI,THORAT,2007FURTHER,SMALLLANDHOLDINGSLESSTHAN2HACONTRIBUTEABOUT61OFTHETOTALVEGETABLEPRODUCTIONKUMAR,PAL,JOSHI,2004,PP9E34,BUTTHEYCOMPRISEABOUT78OFTHETOTALOPERATIONALHOLDINGSGOVERNMENTOFINDIA,2002INSMALLHOLDINGS,675E1058KWWALKBEHINDTYPEHANDTRACTORSRATHERTHANLARGERTRACTORSAREPOPULARPOWERSOURCESFORCARRYINGOUTDIFFERENTAGRICULTURALOPERATIONSDEWANGANTEWARI,20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