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外文翻译--氯化钠混合时间及设备对面团的热力学特性的影响.doc

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外文翻译--氯化钠混合时间及设备对面团的热力学特性的影响.doc

DOUGHTHERMOMECHANICALPROPERTIESINFLUENCEOFSODIUMCHLORIDE,MIXINGTIMEANDEQUIPMENTAANGIOLONI,MDALLAROSAABSTRACTTHERMOMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFDOUGHSPREPAREDFROMCOMMONWHEATFLOURWEREINVESTIGATEDUNDERDIFFERENTKNEADINGCONDITIONSANDWITHDIFFERENTAMOUNTSOFSODIUMCHLORIDEDYNAMICMECHANICALTHERMALANALYSISSHOWEDTHATHIGHSPEEDMIXINGANDTHEADDITIONOFSALTTODOUGHSLOWEDHEATINDUCEDREACTIONSSUCHASSTARCHGELATINISATIONANDPROTEINCOAGULATIONTHEEFFECTOFDOUGHMIXINGTECHNOLOGYWASMORESIGNIFICANTTHANTHEAMOUNTOFSODIUMCHLORIDEINMODIFYINGDOUGHRHEOLOGICALCHARACTERISTICSQ2004ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSDOUGH;MIXING;SODIUMCHLORIDE;THERMOMECHANICALPROPERTIES;STARCHGELATINIZATION1INTRODUCTIONTHEFIRSTSTEPINABAKINGPROCESSISMIXINGTHEDOUGH;HOWTHEMIXINGISPERFORMEDANDTHEINGREDIENTSAREINCORPORATEDANDDISPERSEDLARGELYDETERMINETHEFINALQUALITYOFTHEBAKEDPRODUCTAAMODTETAL,2003;BASARANANDGOCMEN,2003THEPRODUCTIONOFWHEATDOUGHISAPROCESSINWHICHRAWMATERIALSMAINLYFLOUR,WATER,SALTANDYEASTAREMIXEDANDSUBJECTEDTOALARGERANGEOFSTRAINSITUATIONSDOUGHISACOMPLEXMIXTUREOFSTARCH,PROTEIN,FATANDSALTMIXINGHASTHREEIMPORTANTFUNCTIONSIITBLENDSTHEINGREDIENTSINTOAMACROSCOPICALLYHOMOGENEOUSMASS,IIITDEVELOPSTHEDOUGHINTOATHREEDIMENSIONALVISCOELASTICSTRUCTUREWITHGASRETAININGPROPERTIESANDIIIITINCORPORATESAIRWHICHWILLFORMNUCLEIFORGASBUBBLESTHATGROWDURINGDOUGHFERMENTATIONBLOKSMA,1990;COLLADOANDLEYN,2000;DOBRASZCZYKANDMORGENSTERN,2003;HOSENEYANDROGERS,1990;NAEEMETAL,2002BOTHMIXINGINTENSITYANDMIXINGENERGYMUSTBEABOVEAMINIMUMCRITICALLEVELTODEVELOPTHEDOUGHPROPERLY,THELEVELVARYINGWITHFLOURANDMIXERTYPEKILBORNANDTIPPLES,1972;MACRITCHIE,1986;SKEGGS,1985;ZHENGETAL,2000THETIMEREQUIREDFOROPTIMUMDOUGHDEVELOPMENTISPOSITIVELYCORRELATEDWITHTHEPOLYMERICPROTEINCOMPOSITIONANDTHEBALANCEBETWEENPROTEINPOLYMERSANDMONOMERSDOBRASZCZYKANDMORGENSTERN,2003;MACRITCHIE,1992;MILLAR,2004RHEOLOGICALPROPERTIESCHANGEDURINGEVERYSTAGEOFTHEDOUGHMAKINGPROCESS;STRESSCONDITIONSAREHIGHWHENTHEDOUGHISMIXEDINHIGHSPEEDMIXERS,TOBECOMEANELASTICANDCOHERENTMASSMIXINGSPEEDANDENERGYWORKINPUTMUSTBEHIGHERTHANACERTAINVALUETODEVELOPTHEGLUTENNETWORKANDTOPRODUCEASUITABLEBREADMAKINGDOUGHONTHEOTHERHAND,ANOPTIMALMIXINGTIMEHASBEENRELATEDTOOPTIMUMBREADMAKINGPERFORMANCEWHICHVARIESDEPENDINGONMIXERTYPEANDINGREDIENTSDOBRASZCZYKANDMORGENSTERN,2003;MANIETAL,1992FOREXAMPLE,KNEADINGDOUGHSTOREACHOPTIMUMDEVELOPMENTUSINGELONGATIONALFLOWINSHEETING,REQUIREDONLY10–15OFTHEENERGYGENERALLYIMPARTEDBYCONVENTIONALHIGHSPEEDSHEARMIXERS,SUGGESTINGTHATMUCHHIGHERRATESOFWORKINPUTCANBEACHIEVEDDUETOTHEIMPROVEDSTRAINHARDENINGOFDOUGHUNDEREXTENSIONDOBRASZCZYKANDMORGENSTERN,2003;KILBORNANDTIPPLES,1974;MILLAR,2004STARCH,THEMAJORCOMPONENTOFWHEATFLOUR,MAKINGUPABOUT80OFITSDRYWEIGHT,INFLUENCESDOUGHRHEOLOGICALPROPERTIES,ESPECIALLYUPONHEATINGINTHEPRESENCEOFWATERWHENSTARCHGELATINISESLIANDYEH,2001THEGELATINIZATIONPROCESSINCLUDESANUMBEROFCHANGESABSORPTIONOFWATERANDSWELLINGOFTHEGRANULES,CHANGEINSIZEANDSHAPEOFTHEGRANULES,LOSSOFBIREFRINGENCEANDXRAYDIFFRACTIONPATTERN,LEACHINGOFAMYLOSEFROMTHEGRANULESINTOTHESOLVENTANDTHEFORMATIONOFAPASTEATWELLETAL,1988ATREDUCEDWATERCONTENTS,SUCHASINDOUGH,THECHANGESRESULTINGFROMGELATINISATIONARESTRONGLYDEPENDENTONTHEAMOUNTOFWATERAVAILABLEELIASSON,1983;SEETHARAMANETAL,2004THEINCREASEINVISCOSITYDUETOSTARCHGELATINISATIONHASBEENSUGGESTEDTOMODIFYSTRUCTURALPROPERTIESOFDOUGHINADDITION,THEPRESENCEOFSODIUMCHLORIDEISKNOWNTOAFFECTDOUGHPROPERTIES;SALTTOUGHENSTHEPROTEINANDHELPSINCONDITIONINGTHEDOUGHBYIMPROVINGITSTOLERANCETOMIXING;THEADDITIONOFSALTPRODUCEDAMORESTABLEANDSTIFFDOUGHGALALETAL,1978;SHIUANDYEH,2001MOREOVERITISKNOWNTHATWHENSALTISADDEDTOTHEDOUGH,HEATINDUCEDREACTIONSSUCHASSTARCHGELATINISATIONANDPROTEINCOAGULATION,ARESLOWEDTHEAIMOFTHEPRESENTWORKWASTOANALYSETHEEFFECTSOFINCREASINGSODIUMCHLORIDECONCENTRATIONANDDIFFERENTKNEADINGCONDITIONSONSEVERALDOUGHTHERMOMECHANICALPROPERTIES,USINGADYNAMICALSTRESSSTRAINCONTROLLEDRHEOMETER2MATERIALSANDMETHODSCOMMERCIALWHEATFLOURWASFROMMULINOPIVETTIITALY,SODIUMCHLORIDE,FROMCARLOERBAITALYAACC2000METHODSWEREUSEDTODETERMINEMOISTURE4419,ASH0801,PROTEIN4610ANDGLUTEN3812INTHEFLOURANDITSALVEOGRAPHCHARACTERISTICSDOUGHSAMPLESWITH50MOISTUREWEREPREPAREDINACCORDANCEWITHALVEOGRAPHMETHODAACC5430A2000,USINGTWODIFFERENTMIXERSANDMIXINGTIMESINTHEFIRSTSAMPLEATHEALVEOGRAPHMIXERWASUSEDWITHSTANDARDCONDITIONS250GOFFLOURWASMIXEDWITHWATERFOR7MINTOFORMTHEDOUGHINTHESECONDSAMPLEMAPROTOTYPEMIXERWASUSEDWHERETHEINGREDIENTSWEREKNEADEDFORONLY15SBUTATHIGHSPEED1500RPMINTHISWAYHIGHAMOUNTSOFENERGYWERETRANSFERREDTOTHEDOUGHTHEPROTOTYPEMIXERHADAPARALLELPIPEDSHAPE12812CMWITHTWOVERTICALARMSOPERATEDBYA15KWMOTORGAMARSRL,VEITALYSODIUMCHLORIDE,0–45,DRYBASISDBWASADDED,FOREACHDIFFERENTKNEADINGCONDITIONANDMIXERTYPETABLE1BEFORERHEOLOGICALANALYSISALLDOUGHSWERERESTEDFOR30MINATROOMTEMPERATUREINAPLASTICCONTAINERDOUGHTEMPERATURESATTHEENDOFKNEADINGWERE26–288CFORSAMPLEAANDW358CFORSAMPLEM;ALTHOUGHTHEUSEOFPROTOTYPEMIXERRAPIDLYTHERMOMECHANICALTESTSWEREMADEUSINGACONTROLLEDSTRESSSTRAINRHEOMETERMCR300,PHYSICA/ANTONPAAR;MESSTECHNIK,OSTFILDERN,GERMANY,USINGPARALLELPLATEGEOMETRY25MMPLATEDIAMETER,2MMPLATEGAPTHEUPPER,SERRATED25MMPLATEWASLOWEREDUNTILTHETHICKNESSOFSAMPLEWAS2MMANDEXCESSWASTRIMMEDOFFTHEEXPOSEDSURFACEWASCOVEREDWITHATHINLAYEROFMINERALOILTOPREVENTMOISTURELOSSDURINGTESTINGTHESAMPLEWASRESTEDANOTHER15MININTHERHEOMETER,BEFOREEACHMEASUREMENT,ALLOWINGRELAXATIONOFSTRESSESINDUCEDDURINGSAMPLELOADINGTORELAXALLMEASUREMENTSWEREPERFORMEDATAHEATINGRATEOF088C/MINATFIXEDFREQUENCYOF1HZWITHTHEOSCILLATIONAMPLITUDESMALLENOUGHTOENSURELINEARVISCOELASTICITYTHEDATAAREREPORTEDASMEANSOFMEASUREMENTSMADEONTHREESAMPLES,WHEREEACHSAMPLEWASOBTAINEDFROMASEPARATELYPREPAREDBATCHOFDOUGHFOREACHFORMULATIONANDFORTHEDIFFERENTMIXERSUSEDSIGNIFICANTDIFFERENCESINSTORAGEMODULUSG0AT1HZWEREDETERMINEDBYLEASTSIGNIFICANTDIFFERENCEANALYSISWITHP005ALLSTATISTICALANALYSESWEREPERFORMEDWITHTHESTATSOFTVERSION63RESULTSANDDISCUSSION31FLOURCHEMICALANDPHYSICALPROPERTIESTHECHEMICALCOMPOSITIONANDRHEOLOGICALPROPERTIESOFTHEFLOURARESHOWNINTABLE2ANALYSISOFALVEOGRAPHDATACATEGORISESTHEFLOURUSEDASWEAK,ANDASSEENBYTHEP/LRATIO,THEGLUTENISRICHERINGLIADINSTHANINGLUTENINSTHERESISTANCEOFAGLUTENDOUGHTOEXTENSIONDECREASESANDEXTENSIBILITYINCREASESWITHANINCREASINGGLIADINTOGLUTENINRATIOGRASBERGERETAL,2003;KIMETAL,1988;UTHAYAKUMURANETAL,200032THERMOMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFDOUGHSTHESAMEAMOUNTSOFSALT0,25,35,45DBWEREADDEDTOBOTHSAMPLESA;MTOCHECKTHEEFFECTOFSALTANDDIFFERENTKNEADINGCONDITIONSONSAMPLEBEHAVIOURDURINGDYNAMICMECHANICALTHERMALANALYSISTHISMEASUREMENTSIMULATESTHEPHYSICOCHEMICALCHANGESTHATTAKEPLACEDURINGTHERMALTREATMENTOFDOUGHFIGS1AND2SHOWTHEEFFECTOFSALTADDITIONONTHESTORAGEMODULUSG0DURINGANOSCILLATORYTEMPERATURERAMPBELOW558C,G0,FORBOTHSAMPLES,GRADUALLYDECREASEDASTEMPERATUREINCREASED,INDICATINGSOFTENINGOFTHEDOUGHTHEREAFTER,THESTORAGEMODULUSINCREASEDFROM55–60TO808CANDTHENSLOWLYDECREASEDTHEABRUPTINCREASECANBEATTRIBUTEDTOTHEGELATINIZATIONOFSTARCH;THESWELLINGANDDISTORTIONOFSTARCHGRANULESDURINGGELATINIZATIONWERERESPONSIBLEFORTHERAPIDINCREASEOFG0NOTONLYBYTHEIRACTIONASAFILLERINTHEGLUTENNETWORK,BUTALSOBYPROMOTINGEFFECTIVECROSSLINKINGINTHESYSTEMDREESEET

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