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外文翻译--汽车的差速器.doc

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外文翻译--汽车的差速器.doc

41附录AUTOMOBILEDIFFERENTIALDEVICETHEMOTORCARENGINEPOWERAFTERTHECOUPLING,THETRANSMISSIONGEARBOX,THEDRIVESHAFT,THEFINALBIOGRAPHYDELIVERSDRIVINGAXLEABOUTTOASSIGNAGAINFORSEMIAXISACTUATESTHEWHEEL,INTHISTRANSMISSIONOFPOWERWAY,DRIVINGAXLEISLASTALWAYSBECOMES,ITSMAJORCOMPONENTISTHEREDUCTIONGEARANDTHEDIFFERENTIALDEVICETHEREDUCTIONGEARFUNCTIONISDECELERATESINCREASESRECTANGULAR,THISFUNCTIONDEPENDSENTIRELYONBETWEENTHEGEARANDTHEGEARMESHESCOMPLETES,COMPAREDWITHISEASYTOUNDERSTANDBUTTHEDIFFERENTIALDEVICEQUITEISDIFFICULTTOUNDERSTANDTHAT,WHATISCALLEDTHEDIFFERENTIALDEVICE,WHYWANTSTHEDIFFERENCEFASTTHEAUTOMOBILEDIFFERENTIALDEVICEISACTUATIONHOSTITSFUNCTIONISWHILETOTWOSIDESEMIAXISTRANSMISSIONSPOWERS,ALLOWSNEARBYTWOSEMIAXISTOREVOLVEBYTHEDIFFERENTROTATIONALSPEED,SATISFIESTWOSIDEWHEELSTOTHEFORMWHICHPURELYROLLSNOTTOMAKESAMELENGGETHETRAVELASFARASPOSSIBLE,REDUCESTHETIREANDTHEGROUNDFRICTIONAUTOMOBILEWHENTHECORNERTHEWHEELTRAJECTORYISACIRCULARARC,IFTHEAUTOMOBILETENLEFTISCURVED,THECIRCULARARCCENTRALPOINTINLEFTSIDE,INTHESAMETIME,THEARCWHICHRIGHTFLANKTHEWHEELWALKSCOMPAREDTOALEFTSIDETURNOFZICHANG,INORDERTOBALANCETHISDIFFERENCELEFTSIDE,WANTSWHEELSLOW,RIGHTSIDEWHEELQUICK,MAKESUPTHEDISTANCEWITHTHEDIFFERENTROTATIONALSPEEDTHEDIFFERENCEIFBACKWHEELMAKESAWHOLE,ISUNABLETOACHIEVETWOSIDESWHEELSTHEROTATIONALSPEEDDIFFERENCE,ALSOISCANNOTACHIEVETHEAUTOMATICCONTROLINORDERTOSOLVETHISPROBLEM,ASEARLYASIN100YEARSAGO,FRENCHREYNOLDCARCOMPANYSFOUNDERLOUISREYNOLDDESIGNEDTHEDIFFERENTIALDEVICETHISGADGETORDINARYDIFFERENTIALDEVICEBYTHEPLANETGEAR,PLANETARYGEAR,COMPONENTSANDSOONREAR42AXLESHAFTGEARHASBEENCOMPOSEDTHEENGINEPOWERCLASSICSANDCOMMENTARIESMOVINGAXISENTERSTHEDIFFERENTIALDEVICE,THEDIRECTDRIVEPLANETARYGEARFRAME,LEADSLEFT,RIGHTTWOAGAINBYTHEPLANETARYGEARSEMIAXIS,SEPARATELYACTUATESLEFT,THERIGHTWHEELTHEDIFFERENTIALDEVICEDESIGNREQUESTSATISFIESLEFTSEMIAXISROTATIONALSPEEDRIGHTSEMIAXISROTATIONALSPEED2PLANETARYGEARROTATIONALSPEEDWHENAUTOMOBILEGOALONE,ISLEFT,THERIGHTWHEELANDAPLANETARYGEARTHREEROTATIONALSPEEDEQUALLYISATTHESTATEOFEQUILIBRIUM,BUTWHENAUTOMOBILECURVETHREESTATESOFEQUILIBRIUMAREDESTROYED,CAUSEANINSIDETURNOFROTATIONALSPEEDTOREDUCE,AFLANKTURNOFROTATIONALSPEEDINCREASESTHISKINDOFADJUSTMENTISAUTOMATIC,HEREINVOLVESTHESMALLESTENERGYCONSUMPTIONPRINCIPLE,ALSOISONTHEEARTHALLOBJECTSALLFAVORSTOCONSUMESENERGYTHESMALLESTCONDITIONFOREXAMPLEADMITSAGRAINOFBEANINABOWL,THEBEANCANAUTOMATICALLYPAUSEINTHEBOWLBOTTOMBUTCANNOTPAUSEINTHEBOWLWALL,BECAUSETHEBOWLBOTTOMISTHEENERGYLOWESTPOSITIONPOTENTIALENERGY,ITSAUTOMATICSELECTIONSTATICKINETICENERGYISSMALLESTBUTCANNOTTHEUNCEASINGMOVEMENTSIMILARTRUTH,WHEELWHENCURVEALSOCANAUTOMATICALLYTENDTOTHEENERGYCONSUMPTIONLOWESTCONDITIONABOUT,WHENAUTOMATICALLYADJUSTSATURNOFROTATIONALSPEEDWORKSASTHECURVEACCORDINGTOTHERADIUSOFTURN,BECAUSEOUTSIDESIDEWHEELHASTHEPHENOMENONWHICHSLIPPERYTOWS,INSIDEWHEELHASWHEELSPINTHEPHENOMENON,TWODRIVINGGEARSTHISTIMECANOPPOSITEHAVETWODIRECTIONSTOATTACHTHETHRUSTAUGMENTATION,BECAUSETHESMALLESTENERGYCONSUMPTIONPRINCIPLE,INEVITABLYCAUSESTWOSIDEWHEELSTHEROTATIONALSPEEDSTOBEDIFFERENT,THUSDESTROYEDTHREEBALANCESRELATIONS,ANDTHROUGHSEMIAXISREFLECTEDTOTHEREARAXLESHAFTGEARON,FORCESTHEPLANETGEARTOHAVETHEROTATION,MAKESTHEFLANKSEMIAXISROTATIONALSPEEDTOSPEEDUP,THEINSIDESEMIAXISROTATIONALSPEEDREDUCESSPEED,THUSREALIZESTWOSIDECARSTURNOFROTATIONALSPEEDSDIFFERENCEONTHEAUTOMOBILEUSESTHEGEARDRIVETHEPARTTOHAVEDRIVINGAXLE,THETRANSMISSIONGEARBOX,THEENGINE,THEAZIMUTHTRAINING43GEARANDSOONALWAYSBECOMES,THEDIFFERENTPARTUSESAFORMDIFFERENTSIZENOTGEARINALLKINDSOFGEAR,SOMEONENAMENAMEDTHEHYPERBOLICCURVETHEGEAR,MATCHESINTHEMARKETINTHESTEAMALSOTOHAVESPECIALLYUSESINITSLUBRICATINGOILTOBECALLEDTHEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEAROILTHISKINDOFGEARUSESONTHEDRIVINGAXLEMAINGEARBOXONTHEPASSENGERVEHICLEMAINGEARBOXGENERALLYUSESTHEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEARTHISISBECAUSETHEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEARCOMPARESWITHTHESPIRALBEVELGEAR,FORMERREVOLUTIONNOISEFEW,WORKSTEADIER,TURNSTHETOOTHINTENSITYTOBEHIGHER,MOREOVERALSOHASTHEDRIVEGEARSPOOLTHREADTOBEALLOWEDTHERELATIVEDRIVENGEARDISALIGNMENTCHARACTERISTIC,THISPOINTREGARDINGTHE,AUTOMOBILETECHNICALPERFORMANCECOUNTFORMUCH,ENGINEERTOBEALLOWEDINNOTTOCHANGETHEENGINETHEPOSITIONSIZETOBEALLOWEDDIRECTLYTOCHANGEDRIVINGAXLETHEGROUNDCLEARANCE,ALSOISCHANGESTHEENTIREVEHICLETHEGROUNDCLEARANCESOMEAUTOMOBILESPRODUCETHEPASSENGERVEHICLEANDTHEMOVEMENTLEISUREVEHICLEONTHEIDENTICALFRAME,ITSCHASSISPARAMETERTRANSFORMATIONALSOHASUSEDHYPERBOLICCURVEGEARTHISCHARACTERISTICBECAUSEHASTHESEMERITS,ATPRESENTAUTOMOBILEDRIVINGAXLEALREADYTENDEDTOUSESTHEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEAR,INFACTRECENTYEARSIMPORTEDTHEAUTOMOBILEBASICALLYWASUSESTHEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEAR,THEDOMESTICALLYPRODUCEDAUTOMOBILEALSOHASMANYVEHICLETYPESTOUSETHEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEAR,ANDALREADYMOREANDMOREMANYINCENTER,ONTHEHEAVYFREIGHTVEHICLEOBTAINEDUSESWHENTHEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEARWORKED,BETWEENTHETOOTHFACECANHAVEINABIGWAYRELATIVELYSKIDS,ALSOTHETOOTHFACEPRESSUREWASVERYBIG,THETOOTHFACELUBRICANTFILMISEASILYDESTROYEDINORDERTOREDUCETHEFRICTION,ENHANCESTHEEFFICIENCY,MUSTHAVETOUSEINCLUDESGUARDSAGAINSTBLOWSTHEWOUNDCHEMICALADDITIVESPECIALPURPOSEHYPERBOLICCURVEGEAROIL,CANNOTUSEOTHERGEAROILTOREPLACE,OTHERWISEWILLCAUSETHETOOTHFACERAPIDATTRITIONANDTHEABRASION,SERIOUSLYWILLAFFECTTHEAUTOMOBILETHERUNNINGSTATUS44汽车的差速器汽车发动机的动力经离合器、变速器、传动轴,最后传送到驱动桥再左右分配给半轴驱动车轮,在这条动力传送途径上,驱动桥是最后一个总成,它的主要部件是减速器和差速器。减速器的作用就是减速增矩,这个功能完全靠齿轮与齿轮之间的啮合完成,比较容易理解。而差速器就比较难理解,什么叫差速器,为什么要“差速”汽车差速器是驱动轿的主件。它的作用就是在向两边半轴传递动力的同时,允许两边半轴以不同的转速旋转,满足两边车轮尽可能以纯滚动的形式作不等距行驶,减少轮胎与地面的摩擦。汽车在拐弯时车轮的轨线是圆弧,如果汽车向左转弯,圆弧的中心点在左侧,在相同的时间里,右侧轮子走的弧线比左侧轮子长,为了平衡这个差异,就要左边轮子慢一点,右边轮子快一点,用不同的转速来弥补距离的差异。如果后轮轴做成一个整体,就无法做到两侧轮子的转速差异,也就是做不到自动调整。为了解决这个问题,早在一百年前,法国雷诺汽车公司的创始人路易斯雷诺就设计出了差速器这个玩意。普通差速器由行星齿轮、行星轮架(差速器壳)、半轴齿轮等零件组成。发动机的动力经传动轴进入差速器,直接驱动行星轮架,再由行星轮带动左、右两条半轴,分别驱动左、右车轮。差速器的设计要求满足(左半轴转速)(右半轴转速)2(行星轮架转速)。当汽车直行时,左、右车轮与行星轮架三者的转速相等处于平衡状态,而在汽车转弯时三者平衡状态被破坏,导致内侧轮转速减小,外侧轮转速增加。这种调整是自动的,这里涉及到“最小能耗原理”,也就是地球上所有物体都倾向于耗能最小的状态。例如把一粒豆子放进一个碗内,豆子会自动停留在碗底而绝不会停留在碗壁,因为碗底是能量最低的位置(位能),它自动选择静止(动能最小)而不会不断运动。同样的道理,车轮在转弯时也会自动趋向能耗最低的状态,自动地按照转弯半径调整左右轮的转速。当转弯时,由于外侧轮有滑拖的现象,内侧轮有滑转的现象,两个驱动轮此时就会产生两个方向相反的附加力,由于“最小能耗原理”,必然导致两边车轮的转速不同,从而破坏了三者的平衡关系,并通过半轴反映到半轴齿轮上,迫使行星齿轮产生自转,使外侧半轴转速加快,内侧半轴转速减慢,从而实现两边车轮转速的差异。汽车上用到齿轮传动的部件有驱动桥、变速器、发动机、方向机等总成,不同的部件采用形式不同大小不一的齿轮。在各式各样的齿轮中,有一种名叫“双曲线”的齿轮,在汽配市场上还有专门用于它的润滑油叫做“双曲线齿轮油”。这种齿轮用在驱动桥的主减速器上。轿车上的主减速器一般采用双曲线齿轮。这是因为双曲线齿轮与螺旋锥齿轮比较,前者运转噪音少,工作更平稳,轮齿强度较高,而且还具有主动齿轮轴线可以相对从动齿轮轴线偏移的特点,这一点对于汽车的技术性能非常重要,工程师可以在不改变发动机的位置尺寸就可以直接改变驱动桥的离地间隙,也就是改变整部车的离地间隙。有些汽车在同一车架上生产轿车和运动休闲车,其底盘的参数变换也是利用了双曲线齿轮这一特性。由于有这些优点,目前汽车的驱动桥已经趋向于用双曲线齿轮,

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