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外文翻译--液压挖掘机的半自动控制系统 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--液压挖掘机的半自动控制系统 英文版.pdf

Ž.AutomationinConstruction102001477–486www.elsevier.comrlocaterautconSemiautomaticcontrolsystemforhydraulicshovelHirokazuAraya,MasayukiKagoshimaMechanicalEngineeringResearchLaboratory,KobeSteel,Ltd.,Nishiku,KobeHyogo6512271,JapanAccepted27June2000AbstractAsemiautomaticcontrolsystemforahydraulicshovelhasbeendeveloped.Usingthissystem,unskilledoperatorscanoperateahydraulicshoveleasilyandaccurately.Amathematicalcontrolmodelofahydraulicshovelwithacontrollerwasconstructedandacontrolalgorithmwasdevelopedbysimulation.Thisalgorithmwasappliedtoahydraulicshovelanditseffectivenesswasevaluated.Highcontrolaccuracyandhighstabilityperformancewereachievedbyfeedbackplusfeedforwardcontrol,nonlinearcompensation,statefeedbackandgainschedulingaccordingtotheattitude.q2001ElsevierScienceB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsConstructionmachineryHydraulicshovelFeedforwardStatefeedbackOperation1.IntroductionAhydraulicshovelisaconstructionmachinerythatcanberegardedasalargearticulatedrobot.Diggingandloadingoperationsusingthismachinerequireahighlevelofskill,andcauseconsiderablefatigueeveninskilledoperators.Ontheotherhand,operatorsgrowolder,andthenumberofskilledoperatorshasthusdecreased.Thesituationcallsforhydraulicshovels,whichcanbeoperatedeasilybywxanyperson1–5.Thereasonswhyhydraulicshovelrequiresahighlevelofskillareasfollows.1.Morethantwoleversmustbeoperatedsimultaneouslyandadjustedwellinsuchoperations.Correspondingauthor.Ž.Emailaddressarayahrknedo.go.jpH.Araya.2.Thedirectionofleveroperationsisdifferentfromthatofashovelsattachmentmovement.Forexample,inlevelcrowdingbyahydraulicŽshovel,wemustoperatethreeleversarm,boom,.bucketsimultaneouslytomovethetopofabucketŽ.alongalevelsurfaceFig.1.Inthiscase,theleveroperationindicatesthedirectionoftheactuator,butthisdirectiondiffersfromtheworkingdirection.Ifanoperatoruseonlyoneleverandotherfreedomsareoperatedautomatically,theoperationbecomesveryeasily.Wecallthissystemasemiautomaticcontrolsystem.Whenwedevelopthissemiautomaticcontrolsystem,thesetwotechnicalproblemsmustbesolved.1.Wemustuseordinarycontrolvalvesforautomaticcontrol.2.Wemustcompensatedynamiccharacteristicsofahydraulicshoveltoimprovetheprecisionofcontrol.09265805r01rseefrontmatterq2001ElsevierScienceB.V.Allrightsreserved.Ž.PIIS0926580500000832H.Araya,M.KagoshimarAutomationinConstruction102001477–486478Fig.1.Levelcrowdingofanexcavatorandframemodelofanexcavator.Wehavedevelopedacontrolalgorithmtosolvethesetechnicalproblemsandconfirmtheeffectofthiscontrolalgorithmbyexperimentswithactualhydraulicshovels.Usingthiscontrolalgorithm,wehavecompletedasemiautomaticcontrolsystemforhydraulicshovels.Wethenreporttheseitems.2.HydraulicshovelmodelTostudycontrolalgorithms,wehavetoanalyzenumericalmodelsofahydraulicshovel.Thehydraulicshovel,whoseboom,arm,andbucketjointsarehydraulicallydriven,ismodeledasshowninFig.2.Thedetailsofthemodelaredescribedinthefollowing.2.1.Dynamicmodel6Supposingthateachattachmentisasolidbody,fromLagrangesequationsofmotion,thefollowingexpressionsareobtained¨¨¨˙2˙2JuqJcosuyuuqJcosuyuuqJsinuyuuqJsinuyuuyKsinustŽ.Ž.Ž.Ž.11l1212213133121221313311122¨¨¨˙˙JcosuyuuqJuqJcosuyuuyJsinuyuuqJsinuyuuyKsinustŽ.Ž.Ž.Ž.1212122232331212123233222JcosuyuuqJcosuyuuqJuyJsinuyuuqJsinuyuuyKsinustŽ.Ž.Ž.Ž.131312323233313131232333331Ž.2Ž.2where,Jsm1qmqm1qIJs111g123112m11qm11Jsm11Jsm12q21g231g31331g3222g2m12qIJsm11Jsm12qIKs3222332g3333g331Ž.Ž.m1qm1qm1gKsm1qm1g1g121322g233Ksm1gandgsgravitationalacceleration.33g3uisthejointangle,tisthesupplytorque,1isiitheattachmentlength,1isthedistancebetweengithefulcrumandthecenterofgravity,misthemassioftheattachment,IisthemomentofinertiaaroundiŽthecenterofgravitysubscriptsis1–3,meanboom,.arm,andbucket,respectively.2.2.HydraulicmodelEachjointisdrivenbyahydrauliccylinderwhoseflowiscontrolledbyaspoolvalve,asshowninFig.3.Wecanassumethefollowing1.Theopenareaofavalveisproportionaltothespooldisplacement.2.Thereisnooilleak.3.Nopressuredropoccurswhenoilflowsthroughpiping.H.Araya,M.KagoshimarAutomationinConstruction102001477–486479Fig.2.Modelofhydraulicshovel.4.Theeffectivesectionalareaofthecylinderisthesameonboththeheadandtherodsides.Inthisproblem,foreachjoint,wehavethefollowingequationfromthepressureflowcharacteristicsofthecylinderVi˙˙AhsKXPysgnXPyP2Ž.Ž.ii0iisii1i1iKwhen,KscB2rgPsPyP0ii1i1i2iwhere,AseffectivecrosssectionalareaofcyliniderhscylinderlengthXsspooldisplacementPssupplypressurePscylinderheadsidepressi1isurePscylinderrodsidepressureVsoilvol2iiumeinthecylinderandpipingBsspoolwidthigsoildensityKsbulkmodulusofoilandcsflowcoefficient.2.3.LinkrelationsInthemodelshowninFig.1,therelationbetweenthecylinderlengthchangerateandtheattachmentrotationalangularvelocityisgivenasŽ.follows1boomfuŽ.11˙h1s˙u1OAOCsinuqbŽ.1111sy,22OAqOCq2OAOCcosuqbŽ.111111Ž.2armŽ.fu,u212˙h2s˙˙uyu21Ž.OAOCsinuyuqbqa22222122sy,22Ž.OAqOCq2OAOCcosuyuqbqa222222222122Ž.3bucketwhenODsOBsBCsCD33333333Y˙hABCsinuyuqgyaquŽ.3333232fu,ussy.3Ž.Ž.32322Y˙˙uyuABqBCq2ABBCcosuyuqgyaquŽ.323333333332332H.Araya,M.KagoshimarAutomationinConstruction102001477–486480Fig.3.Modelofhydrauliccylinderandvalve.2.4.TorquerelationsFromthelinkrelationsofSection2.3,thesupplytorquetisgivenasfollows,takingcylinderfrictioniintoconsiderationtsyfuP1Aqfu,uP1AŽ.Ž.111121222˙qfu,uP1AyCfuuŽ.Ž.Ž32333c1111˙qsgnuFfu4Ž.Ž.Ž./1111˙˙tsyfu,uP1AyCfu,uuyuŽ.Ž.½ž/221222c221221˙˙qsgnuyuFfu,uŽ.5ž/212212˙˙tsyfu,uP1AyCfu,uuyuŽ.Ž.½ž/332333c332332˙˙qsgnuyuFfu,u.Ž.5ž/323323Where,CistheviscousfrictioncoefficientandciFiskineticfrictionalforceofacylinder.i2.5.ResponsecharacteristicsofthespoolSpoolactionhasagreateffectoncontrolcharacteristics.Thus,weareassumingthatthespoolhasthefollowingfirstorderlagagainstthereferenceinput.1XXsX.5Ž.iiTSq1spiWhere,XXisthereferenceinputofspooldisiplacementandTisatimeconstant.spi3.AnglecontrolsystemAsshowninFig.4,theangleuisbasicallycontrolledtofollowthereferenceangleubyposigtionfeedback.Inordertoobtainmoreaccuratecontrol,nonlinearcompensationandstatefeedbackareaddedtothepositionfeedback.Wewilldiscussdetailsofthesealgorithmsasfollows.3.1.NonlinearcompensationIntheordinaryautomaticcontrolsystems,newcontroldevicessuchasservovalvesareused.Inoursemiautomaticsystem,inordertorealizethecoexistenceofmanualandautomaticoperations,wemustusethemaincontrolvalves,whichareusedinmanualoperation.Inthesevalves,therelationbetweenspooldisplacementandopenareaisnonlinear.Then,inautomaticoperation,usingthisrelation,thespooldisplacementisinverselycalculatedfromtherequiredopenarea,andthenonlinearityiscompenŽ.satedFig.5.Ž.Fig.4.Blockdiagramofcontrolsystemu.

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