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外文翻译--液压系统的设计与模具设计.doc

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外文翻译--液压系统的设计与模具设计.doc

HYDRAULICSYSTEMDESIGNANDMOLDDESIGNHYDRAULICPRESSERDRIVEANDAIRPRESSUREDRIVEHYDRAULICFLUIDASTHETRANSMISSIONISMADEACCORDINGTOTHE17THCENTURY,PASCALSPRINCIPLEOFHYDROSTATICPRESSURETODRIVETHEDEVELOPMENTOFANEMERGINGTECHNOLOGY,THEUNITEDKINGDOMIN1795BRAMANJOSEPHJOSEPHBRAMAN,17491814,INLONDONWATERASAMEDIUMTOFORMHYDRAULICPRESSUSEDININDUSTRY,THEBIRTHOFTHEWORLDSFIRSTHYDRAULICPRESSMEDIAWORKIN1905WILLBEREPLACEDBYOILWATERANDFURTHERIMPROVEDAFTERTHEWORLDWARI19141918,BECAUSEOFTHEEXTENSIVEAPPLICATIONOFHYDRAULICTRANSMISSION,ESPECIALLYAFTER1920,MORERAPIDDEVELOPMENTHYDRAULICCOMPONENTSINTHELATE19THCENTURYABOUTTHEEARLY20THCENTURY,20YEARS,ONLYSTARTEDTOENTERTHEFORMALPHASEOFINDUSTRIALPRODUCTION1925VICKERSFVIKERSTHEINVENTIONOFTHEPRESSUREBALANCEDVANEPUMP,HYDRAULICCOMPONENTSFORTHEMODERNINDUSTRIALORHYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONOFTHEGRADUALESTABLISHMENTOFTHEFOUNDATIONTHEEARLY20THCENTURYGCONSTANTIMSCOFLUCTUATIONSOFTHEENERGYCARRIEDOUTBYPASSINGTHEORETICALANDPRACTICALRESEARCH;IN1910ONTHEHYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONHYDRAULICCOUPLING,HYDRAULICTORQUECONVERTER,ETCCONTRIBUTIONS,SOTHATTHESETWOAREASOFDEVELOPMENTTHESECONDWORLDWAR19411945PERIOD,INTHEUNITEDSTATES30OFMACHINETOOLAPPLICATIONSINTHEHYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONITSHOULDBENOTEDTHATTHEDEVELOPMENTOFHYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONINJAPANTHANEUROPEANDTHEUNITEDSTATESANDOTHERCOUNTRIESFORNEARLY20YEARSLATERBEFOREANDAFTERIN1955,THERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFJAPANSHYDRAULICDRIVE,SETUPIN1956,HYDRAULICINDUSTRYNEARLY20TO30YEARS,THEDEVELOPMENTOFJAPANSFASTHYDRAULICTRANSMISSION,AWORLDLEADERHYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONTHEREAREMANYOUTSTANDINGADVANTAGES,ITISWIDELYUSED,SUCHASGENERALINDUSTRIALUSEOFPLASTICSPROCESSINGMACHINERY,THEPRESSUREOFMACHINERY,MACHINETOOLS,ETC;OPERATINGMACHINERYENGINEERINGMACHINERY,CONSTRUCTIONMACHINERY,AGRICULTURALMACHINERY,AUTOMOBILES,ETC;IRONANDSTEELINDUSTRYMETALLURGICALMACHINERY,LIFTINGEQUIPMENT,SUCHASROLLERADJUSTMENTDEVICE;CIVILWATERPROJECTSWITHFLOODCONTROLANDDAMGATEDEVICES,BEDLIFTSINSTALLATIONS,BRIDGESANDOTHERMANIPULATIONOFINSTITUTIONS;SPEEDTURBINEPOWERPLANTINSTALLATIONS,NUCLEARPOWERPLANTS,ETC;SHIPFROMTHEDECKHEAVYMACHINERYWINCH,THEBOWDOORS,BULKHEADVALVE,STERNTHRUSTER,ETC;SPECIALANTENNATECHNOLOGYGIANTWITHCONTROLDEVICES,MEASUREMENTBUOYS,MOVEMENTSSUCHASROTATINGSTAGE;MILITARYINDUSTRIALCONTROLDEVICESUSEDINARTILLERY,SHIPANTIROLLINGDEVICES,AIRCRAFTSIMULATION,AIRCRAFTRETRACTABLELANDINGGEARANDRUDDERCONTROLDEVICESANDOTHERDEVICESACOMPLETEHYDRAULICSYSTEMCONSISTSOFFIVEPARTS,NAMELY,POWERCOMPONENTS,THEIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTS,CONTROLCOMPONENTS,AUXILIARYCOMPONENTSANDHYDRAULICOILTHEROLEOFDYNAMICCOMPONENTSOFTHEORIGINALMOTIVEFLUIDINTOMECHANICALENERGYTOTHEPRESSURETHATTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMOFPUMPS,ITISTOPOWERTHEENTIREHYDRAULICSYSTEMTHESTRUCTUREOFTHEFORMOFHYDRAULICPUMPGEARSAREGENERALLYPUMP,VANEPUMPANDPISTONPUMPIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTSSUCHASHYDRAULICCYLINDERSANDHYDRAULICMOTORSWHICHISTHEPRESSUREOFTHELIQUIDCANBECONVERTEDTOMECHANICALENERGYTODRIVETHELOADFORASTRAIGHTLINERECIPROCATINGMOVEMENTORROTATIONALMOVEMENTCONTROLCOMPONENTSTHATIS,THEVARIOUSHYDRAULICVALVESINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMTOCONTROLANDREGULATETHEPRESSUREOFLIQUID,FLOWRATEANDDIRECTIONACCORDINGTOTHEDIFFERENTCONTROLFUNCTIONS,HYDRAULICPRESSURECONTROLVALVECANBEDIVIDEDINTOVALVES,FLOWCONTROLVALVESANDDIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVEPRESSURECONTROLVALVESAREDIVIDEDINTOBENEFITSFLOWVALVESAFETYVALVE,PRESSURERELIEFVALVE,SEQUENCEVALVE,PRESSURERELAYS,ETC;FLOWCONTROLVALVESINCLUDINGTHROTTLE,ADJUSTINGTHEVALVES,FLOWDIVERSIONVALVESETS,ETC;DIRECTIONALCONTROLVALVEINCLUDESAONEWAYVALVE,ONEWAYFLUIDCONTROLVALVE,SHUTTLEVALVE,VALVEANDSOONUNDERTHECONTROLOFDIFFERENTWAYS,CANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHEHYDRAULICVALVECONTROLSWITCHVALVE,CONTROLVALVEANDSETTHEVALUEOFTHERATIOCONTROLVALVEAUXILIARYCOMPONENTS,INCLUDINGFUELTANKS,OILFILTERS,TUBINGANDPIPEJOINTS,SEALS,PRESSUREGAUGE,OILLEVEL,SUCHASOILDOLLARSHYDRAULICOILINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMISTHEWORKOFTHEENERGYTRANSFERMEDIUM,THEREAREAVARIETYOFMINERALOIL,EMULSIONOILHYDRAULICMOLDINGHOPCATEGORIESTHEROLEOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMISTOHELPHUMANITYWORKMAINLYBYTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTSTOROTATEORPRESSUREINTOARECIPROCATINGMOTIONHYDRAULICSYSTEMANDHYDRAULICPOWERCONTROLSIGNALISCOMPOSEDOFTWOPARTS,THESIGNALCONTROLOFSOMEPARTSOFTHEHYDRAULICPOWERUSEDTODRIVETHECONTROLVALVEMOVEMENTPARTOFTHEHYDRAULICPOWERMEANSTHATTHECIRCUITDIAGRAMUSEDTOSHOWTHEDIFFERENTFUNCTIONSOFTHEINTERRELATIONSHIPBETWEENCOMPONENTSCONTAININGTHESOURCEOFHYDRAULICPUMP,HYDRAULICMOTORANDAUXILIARYCOMPONENTS;HYDRAULICCONTROLPARTCONTAINSAVARIETYOFCONTROLVALVES,USEDTOCONTROLTHEFLOWOFOIL,PRESSUREANDDIRECTION;OPERATIVEORHYDRAULICCYLINDERWITHHYDRAULICMOTORS,ACCORDINGTOTHEACTUALREQUIREMENTSOFTHEIRCHOICEINTHEANALYSISANDDESIGNOFTHEACTUALTASK,THEGENERALBLOCKDIAGRAMSHOWSTHEACTUALOPERATIONOFEQUIPMENTHOLLOWARROWINDICATESTHESIGNALFLOW,WHILETHESOLIDARROWSTHATENERGYFLOWBASICHYDRAULICCIRCUITOFTHEACTIONSEQUENCECONTROLCOMPONENTSTWOFOURWAYVALVEANDTHESPRINGTORESETFORTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTSDOUBLEACTINGHYDRAULICCYLINDER,ASWELLASTHEEXTENDINGANDRETRACTINGTHERELIEFVALVEOPENEDANDCLOSEDFORTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTSANDCONTROLCOMPONENTS,PRESENTATIONSAREBASEDONTHECORRESPONDINGCIRCUITDIAGRAMSYMBOLS,ITALSOINTRODUCEDREADYMADECIRCUITDIAGRAMSYMBOLSWORKINGPRINCIPLEOFTHESYSTEM,YOUCANTURNONALLCIRCUITSTOCODEIFTHEFIRSTIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTSNUMBERED0,THECONTROLCOMPONENTSASSOCIATEDWITHTHEIDENTIFIERIS1OUTWITHTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTSCORRESPONDINGTOTHEIDENTIFIERFORTHEEVENCOMPONENTS,THENRETRACTINGANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMPONENTSCORRESPONDINGTOTHEIDENTIFIERFORTHEODDCOMPONENTSHYDRAULICCIRCUITCARRIEDOUTNOTONLYTODEALWITHNUMBERS,BUTALSOTODEALWITHTHEACTUALDEVICEID,INORDERTODETECTSYSTEMFAILURESDINISO12192STANDARDDEFINITIONOFTHENUMBEROFCOMPONENTCOMPOSITION,WHICHINCLUDESTHEFOLLOWINGFOURPARTSDEVICEID,CIRCUITID,COMPONENTIDANDCOMPONENTIDTHEENTIRESYSTEMIFONLYONEDEVICE,DEVICENUMBERMAYBEOMITTEDPRACTICE,ANOTHERWAYISTOCODEALLOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMCOMPONENTSFORNUMBERSATTHISTIME,COMPONENTSANDCOMPONENTCODESHOULDBECONSISTENTWITHTHELISTOFNUMBERSTHISMETHODISPARTICULARLYAPPLICABLETOCOMPLEXHYDRAULICCONTROLSYSTEM,EACHCONTROLLOOPARETHECORRESPONDINGNUMBERWITHTHESYSTEMWITHMECHANICALTRANSMISSION,ELECTRICALTRANSMISSIONCOMPAREDTOTHEHYDRAULICDRIVEHASTHEFOLLOWINGADVANTAGES1,AVARIETYOFHYDRAULICCOMPONENTS,CANEASILYANDFLEXIBLYTOLAYOUT2,LIGHTWEIGHT,SMALLSIZE,SMALLINERTIA,FASTRESPONSE3,TOFACILITATEMANIPULATIONOFCONTROL,ENABLINGAWIDERANGEOFSTEPLESSSPEEDREGULATIONSPEEDRANGEOF200014,TOACHIEVEOVERLOADPROTECTIONAUTOMATICALLY5,THEGENERALUSEOFMINERALOILASAWORKINGMEDIUM,THERELATIVEMOTIONCANBESELFLUBRICATINGSURFACE,LONGSERVICELIFE;6,ITISEASYTOACHIEVELINEARMOTION/7,ITISEASYTOACHIEVETHEAUTOMATIONOFMACHINES,WHENTHEJOINTCONTROLOFTHEUSEOFELECTROHYDRAULIC,NOTONLYCANACHIEVEAHIGHERDEGREEOFPROCESSAUTOMATION,ANDREMOTECONTROLCANBEACHIEVEDTHESHORTCOMINGSOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEM1,ASARESULTOFTHERESISTANCETOFLUIDFLOWANDLEAKAGEOFTHELARGER,SOLESSEFFICIENTIFNOTHANDLEDPROPERLY,LEAKAGEISNOTONLYCONTAMINATEDSITES,BUTALSOMAYCAUSEFIREANDEXPLOSION2,VULNERABLEPERFORMANCEASARESULTOFTHEIMPACTOFTEMPERATURECHANGE,ITWOULDBEINAPPROPRIATEINTHEHIGHORLOWTEMPERATURECONDITIONS3,THEMANUFACTUREOFPRECISIONHYDRAULICCOMPONENTSREQUIREAHIGHER,MOREEXPENSIVEANDHENCETHEPRICE4,DUETOTHELEAKAGEOFLIQUIDMEDIUMANDTHECOMPRESSIBILITYANDCANNOTBESTRICTLYTHETRANSMISSIONRATIO5,HYDRAULICTRANSMISSIONISNOTEASYTOFINDOUTTHEREASONSFORFAILURE;THEUSEANDMAINTENANCEREQUIREMENTSFORAHIGHERLEVELOFTECHNOLOGYINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMANDITSSYSTEM,THESEALINGDEVICETOPREVENTLEAKAGEOFTHEWORKOFMEDIAWITHINANDOUTSIDETHEDUSTANDTHEINTRUSIONOFFOREIGNBODIESSEALSPLAYEDTHEROLEOFCOMPONENTS,NAMELYSEALSMEDIUMWILLRESULTINLEAKAGEOFWASTE,POLLUTIONANDENVIRONMENTALMACHINERYANDEVENGIVERISETOMALFUNCTIONINGMACHINERYANDEQUIPMENTFORPERSONALACCIDENTLEAKAGEWITHINTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMWILLCAUSEASHARPDROPINVOLUMETRICEFFICIENCY,AMOUNTINGTOLESSTHANTHEREQUIREDPRESSURE,CANNOTEVENWORKMICROINVASIVESYSTEMOFDUSTPARTICLES,CANCAUSEOREXACERBATEFRICTIONHYDRAULICCOMPONENTWEAR,ANDFURTHERLEADTOLEAKAGETHEREFORE,SEALSANDSEALINGDEVICEISANIMPORTANTHYDRAULICEQUIPMENTCOMPONENTSTHERELIABILITYOFITSWORKANDLIFE,ISAMEASUREOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMANIMPORTANTINDICATOROFGOODORBADINADDITIONTOTHECLOSEDSPACE,ARETHEUSEOFSEALS,SOTHATTWOADJACENTCOUPLINGSURFACEOFTHEGAPBETWEENTHENEEDTOCONTROLTHELIQUIDCANBESEALEDFOLLOWINGTHESMALLESTGAPINTHECONTACTSEAL,PRESSEDINTOSELFSEALSTYLEANDSELFSTYLEDSELFTIGHTSEALIE,SEALEDLIPSTWOTHETHREEHYDRAULICSYSTEMDISEASES1,ASARESULTOFHEATTRANSMISSIONMEDIUMHYDRAULICOILINTHEFLOWVELOCITYINVARIOUSPARTSOFTHEEXISTENCEOFDIFFERENT,RESULTINGINTHEEXISTENCEOFALIQUIDWITHINTHEINTERNALFRICTIONOFLIQUIDSANDPIPELINESATTHESAMETIMETHEREISFRICTIONBETWEENTHEINNERWALL,WHICHAREARESULTOFHYDRAULICTHEREASONSFORTHEOILTEMPERATURETEMPERATUREWILLLEADTOINCREASEDINTERNALANDEXTERNALLEAKAGE,REDUCINGITSMECHANICALEFFICIENCYATTHESAMETIMEASARESULTOFHIGHTEMPERATURE,HYDRAULICOILEXPANSIONWILLOCCUR,RESULTINGININCREASEDCOMPRESSION,SOTHATACTIONCANNOTBEVERYGOODCONTROLOFTRANSMISSIONSOLUTIONHEATISTHEINHERENTCHARACTERISTICSOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEM,NOTONLYTOMINIMIZEERADICATIONUSEAGOODQUALITYHYDRAULICOIL,HYDRAULICPIPINGARRANGEMENTSHOULDBEAVOIDEDASFARASPOSSIBLETHEEMERGENCEOFBEND,THEUSEOFHIGHQUALITYPIPEANDFITTINGS,HYDRAULICVALVES,ETC2,THEVIBRATIONOFTHEVIBRATIONOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMISALSOONEOFITSMALAISEASARESULTOFHYDRAULICOILINTHEPIPELINEFLOWOFHIGHSPEEDIMPACTANDTHECONTROLVALVETOOPENTHECLOSUREOFTHEIMPACTOFTHEPROCESSARETHEREASONSFORTHEVIBRATIONSYSTEMSTRONGVIBRATIONCONTROLACTIONWILLCAUSETHESYSTEMTOERROR,THESYSTEMWILLALSOBESOMEOFTHEMORESOPHISTICATEDEQUIPMENTERROR,RESULTINGINSYSTEMFAILURESSOLUTIONSHYDRAULICPIPESHOULDBEFIXEDTOAVOIDSHARPBENDSTOAVOIDFREQUENTCHANGESINFLOWDIRECTION,CANNOTAVOIDDAMPINGMEASURESSHOULDBEDOINGAGOODJOBTHEENTIREHYDRAULICSYSTEMSHOULDHAVEAGOODDAMPINGMEASURES,WHILEAVOIDINGTHEEXTERNALLOCALOSCILLATORONTHESYSTEM3,THELEAKAGEOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMLEAKINTOINSIDEANDOUTSIDETHELEAKAGELEAKAGELEAKAGEREFERSTOTHEPROCESSWITHTHELEAKOCCURREDINTHESYSTEM,SUCHASHYDRAULICPISTONCYLINDERONBOTHSIDESOFTHELEAKAGE,THECONTROLVALVESPOOLANDVALVEBODY,SUCHASBETWEENTHELEAKAGEALTHOUGHNOINTERNALLEAKAGEOFHYDRAULIC

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