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外文翻译--电容式传感器.doc

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外文翻译--电容式传感器.doc

南昌航空大学科技学院学士学位(论文)外文翻译CAPACITIVESENSOROPERATIONPART1THEBASICSPART1OFTHISTWOPARTARTICLEREVIEWSTHECONCEPTSANDTHEORYOFCAPACITIVESENSINGTOHELPTOOPTIMIZECAPACITIVESENSORPERFORMANCEPART2OFTHISARTICLEWILLDISCUSSHOWTOPUTTHESECONCEPTSTOWORKNONCONTACTCAPACITIVESENSORSMEASURETHECHANGESINANELECTRICALPROPERTYCALLEDCAPACITANCECAPACITANCEDESCRIBESHOWTWOCONDUCTIVEOBJECTSWITHASPACEBETWEENTHEMRESPONDTOAVOLTAGEDIFFERENCEAPPLIEDTOTHEMAVOLTAGEAPPLIEDTOTHECONDUCTORSCREATESANELECTRICFIELDBETWEENTHEM,CAUSINGPOSITIVEANDNEGATIVECHARGESTOCOLLECTONEACHOBJECTCAPACITIVESENSORSUSEANALTERNATINGVOLTAGETHATCAUSESTHECHARGESTOCONTINUALLYREVERSETHEIRPOSITIONSTHEMOVEMENTOFTHECHARGESCREATESANALTERNATINGELECTRICCURRENTTHATISDETECTEDBYTHESENSORTHEAMOUNTOFCURRENTFLOWISDETERMINEDBYTHECAPACITANCE,ANDTHECAPACITANCEISDETERMINEDBYTHESURFACEAREAANDPROXIMITYOFTHECONDUCTIVEOBJECTSLARGERANDCLOSEROBJECTSCAUSEGREATERCURRENTTHANSMALLERANDMOREDISTANTOBJECTSCAPACITANCEISALSOAFFECTEDBYTHETYPEOFNONCONDUCTIVEMATERIALINTHEGAPBETWEENTHEOBJECTSTECHNICALLYSPEAKING,THECAPACITANCEISDIRECTLYPROPORTIONALTOTHESURFACEAREAOFTHEOBJECTSANDTHEDIELECTRICCONSTANTOFTHEMATERIALBETWEENTHEM,ANDINVERSELYPROPORTIONALTOTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHEMASSHOWNINTYPICALCAPACITIVESENSINGAPPLICATIONS,THEPROBEORSENSORISONEOFTHECONDUCTIVEOBJECTSANDTHETARGETOBJECTISTHEOTHERUSINGCAPACITIVESENSORSTOSENSEPLASTICSANDOTHERINSULATORSWILLBEDISCUSSEDINTHESECONDPARTOFTHISARTICLETHESIZESOFTHESENSORANDTHETARGETAREASSUMEDTOBECONSTANT,ASISTHEMATERIALBETWEENTHEMTHEREFORE,ANYCHANGEINCAPACITANCEISARESULTOFACHANGEINTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHEPROBEANDTHETARGETTHEELECTRONICSARECALIBRATEDTOGENERATESPECIFICVOLTAGECHANGESFORCORRESPONDINGCHANGESINCAPACITANCETHESEVOLTAGESARESCALEDTOREPRESENTSPECIFICCHANGESINDISTANCETHEAMOUNTOFVOLTAGECHANGEFORAGIVENAMOUNTOFDISTANCECHANGEISCALLEDTHESENSITIVITYACOMMONSENSITIVITYSETTINGIS10V/100MTHATMEANSTHATFOREVERY100MCHANGEINDISTANCE,THEOUTPUTVOLTAGECHANGESEXACTLY10VWITHTHISCALIBRATION,A2VCHANGEINTHEOUTPUTMEANSTHATTHETARGETHASMOVED200MRELATIVETOTHEPROBEFOCUSINGTHEELECTRICFIELDWHENAVOLTAGEISAPPLIEDTOACONDUCTOR,THEELECTRICFIELDEMANATESFROMEVERYSURFACEIN南昌航空大学科技学院学士学位(论文)外文翻译ACAPACITIVESENSOR,THESENSINGVOLTAGEISAPPLIEDTOTHESENSINGAREAOFTHEPROBEFORACCURATEMEASUREMENTS,THEELECTRICFIELDFROMTHESENSINGAREANEEDSTOBECONTAINEDWITHINTHESPACEBETWEENTHEPROBEANDTHETARGETIFTHEELECTRICFIELDISALLOWEDTOSPREADTOOTHERITEMSOROTHERAREASONTHETARGETTHENACHANGEINTHEPOSITIONOFTHEOTHERITEMWILLBEMEASUREDASACHANGEINTHEPOSITIONOFTHETARGETATECHNIQUECALLEDGUARDINGISUSEDTOPREVENTTHISFROMHAPPENINGTOCREATEAGUARD,THEBACKANDSIDESOFTHESENSINGAREAARESURROUNDEDBYANOTHERCONDUCTORTHATISKEPTATTHESAMEVOLTAGEASTHESENSINGAREAITSELFWHENTHEVOLTAGEISAPPLIEDTOTHESENSINGAREA,ASEPARATECIRCUITAPPLIESTHEEXACTSAMEVOLTAGETOTHEGUARDBECAUSETHEREISNODIFFERENCEINVOLTAGEBETWEENTHESENSINGAREAANDTHEGUARD,THEREISNOELECTRICFIELDBETWEENTHEMANYOTHERCONDUCTORSBESIDEORBEHINDTHEPROBEFORMANELECTRICFIELDWITHTHEGUARDINSTEADOFWITHTHESENSINGAREAONLYTHEUNGUARDEDFRONTOFTHESENSINGAREAISALLOWEDTOFORMANELECTRICFIELDWITHTHETARGETDEFINITIONSSENSITIVITYINDICATESHOWMUCHTHEOUTPUTVOLTAGECHANGESASARESULTOFACHANGEINTHEGAPBETWEENTHETARGETANDTHEPROBEACOMMONSENSITIVITYIS1V/01MMTHISMEANSTHATFOREVERY01MMOFCHANGEINTHEGAP,THEOUTPUTVOLTAGEWILLCHANGE1VWHENTHEOUTPUTVOLTAGEISPLOTTEDAGAINSTTHEGAPSIZE,THESLOPEOFTHELINEISTHESENSITIVITYASYSTEMSSENSITIVITYISSETDURINGCALIBRATIONWHENSENSITIVITYDEVIATESFROMTHEIDEALVALUETHISISCALLEDSENSITIVITYERROR,GAINERROR,ORSCALINGERRORSINCESENSITIVITYISTHESLOPEOFALINE,SENSITIVITYERRORISUSUALLYPRESENTEDASAPERCENTAGEOFSLOPE,ACOMPARISONOFTHEIDEALSLOPEWITHTHEACTUALSLOPEOFFSETERROROCCURSWHENACONSTANTVALUEISADDEDTOTHEOUTPUTVOLTAGEOFTHESYSTEMCAPACITIVEGAUGINGSYSTEMSAREUSUALLYZEROEDDURINGSETUP,ELIMINATINGANYOFFSETDEVIATIONSFROMTHEORIGINALCALIBRATIONHOWEVER,SHOULDTHEOFFSETERRORCHANGEAFTERTHESYSTEMISZEROED,ERRORWILLBEINTRODUCEDINTOTHEMEASUREMENTTEMPERATURECHANGEISTHEPRIMARYFACTORINOFFSETERRORSENSITIVITYCANVARYSLIGHTLYBETWEENANYTWOPOINTSOFDATATHEACCUMULATEDEFFECTOFTHISVARIATIONISCALLEDLINEARITYERROTHELINEARITYSPECIFICATIONISTHEMEASUREMENTOFHOWFARTHEOUTPUTVARIESFROMASTRAIGHTLINETOCALCULATETHELINEARITYERROR,CALIBRATIONDATAARECOMPAREDTOTHESTRAIGHTLINETHATWOULDBESTFITTHEPOINTSTHISSTRAIGHTREFERENCELINEISCALCULATEDFROMTHECALIBRATIONDATAUSINGLEASTSQUARESFITTINGTHEAMOUNTOFERRORATTHEPOINTONTHECALIBRATIONLINEFURTHESTAWAYFROMTHISIDEALLINEISTHELINEARITYERRORLINEARITYERRORISUSUALLYEXPRESSEDINTERMS南昌航空大学科技学院学士学位(论文)外文翻译OFPERCENTOFFULLSCALE/FSIFTHEERRORATTHEWORSTPOINTIS0001MMANDTHEFULLSCALERANGEOFTHECALIBRATIONIS1MM,THELINEARITYERRORWILLBE01NOTETHATLINEARITYERRORDOESNOTACCOUNTFORERRORSINSENSITIVITYITISONLYAMEASUREOFTHESTRAIGHTNESSOFTHELINERATHERTHANTHESLOPEOFTHELINEASYSTEMWITHGROSSSENSITIVITYERRORSCANSTILLBEVERYLINEARERRORBANDACCOUNTSFORTHECOMBINATIONOFLINEARITYANDSENSITIVITYERRORSITISTHEMEASUREMENTOFTHEWORSTCASEABSOLUTEERRORINTHECALIBRATEDRANGETHEERRORBANDISCALCULATEDBYCOMPARINGTHEOUTPUTVOLTAGESATSPECIFICGAPSTOTHEIREXPECTEDVALUETHEWORSTCASEERRORFROMTHISCOMPARISONISLISTEDASTHESYSTEMSERRORBANDINFIGURE7,THEWORSTCASEERROROCCURSFORA050MMGAPANDTHEERRORBANDINBOLDIS–0010GAPMMEXPECTEDVALUEVDCACTUALVALUEVDCERRORMM050–10000–9800–0010075–5000–4900–000510000000000000012550005000000015010000101000005FIGURE7ERRORVALUESBANDWIDTHISDEFINEDASTHEFREQUENCYATWHICHTHEOUTPUTFALLSTO–3DB,AFREQUENCYTHATISALSOCALLEDTHECUTOFFFREQUENCYA–3DBDROPINTHESIGNALLEVELISANAPPROXIMATELY30DECREASEWITHA15KHZBANDWIDTH,ACHANGEOF1VATLOWFREQUENCYWILLONLYPRODUCEA07VCHANGEAT15KHZWIDEBANDWIDTHSENSORSCANSENSEHIGHFREQUENCYMOTIONANDPROVIDEFASTRESPONDINGOUTPUTSTOMAXIMIZETHEPHASEMARGINWHENUSEDINSERVOCONTROLFEEDBACKSYSTEMS;HOWEVER,LOWERBANDWIDTHSENSORSWILLHAVEREDUCEDOUTPUTNOISEWHICHMEANSHIGHERRESOLUTIONSOMESENSORSPROVIDESELECTABLEBANDWIDTHTOMAXIMIZEEITHERRESOLUTIONORRESPONSETIMERESOLUTIONISDEFINEDASTHESMALLESTRELIABLEMEASUREMENTTHATASYSTEMCANMAKETHERESOLUTIONOFAMEASUREMENTSYSTEMMUSTBEBETTERTHANTHEFINALACCURACYTHEMEASUREMENTREQUIRESIFYOUNEEDTOKNOWAMEASUREMENTWITHIN002M,THENTHERESOLUTIONOFTHEMEASUREMENTSYSTEMMUSTBEBETTERTHAN002MTHEPRIMARYDETERMININGFACTOROFRESOLUTIONISELECTRICALNOISEELECTRICALNOISEAPPEARSINTHEOUTPUTVOLTAGECAUSINGSMALLINSTANTANEOUSERRORSINTHEOUTPUTEVENWHENTHEPROBE/TARGETGAPISPERFECTLYCONSTANT,THEOUTPUTVOLTAGEOFTHEDRIVERHASSOMESMALL南昌航空大学科技学院学士学位(论文)外文翻译BUTMEASURABLEAMOUNTOFNOISETHATWOULDSEEMTOINDICATETHATTHEGAPISCHANGINGTHISNOISEISINHERENTINELECTRONICCOMPONENTSANDCANBEMINIMIZED,BUTNEVERELIMINATEDIFADRIVERHASANOUTPUTNOISEOF0002VWITHASENSITIVITYOF10V/1MM,THENITHASANOUTPUTNOISEOF0000,2MM02MTHISMEANSTHATATANYINSTANTINTIME,THEOUTPUTCOULDHAVEANERROROF02MTHEAMOUNTOFNOISEINTHEOUTPUTISDIRECTLYRELATEDTOBANDWIDTHGENERALLYSPEAKING,NOISEISDISTRIBUTEDOVERAWIDERANGEOFFREQUENCIESIFTHEHIGHERFREQUENCIESAREFILTEREDBEFORETHEOUTPUT,THERESULTISLESSNOISEANDBETTERRESOLUTIONFIGURES8,9WHENEXAMININGRESOLUTIONSPECIFICATIONS,ITISCRITICALTOKNOWATWHATBANDWIDTHTHESPECIFICATIONSAPPLYCAPACITIVESENSOROPERATIONPART2SYSTEMOPTIMIZATIONPART2OFTHISTWOPARTARTICLEFOCUSESONHOWTOOPTIMIZETHEPERFORMANCEOFYOURCAPACITIVESENSOR,ANDTOUNDERSTANDHOWTARGETMATERIAL,SHAPE,ANDSIZEWILLAFFECTTHESENSORSRESPONSEEFFECTSOFTARGETSIZETHETARGETSIZEISAPRIMARYCONSIDERATIONWHENSELECTINGAPROBEFORASPECIFICAPPLICATIONWHENTHESENSINGELECTRICFIELDISFOCUSEDBYGUARDING,ITCREATESASLIGHTLYCONICALFIELDTHATISAPROJECTIONOFTHESENSINGAREATHEMINIMUMTARGETDIAMETERISUSUALLY130OFTHEDIAMETEROFTHESENSINGAREATHEFURTHERTHEPROBEISFROMTHETARGET,THELARGERTHEMINIMUMTARGETSIZERANGEOFMEASUREMENTTHERANGEINWHICHAPROBEISUSEFULISAFUNCTIONOFTHESIZEOFTHESENSINGAREATHEGREATERTHEAREA,THELARGERTHERANGEBECAUSETHEDRIVERELECTRONICSAREDESIGNEDFORACERTAINAMOUNTOFCAPACITANCEATTHEPROBE,ASMALLERPROBEMUSTBECONSIDERABLYCLOSERTOTHETARGETTOACHIEVETHEDESIREDAMOUNTOFCAPACITANCEINGENERAL,THEMAXIMUMGAPATWHICHAPROBEISUSEFULISAPPROXIMATELY40OFTHESENSINGAREADIAMETERTYPICALCALIBRATIONSUSUALLYKEEPTHEGAPTOAVALUECONSIDERABLYLESSTHANTHISALTHOUGHTHEELECTRONICSAREADJUSTABLEDURINGCALIBRATION,THEREISALIMITTOTHERANGEOFADJUSTMENTMULTIPLECHANNELSENSINGFREQUENTLY,ATARGETISMEASUREDSIMULTANEOUSLYBYMULTIPLEPROBESBECAUSETHESYSTEMMEASURESACHANGINGELECTRICFIELD,THEEXCITATIONVOLTAGEFOREACHPROBEMUSTBESYNCHRONIZEDORTHEPROBESWILLINTERFEREWITHEACHOTHERIFTHEYWERENOTSYNCHRONIZED,ONEPROBEWOULDBETRYINGTOINCREASETHEELECTRICFIELDWHILEANOTHERWASTRYINGTO

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