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外文翻译--空气及天然气钻井.doc

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外文翻译--空气及天然气钻井.doc

本科生毕业设计(论文)翻译资料中文题目空气及天然气钻井英文题目AirandGasDrilling学生姓名学号班级专业指导教师论文翻译1ChapterOneIntroductionThisengineeringpracticebookhasbeenpreparedforengineers,earthscientists,andtechnicianswhoworkinmodernrotarydrillingoperations.Thebookderivesandillustratesengineeringcalculationtechniquesassociatedwithairandgasdrillingtechnology.Sincethisbookhasbeenwrittenforavarietyofprofessionalsandpotentialapplications,theauthorshaveattemptedtominimizetheuseoffieldequations.Alsothetechnicalterminologyusedinthebookshouldbeeasilyunderstoodbyallthosewhostudythistechnology.Innearlyallpartsofthebook,equationsarepresentedthatcanbeusedwithanysetofconsistentunits.AlthoughmostoftheexamplecalculationsuseEnglishunits,areadercaneasilyconverttotheSystemeInternationaledUnitsSIunitsusingthetablesinAppendixA.Airandgasdrillingtechnologyistheutilizationofcompressedairorothergasesasarotarydrillingcirculatingfluidtocarrytherockcuttingstothesurfacethataregeneratedatthebottomofthewellbytheadvanceofthedrillbit.Thecompressedairorothergase.g.,nitrogenornaturalgascanbeusedbyitself,orcanbeinjectedintothewellwithincompressiblefluidssuchasfreshwater,formationwater,orformationoil.Therearethreedistinctoperationalapplicationsforthistechnologyairorgasdrillingoperationsusingonlythecompressedairorothergasasthecirculatingfluid,aerateddrillingoperationsusingcompressedairorothergasmixedwithanincompressiblefluid,andstablefoamdrillingoperationsusingthecompressedairorothergaswithanincompressiblefluidtocreateacontinuousfoamcirculatingfluid.论文翻译21.1RotaryDrillingRotarydrillingisamethodusedtodrilldeepboreholesinrockformationsoftheearthscrust.Thismethodiscomparativelynew,havingbeenfirstdevelopedbyaFrenchcivilengineer,RudolfLeschot,in18633.Themethodwasinitiallyusedtodrillwaterwellsusingfreshwaterasthecirculationfluid.Todaythismethodistheonlyrockdrillingtechniqueusedtodrilldeepboreholesgreaterthan3,000ft.Itisnotknownwhenaircompressorswerefirstusedforthedrillingofwaterwells,butitisknownthatdeeppetroleumandnaturalgaswellsweredrilledutilizingportableaircompressorsinthe1920s4.PipelinegaswasusedtodrillanaturalgaswellinTexasin1935usingreversecirculationtechniques5.Todayrotarydrillingisusedtodrillavarietyofboreholes.Mostwaterwellsandenvironmentalmonitoringwellsdrilledintobedrockareconstructedusingrotarydrilling.Intheminingindustryrotarydrillingisusedtodrillorebodytestboreholesandpilotboreholesforguidinglargershaftborings.Rotarydrillingtechniquesareusedtodrillboreholesforwater,oil,gas,andotherfluidpipelinesthatneedtopassunderrivers,highways,andothernaturalandmanmadeobstructions.Mostrecently,rotarydrillingisbeingusedtodrillboreholesforfiberopticsandothertelecommunicationlinesinobstacleriddenareassuchascitesandindustrialsites.Themostsophisticatedapplicationforrotarydrillingisthedrillingofdeepboreholesfortherecoveryofnaturalresourcessuchascrudeoil,naturalgas,andgeothermalsteamandwater.Drillingboreholesforfluidresourcerecoveryrequiresboreholesdrilledtodepthsof3,000fttoasmuchas20,000ft.Rotarydrillingishighlyversatile.Therotarydrillingapplicationsgivenaboverequirethedrillingofigneous,metamorphic,andsedimentaryrock.However,thedeepdrillingofboreholesfortherecoveryofcrudeoilandnaturalgasarealmostexclusivelycarriedoutinsedimentaryrock.Boreholesfortherecoveryofgeothermalsteamandwaterareconstructedinallthreerocktypes.Therotarydrillingmethodrequirestheuseofarockcuttingorcrushingdrillbit.Figure11showsatypicalmilltoothtriconerollerconebit.Thistypeofdrillbitusesmoreofacrushingactionto论文翻译3advancethebitintherockseeChapter3formoredetails.Thistypeofbitisusedprimarilyinthedrillingofsedimentaryrock.Toadvancethedrillbitinrockrequirestheapplicationofanaxialforceonthebittopushthebitintotherockface,torqueonthebittorotatethebitagainsttheresistanceoftherockface,andcirculatingfluidtocleartherockcuttingsawayfromthebitasthebitgeneratesmorecuttingswithitsadvanceseeFigure12.Rotarydrillingiscarriedoutwithavarietyofdrillingrigs.Thesecanbesmall

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