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外文翻译--节省模具材料费用细则.doc

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外文翻译--节省模具材料费用细则.doc

11COSTSAVINGSFORMOLDMATERIALSCONSIDERTHEDETAILSWAYSTOREDUCECOSTSTHATARENOTRELATEDTOTHEPRICEPERPOUNDOFTHEMOLDMATERIALBYPATRICIAMILLERCHOOSINGTHERIGHTTOOLINGMATERIALFORPLASTICMOLDINGISBECOMINGEVERMOREDIFFICULTINLIGHTOFINTENSECOMPETITION,ASWELLASTHECOSTOFRAWMATERIALS,WHICHISDRIVINGTHEPRICEOFMATERIALSFORMOLDSUP,ITBECOMESINCREASINGLYMOREIMPORTANTTOBESELECTIVEINTHECHOICEOFMOLDMATERIALSTHEREARETHINGSTHATCANBEDONETOHELPTHEMOLDMAKERMAKETHEBESTSELECTIONSFORTHEAPPLICATIONATHAND,ANDTHESETHINGSARENOTSIMPLYLOOKINGATTHEPRICEPERPOUNDBUTINORDERTODOTHIS,THEMOLDMAKERMUSTCONSIDEROTHERFACTORSTHISSTARTSATTHEBEGINNINGOFTHEMOLDMAKINGCYCLE,ASTHEPARTTOBEMANUFACTUREDISBEINGPROPOSEDTHEMAJORAREASTOBECONSIDEREDINAMOLDDESIGNINCLUDESIZEANDCOMPLEXITYOFTHEPARTORMOLDPRODUCTIONQUANTITYREQUIREDTYPEOFPLASTICMOLDINGMATERIALREQUIREDANDITSIMPACTONTHEMOLDINGENVIRONMENTMECHANICALREQUIREMENTSFORTHEMOLDPHYSICALPROPERTYREQUIREMENTSFORTHEMOLDTHERMALCONDUCTIVITY,STIFFNESS,THERMALEXPANSIONSTABILITYREQUIREMENTOFMOLDDURINGOPERATIONASSEMBLYISSUESMATINGMATERIALCRITERIA,COATABILITYDESIGNFEATURESSHARPCORNERS,THINSECTIONS,SEALINGMETHODSSURFACECONDITIONREQUIREMENTSPOLISHING,TEXTURINGDEMANDSMANUFACTURINGMETHODSELECTRODISCHARGEMACHINING,HARDMILLINGCOSTSAVINGSCANOCCURINALLTHESEAREAS,BUTFORTHISDISCUSSIONFOURAREASOFALLOYSWILLBEADDRESSED1NEWHIGHHARDNESSMATRIXALLOYS2THERMALLYCONDUCTIVEALLOYS3CORROSIONRESISTANTMATERIALS4PREHARDENEDALLOYSINEACHCASE,THECOSTOFTHEMOLDMATERIALISSIGNIFICANTLYOUTWEIGHEDBYTHEBENEFITSTHESEALLOYSBRING22FIGURE1AMOLDFORPLASTICINJECTIONMOLDEDELECTRICMOTORROTORS,MADEOF30PERCENTGLASSFILLEDPOLYAMIDEMOLDMATERIALHAS,TODATE,INCREASEDTHELIFEOFTHEMOLDOVER20PERCENT,ELIMINATINGMOLDREPAIRSANDREFURBISHMENTFIGURESCOURTESYOFBOHLERUDDEHOLMCORPORATION1HIGHHARDNESSMATRIXALLOYSINANEXCITINGDEVELOPMENTFORMOLDMATERIALS,THEREARENOWTOOLSTEELGRADESAVAILABLETHATCANREPLACES7,H13ANDWITHCOATINGREPLACEA2,D2ANDM2TYPESWHEREWEARRESISTANCEISREQUIREDBUTTHEADVANTAGETHATTHESEGRADESBRINGISTHATTHEYCANBEUSEDFROM50HRCUPTO62HRC,ANDAREWELDABLE,POLISHABLETOHIGHLEVELS,TEXTURABLEANDARECOATABLEWHENEVENHIGHERWEARRESISTANCEISREQUIREDFIGURE2THERELATIONSHIPOFHIGHLYCONDUCTIVEALLOYS,THERMALCONDUCTIVITYVERSUSHARDNESSTHENEWCUNIALLOY,HAVINGHARDNESSLEVELSLIKETHATOFP20,HASHIGHERTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYTHANOTHERCOPPERALLOYSANDALUMINUMVERYTOUGHGRADES,THESEMATERIALSALSOPROVIDEANADDEDADVANTAGETHATTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYEXCEEDSTHATOFH13,HENCECYCLETIMESCANBEREDUCEDTHESEGRADESREPLACEPASTCOLDWORKGRADESTHATCOULDONLYACHIEVETHEIRMECHANICALPROPERTIESBYLOWTEMPERATURETEMPERS,WHICHDIDNOTPERMITGOODWELDABILITY,NITRIDINGORPVDCOATINGABOVE400OFTHEIRHIGHPOLISHABILITYANDTEXTURABILITYISDUETOTHEEXCELLENTUNIFORMITYOFTHEMATRIXFROMTHEUSEOFHIGHTECHNOLOGYREMELTINGPROCESSESANEXAMPLEOFTHISISSHOWNINFIGURE1ANINJECTIONMOLDINSERTMADEOFPOLYAMIDEPLUS30PERCENTGLASSFIBER,WASMANUFACTUREDFROMACHROMIUMMOLYBDENUMVANADIUMALLOYEDTOOLSTEELAT5456HRC,ITHASBEENRUNNINGFOROVER7,700PIECESANDISSTILLRUNNINGWELLPREMIUMH13AT5052HRCBEGANTOWEARANDPLASTICALLYDEFORMAT6,000PIECES2THERMALLYCONDUCTIVEALLOYSCOPPERALLOYSHAVEBEENAVAILABLEFORSEVERALYEARSTOADDRESSTHENEEDFORCYCLETIMEREDUCTIONANDPARTREPRODUCIBILITY,ANDHAVEBEENUSEDPARTICULARLYFORCORESWHEREPLASTICRESIDINGTIMESAREHIGHESTCOPPERBERYLLIUMALLOYSAREAVAILABLEINHARDNESSRANGESOF3040HRCINADDITION,THEREISACOPPERNICKELALLOYTHATCANACHIEVEHARDNESSOF30HRC,WHICHISINTHERANGEOFATYPICALP20THEADVANTAGETHISGRADEBRINGSISTHATITSTHERMALCONDUCTIVITYEXCEEDSTHATOFOTHERCOPPERALLOYSINTHISHARDNESSRANGE,ANDALSOTHATOF33ALUMINUMTHISGRADEALSOISANTIGALLINGANDCORROSIONRESISTANTSEEFIGURE2FIGURE3ROUGHMILLINGOFTHECAVITY;PREMIUMH13,45HRC3DESIGNANDSTAINLESSALLOYSITISTIMETORECONSIDERSTAINLESSALLOYSTHEREARENEWSTAINLESSALLOYSWHOSEBENEFITSARECLEARHIGHPOLISHABILITY,WITHTOUGHNESSLEVELSINTHERANGEOFPREMIUMH13,UPTO5052HRCTHEFACTTHATTHESEALLOYSWILLMAINTAINTHEIRCORROSIONRESISTANCEWITHMINIMALNEEDFORREWORKORREPOLISHINGOVERTHELIFEOFTHEMOLD,ANDSTILLPROVIDEADURABLE,HIGHMECHANICALSTRENGTHMOLD,ISWORTHCAREFULCONSIDERATIONFIGURE4DRILLINGOFCOOLINGCHANNELS;PREMIUMH13,45HRCONEAREAWHICHHASLIMITEDTHELIFEOFSTAINLESSMOLDSINTHEPASTHASBEENTHEUSEOFTAPEREDPIPEPLUGSHEATTREATMENTLIMITATIONS,MACHININGISSUESWITHDEVELOPINGTHETHREADS,STRESSESGENERATEDINTHETHREADSFOLLOWINGTORQUING,ALONGWITHTHECORROSIVECONDITIONSOFDEADZONESWHICHCREATEPITTINGATTACKONTHESTAINLESSCANLEADTOCRACKINGINTHESEREGIONSNEWSTAINLESSALLOYSCANMINIMIZESUSCEPTIBILITYTOTHISALONGWITHPLUGDESIGNSTHATAREAVAILABLETOHANDLEHYDRAULICSEALINGISSUESWITHOUTMACHININGTHREADSINTOTHEMOLDMATERIAL4PREHARDENEDMOLDMATERIALSLOOKINGAWAYFROMTHESTEELCOSTTOMANUFACTURINGTECHNIQUE,WENOWSEETHEDEVELOPMENTOFMACHININGPRACTICES,WHICHPERMITTHECUSTOMERTOUSEGRADESTHATAREPREHARDENEDTOHIGHERHARDNESSRANGESITISNOWPOSSIBLETOMACHINEGRADESLIKEH13ATHARDNESSLEVELSINTHERANGEOF4446HRC,ANDINMANYCASESEVENHARDERTHEADVANTAGETHISBRINGSISTHATTHESTEELCANBEPREHARDENED,INAMETHODTHATGIVESEXCELLENTPROPERTIESBECAUSETHECOOLINGRATESCANBEFASTERWHENLESSDETAILISINTHEMOLD,ANDCRACKINGSUSCEPTIBILITYISLESSTHEINTEGRITYOFTHESTEELINCREASES,WHILETHENEEDFORROUGHMACHINING,STRESSRELIEVINGANDPREFINISHMACHININGISELIMINATEDTHISSAVESTIMEANDMONEY,WHENUSUALLYATTHESTAGEWHENHEATTREATMENTISPERFORMED,TIMECONSTRAINTSAREHIGHWITHTHESETIMECONSTRAINTS,CORNERSGETCUTANDHEATTREATMENTISNOTALWAYSDONETOOPTIMIZETHEPROPERTYOFTHESTEELTEMPERSMAYNOTALLGETDONE,ANDCOOLINGRATESARESLOWEDDOWNTOPERMITLESSSTOCKTOBELEFTON,BECAUSETHEMOLDMAKERHASLESSTIMETOREMOVETHEEXTRASTOCK44NEEDEDFORTHEMOVEMENTTHATWILLTAKEPLACEFROMAGOOD,RAPIDQUENCHFIGURE5FINISHINGMILLINGOFCAVITY;PREMIUMH13,45HRCSOMEEXAMPLESOFHOWTOMACHINEAHARDENEDH13AREGIVENINFIGURES3,4AND5CONCLUSIONTHEREAREMANYWAYSTOREDUCECOSTTHATARENOTRELATEDTOTHEPRICEPERPOUNDOFTHEMOLDMATERIALWITHTHEULTIMATEGOALTOPROVIDETHECUSTOMERWHATTHEYNEEDINTERMSOFPARTINTEGRITYANDRELIABILITY,MANUFACTURINGAMOLDTHATWILLPROVIDEALLOFTHESETHINGSINAREASONABLEWAYREQUIRESATHOROUGHREVIEWOFTHEDESIGNCRITERIA,MANUFACTURINGPROCESSESANDPRODUCTIONDEMANDSNEWMATERIALSANDMETHODSAREAVAILABLETHATWERENOTTHERETHELASTTIMETHEMOLDWASMADE,THATCANHELPMINIMIZETHEOVERALLCOSTOFTHEMOLD

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