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外文翻译--葵花籽脱壳机和油压机.doc

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外文翻译--葵花籽脱壳机和油压机.doc

1TheSunflowerSeedHullerandOilPressByJeffCoxfromOrganicGardening,April1979,RodalePressIN2,500SQUAREFEET,afamilyoffourcangroweachyearenoughsunflowerseedtoproducethreegallonsofhomemadevegetableoilsuitableforsaladsorcookingand20poundsofnutritious,dehulledseedwithenoughbrokenseedsleftovertofeedawintersworthofbirds.Theproblem,heretofore,withsunflowerseedswasthedifficultyofdehullingthemathome,andthelackofadeviceforexpressingoilfromtheseeds.Aboutsixmonthsago,wedecidedtochangeallthat.Thejobwastofindoutwhomakesasunflowerseeddehullerortodeviseoneifnoneweremanufactured.Andtoeitherlocateahomescaleoilseedpressordeviseone.Nomeantask.OurresearchestookusfromNorthDakotahubofcommercialsunfloweractivityinthenationtoasearchofthefilesintheU.S.PatentOffice,withstopsinbetween.Weturnedupalotofbigmachinery,discoveredhowdifficultitistobuyreallypure,unrefinedvegetableoils,butfoundnosmallscaleequipmenttodehullsunflowersorpressouttheiroil.Thekeytosuccess,however,wasonourdeskthewholetime.Inspring1977,AugustKormierhadsubmittedafreelancearticledescribinghowheusedaCoronagrainmilltodehullhissunflowerseeds,andhisvacuumcleanerexhausthosetoblowthehullsoffthekernels.Asecondseparationfloatedofftheremaininghulls,leavingacleanproduct.Wedtriedit,butbecausesomekernelswerecrackedandtheprocessinvolveddrying,wehadntbeensatisfied.NowwefeltthebestapproachwastobeginagainwithwhatwelearnedfromMr.Kormierandrefineit.StaffEditorDianaBranchandHomeWorkplaceEditorJimEldonworkedwithanumberofhandandelectricpoweredgrainmills.WhiletheCoronadidapassablejob,theygotthebestresultswiththeC.S.Bell60handmillandtheMarathonUniMill,whichismotordriven.IcouldntbelievemyeyesthefirsttimeItriedtheMarathon,Dianasays.Iopenedthestonesto1/8thinch,andoutcameabinfullofwholekernelsandhullssplitrightattheseams.WhatathrillthatwasShefoundthatbystartingatthewidestsetting,andgraduallynarrowingtheopening,almosteveryseedwasdehulled.Thestonescrackthehullsopen,thenrubthemtoencouragetheseedawayfromthefibrouslining.TheBellhandmillworkedalmostaswell.Aslongasthestonesopenatleastaswideasthewidestunhulledseed,anymillwillwork,shesays.Becausetheseedslipsthroughthemillonitsflatside,gradingisanimportantsteptotakebeforedehulling.Wemadethreesizingboxes.The2firstis1/4inchhardwareclothwirescreen.Thesecondistwolayersof1/4inchcloth,movedslightlyaparttonarrowtheopeninginonedirection,andthethirdistwolayersofscreenadjustedtomakeastillsmalleropening.Sincethesmallestunhulledseedsareaboutthesizeofthelargesthulledkernels,thegradingsteppreventstheseundersizedseedsfrompassingthroughunhulled.Processedtogetherataclosersetting,thesmallestseedshulledout.JimEldonsworkshopislitteredwithstrangelookingpiecesofapparatus.Theyrepresentinitialattemptstobuildaworkablewinnowingbox,usingKormiersvacuumexhaustideaforasourceofair.Jim,FredMatlackandDianafinallymadeaboxwithaPlexiglasfront,throughwhichtheycouldobservewhatwashappening.Theycutaholeinthebackoftheboxwithaslidingcovertoregulatetheairpressure,andfiddledwithvariousarrangementsofbaffles.Theresultwasastreamofhullsexitingthroughoneholewhilethekernelsfelltothebottomofthebox.Nowtheywerereadytotryafivepoundsampleofunhulledsunflowerseedstoseehowmuchtheycouldrecover.Thefivepoundsweregradedanddehulled,thenwinnowed.Wegotaboutonehullforeverytenkernelsinthefinal,winnowedproduct.Theseareeasilypickedout.Theyusuallycontainkernelsstillheldbehindthefibrousstringsofthehull.Theirweightpreventsthemfromblowingoutwiththeemptyhulls.Wefoundthatbugeatenseedsdoblowawaywiththechaff,whichwasabonusforcleanlinessofthefinalproduct.Tossthehullstothebirds,whowillfindbrokenseedsamongthem.Startingwith80ouncesofunhulledseed,weendedupwith411/4ouncesofediblewholeseeds,1.8ouncesofdamagedseedssuitableforanimalfeed,and36.6ouncesofhulls.Ittookusaboutanhour.Notbad.Sunflowerseedsstoreperfectlyinthehulls,buttheydeterioratemorerapidlywhenshelledout.Thegrainmilldehullerandwinnowingboxgivethegardenerawaytohavethefreshestpossibleseedsforeatingatalltimesoftheyear.Withtheconstructionofonemorepieceofequipmenttheoilpresshecanhaveabsolutelyfresh,unrefined,polyunsaturatedsunfloweroilforsalads,mayonnaiseandcooking.Mostlight,refinedvegetableoilshavebeenextractedusinghexane,aformofnaphtha.Theoilisthenheatedtoboiloffthehexane.Lyeisdumpedintoit.Itswashedwithsteam,thenheatedtoremoveodorsandtastebeforebeinglacedwithpreservativesandstabilizers.Itmayfeeloilyinthemouth,butyoumightaswelltasteair.Nosowithfreshmadesunfloweroilitsdeliciouslyyetsubtlynuttyinflavor,addingunsurpassedflavortosalads.Theresgoodreasontobelievethatsunfloweroilmaybecomethe1vegetableoilintheU.S.inafewyears.Itsalready1inhealthconsciousEurope.Cornoilhasalreadycaughtonhereforhealthreasons,andsunfloweroilissomuchbetter.Sunfloweroils70percentpolyunsaturateisjustundersafflower,withcornoilbringinguptherearwith55percent.Andsunflowersyield40percentoil,soybeansonly20percent.Ouroilpressis3relativelysimple,butitmustbeweldedtogether.Checktheconstructiondirectionsfordetails.Thepressconsistsofaweldedtubularframewhichacceptsathreetonhydraulicjack.Youmayalreadyhaveone.Ifnot,itcanbepurchasedatmostautoandhardwarestoresforabout16.Ametalcanisterwithholesdrilledinitssidesandoneendweldedshutholdsthemashedsunflowerseeds.Apistonisinsertedinthecanisterandtheninvertedandslippedoverapedestalontheframe.Thejackissetinplace,andthepressuregraduallyincreasedoverhalfanhour.Theoildripsfromthesidesofthecanisterintoatraythebottomofaplasticjugslippedoverthepedestalworksfinewhichemptiestheoilintoacup.Youcanfiltertheoilwithacoffeefiltertoremovepiecesofseedandotherfineparticlesthatwouldburniftheoilwereusedforcooking.Ifitsforsaladsormayonnaise,theresnoneedtofilterit.Wefirsttriedusingconfectionarysunflowerseedsforoil.Thesearetheregulareatingkernelswereusedtoseeing.Theygivelessthanhalfasmuchoilastheoilseedtypesofsunflower.AlthoughyoucanuseconfectionarytypessuchasMAMMOTHRUSSIANforoil,dontexpecttogetmorethananounceandahalffromapoundofseed.Oilseedproducesthreeormoreouncesofoilfromapoundofseedandiswellworthplantingalongwithconfectionarytypeseeds.Oilseedhasanotherbigadvantagetoprepareit,youcanputthewhole,unhulledseedintoablenderandwhizituntilitformsafinemeal,whileconfectionaryseedsmustbedehulledfirst.Theentiresequenceofgrading,dehullingandwinnowingisavoidedwithoilseed.Oiltypesproduceaboutatenthofapoundofseedperheadincommercialproduction.Gardeners,withtheirbettersoilandcare,invariablydobetterthanthat.Ourconservativeestimateisthat1,280plantswillbeenoughforthreegallonsofoil.Spacedonefootapartinrowstwofeetapart,1,280oilseedplantswilltakeaspace40by56feet,or80by28ifyouwantamorerectangularpatchtofacesouth.Weworkedinpoundbatches,sincethecanisterjustholdsonepoundofmash.Afterblending,weheateditto170degreesF.77degCbyplacingitina300degreeF.149degCovenandstirringiteveryfiveminutesfor20minutes.Heatinggetstheoilflowinganddoublestheyieldofoil.Incaseyourewondering,coldpressedoilssoldcommerciallyarealsoheated,andsomearesubjectedtotheentirechemicalprocess.Thetermhasnofirmmeaningwithintheindustry,accordingtotheliteraturewevesurveyed.Heatingdoesnotchangethestructureoffats.Itwillnotturnpolyunsaturatedfatsintosaturatedfats.Infact,Dr.DonaldR.Germanninhisbook,TheAntiCancerDiet,saysthat...anunsaturatedfatmustbeheatedtohightemperaturesabove425degreesF.or200degreesC.atleast8or10timesbeforeanyshifttowardsaturationoccurs...DeanC.Fletcher,Ph.D.,oftheAmericanMedicalAssociationDepartmentofFoodsandNutritioninChicago,says,Itstruethateitherhightemperatureorrepeatedheating4doeschangethenatureofsomeoftheunsaturatedoilmolecules.Buttheflavoroftheoilchangesasthesechemicalchangesoccur,spoilingitstaste.Thiseffectisprobablymoreprofoundthananyofthephysiologicalchangesthealteredoilmightproducewithinthebody.From500gm.ofheatedmash,wepressed89gm.ofoil,89percentoftheentireamountavailableandtwiceasmuchaswecouldpressfromunheatedoilThedecisionisuptoyouwhetherornottoheatthemash,butthatextra50percentseemslikeanawfullot,especiallywhenthewholetechniqueissolaborintensive.Theoilshouldbestoredintherefrigerator,anditsprobablybesttouseitwithinamonth,sinceithasnopreservatives.Mayonnaisemadewithsuchfreshoilsshouldbekeptrefrigeratedandusedwithintwoweeks.Theleftovercake,stillcontaining50percentofitsoil,isanutritiousadditiontoyourdishes,andmakesexcellentfeedforanimalsorwinterbirds.Storethepressedcakeinthefreezer.WeretalkingthenaboutasunflowerpatchwithtwokindsofplantsconfectionarysuchasMAMMOTHRUSSIANandoilseedsuchasPEREDOVIK.Theoilseedplantsshouldbegrown12inchesapartinrowstwofeetapart.Fouraverageconfectionaryheadsyieldaboutapoundofunhulledseed.Youllneedabout35poundsofunhulledseed,or140plantsworth,toyield20poundsofhulledkernels,aboutwhatafamilyoffourwilluseinayear.Thatmanyplantscanbegrowninanarea26by10feet.Thats260squarefeet.Putthattogetherwiththe2,240squarefeetfortheoilseedsunflowers,andyouneedapatchabout2,500squarefeet25100footrowstokeepyourselfsuppliedyearroundwithsupernutritionandunsurpassabletaste.WinnowingMachineForSunflowerSeedsThewinnowingmachineoperatesontheageoldprincipleofblowingthechaffawayfromtheheavygrainwithacontrolledcurrentofair.Theunitusesahouseholdorshoptypevacuumcleanerforitsairsupply.Avacuumcleanerwasusedasapowersourcebecauseitcansupplyalargevolumeofairoveranextendedperiodoftime,andmosthomesandfarmshaveavacuumcleaner.Aclothbaghasbeenattachedtothechaffchutetocatchthechaffasitisseparatedfromtheseed.Thebagallowsthehullstobecollectedandgreatlyreducestheamountofwastematerialnormallyblownintotheairbyconventionalsystems.Theunithasbeenconstructedinsuchawaythattheclothbagandcleanerboxcanbeplacedinsidetheseedbox,makingacompactpackageforstorage.ToolsRequired

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