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外文翻译--螺杆压缩机.doc

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外文翻译--螺杆压缩机.doc

英文原文ScrewCompressorsN.StosicI.SmithA.KovacevicScrewCompressorsMathematicalModellingandPerformanceCalculationWith99FiguresABCProf.NikolaStosicProf.IanK.SmithDr.AhmedKovacevicCityUniversitySchoolofEngineeringandMathematicalSciencesNorthamptonSquareLondonEC1V0HBU.K.emailn.stosiccity.ac.uki.k.smithcity.ac.uka.kovaceviccity.ac.ukLibraryofCongressControlNumber2004117305ISBN103540242759SpringerBerlinHeidelbergNewYorkISBN139783540242758SpringerBerlinHeidelbergNewYorkThisworkissubjecttocopyright.Allrightsarereserved,whetherthewholeorpartofthematerialisconcerned,specificallytherightsoftranslation,reprinting,reuseofillustrations,recitation,broadcasting,reproductiononmicrofilmorinanyotherway,andstorageindatabanks.DuplicationofthispublicationorpartsthereofispermittedonlyundertheprovisionsoftheGermanCopyrightLawofSeptember9,1965,initscurrentversion,andpermissionforusemustalwaysbeobtainedfromSpringer.ViolationsareliableforprosecutionundertheGermanCopyrightLaw.SpringerisapartofSpringerScienceBusinessMediaspringeronline.com_cSpringerVerlagBerlinHeidelberg2005PrintedinTheNetherlandsTheuseofgeneraldescriptivenames,registerednames,trademarks,etc.inthispublicationdoesnotimply,evenintheabsenceofaspecificstatement,thatsuchnamesareexemptfromtherelevantprotectivelawsandregulationsandthereforefreeforgeneraluse.TypesettingbytheauthorsandTechBooksusingaSpringerLATEXmacropackageCoverdesignmedio,BerlinPrintedonacidfreepaperSPIN1130685662/3141/jl543210PrefaceAlthoughtheprinciplesofoperationofhelicalscrewmachines,ascompressorsorexpanders,havebeenwellknownformorethan100years,itisonlyduringthepast30yearsthatthesemachineshavebecomewidelyused.Themainreasonsforthelongperiodbeforetheywereadoptedweretheirrelativelypoorefficiencyandthehighcostofmanufacturingtheirrotors.Twomaindevelopmentsledtoasolutiontothesedifficulties.Thefirstofthesewastheintroductionoftheasymmetricrotorprofilein1973.Thisreducedtheblowholearea,whichwasthemainsourceofinternalleakagebyapproximately90,andtherebyraisedthethermodynamicefficiencyofthesemachines,toroughlythesamelevelasthatoftraditionalreciprocatingcompressors.Thesecondwastheintroductionofprecisethreadmillingmachinetoolsatapproximatelythesametime.Thismadeitpossibletomanufactureitemsofcomplexshape,suchastherotors,bothaccuratelyandcheaply.Fromthenon,asaresultoftheireverimprovingefficiencies,highreliabilityandcompactform,screwcompressorshavetakenanincreasingshareofthecompressormarket,especiallyinthefieldsofcompressedairproduction,andrefrigerationandairconditioning,andtoday,asubstantialproportionofcompressorsmanufacturedforindustryareofthistype.Despite,thenowwideusageofscrewcompressorsandthepublicationofmanyscientificpapersontheirdevelopment,onlyahandfuloftextbookshavebeenpublishedtodate,whichgivearigorousexpositionoftheprinciplesoftheiroperationandnoneoftheseareinEnglish.ThepublicationofthisvolumecoincideswiththetenthanniversaryoftheestablishmentoftheCentreforPositiveDisplacementCompressorTechnologyatCityUniversity,London,wheremuch,ifnotall,ofthematerialitcontainswasdeveloped.Itsaimistogiveanuptodatesummaryofthestateoftheart.Itsavailabilityinasinglevolumeshouldthenhelpengineersinindustrytoreplacedesignproceduresbasedonthesimpleassumptionsofthecompressionofafixedmassofidealgas,bymoreuptodatemethods.Thesearebasedoncomputermodels,whichsimulaterealcompressionandexpansionprocessesmorereliably,byallowingforleakage,inletandoutletflowandotherlosses,VIPrefaceandtheassumptionofrealfluidpropertiesintheworkingprocess.Also,methodsaregivenfordevelopingrotorprofiles,basedonthemathematicaltheoryofgearing,ratherthanempiricalcurvefitting.Inaddition,somedescriptionisincludedofproceduresforthethreedimensionalmodellingofheatandfluidflowthroughthesemachinesandhowinteractionbetweentherotorsandthecasingproducesperformancechanges,whichhithertocouldnotbecalculated.Itisshownthatonlyarelativelysmallnumberofinputparametersisrequiredtodescribeboththegeometryandperformanceofscrewcompressors.Thismakesiteasytocontrolthedesignprocesssothatmodificationscanbecrossreferencedthroughdesignsoftwareprograms,thussavingbothcomputerresourcesanddesigntime,whencomparedwithtraditionaldesignprocedures.Alltheanalyticalproceduresdescribed,havebeentriedandprovenonmachinescurrentlyinindustrialproductionandhaveledtoimprovementsinperformanceandreductionsinsizeandcost,whichwerehardlyconsideredpossibletenyearsago.Moreover,inallcaseswherethesewereapplied,theimprovedaccuracyoftheanalyticalmodelshasledtocloseagreementbetweenpredictedandmeasuredperformancewhichgreatlyreduceddevelopmenttimeandcost.Additionally,thebetterunderstandingoftheprinciplesofoperationbroughtaboutbysuchstudieshasledtoanextensionoftheareasofapplicationofscrewcompressorsandexpanders.Itishopedthatthisworkwillstimulatefurtherinterestinanarea,where,thoughmuchprogresshasbeenmade,significantadvancesarestillpossible.London,NikolaStosicFebruary2005IanSmithAhmedKovacevicNotationAAreaofpassagecrosssection,oildroplettotalsurfaceaSpeedofsoundCRotorcentredistance,specificheatcapacity,turbulencemodelconstantsdOildropletSautermeandiametereInternalenergyfBodyforcehSpecificenthalpyhhθ,convectiveheattransfercoefficientbetweenoilandgasiUnitvectorIUnittensorkConductivity,kineticenergyofturbulence,timeconstantmMassm˙Inletorexitmassflowratem˙m˙θpRotorlead,pressureintheworkingchamberppθPProductionofkineticenergyofturbulenceqSourceterm˙QHeattransferratebetweenthefluidandthecompressorsurroundings˙Q˙QθrRotorradiussDistancebetweenthepoleandrotorcontactpoints,controlvolumesurfacetTimeTTorque,TemperatureuDisplacementofsolidUInternalenergyWWorkoutputvVelocitywFluidvelocityVLocalvolumeofthecompressorworkingchamberVVθ˙VVolumeflowVIIINotationxRotorcoordinate,drynessfraction,spatialcoordinateyRotorcoordinatezAxialcoordinateGreekLettersαTemperaturedilatationcoefficientΓDiffusioncoefficientεDissipationofkineticenergyofturbulenceηiAdiabaticefficiencyηtIsothermalefficiencyηvVolumetricefficiencyϕSpecificvariableφVariableλLamecoefficientμViscosityρDensityσPrandtlnumberθRotorangleofrotationζCompound,localandpointresistancecoefficientωAngularspeedofrotationPrefixesddifferentialΔIncrementSubscriptseffEffectivegGasinInflowfSaturatedliquidgSaturatedvapourindIndicatorlLeakageoilOiloutOutflowpPreviousstepiniterativecalculationsSolidTTurbulentwpitchcircle1mainrotor,upstreamcondition2gaterotor,downstreamconditionContents1Introduction...............................................11.1BasicConcepts...............................................................41.2TypesofScrewCompressors..................................................71.2.1TheOilInjectedMachine..................................................7

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