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外文翻译--计算机控制程序员与操作员该做什么.doc

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外文翻译--计算机控制程序员与操作员该做什么.doc

英文原文WHATCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSDOCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSUSECOMPUTERIZEDNUMERICALCONTROLCNCMACHINESTOCUTANDSHAPEPRECISIONPRODUCTS,SUCHASAUTOMOBILEPARTS,MACHINEPARTS,ANDCOMPRESSORSCNCMACHINESINCLUDEMACHININGTOOLSSUCHASLATHES,MULTIAXISSPINDLES,MILLINGMACHINES,ANDELECTRICALDISCHARGEMACHINESEDM,BUTTHEFUNCTIONSFORMERLYPERFORMEDBYHUMANOPERATORSAREPERFORMEDBYACOMPUTERCONTROLMODULECNCMACHINESCUTAWAYMATERIALFROMASOLIDBLOCKOFMETAL,PLASTIC,ORGLASSKNOWNASAWORKPIECETOFORMAFINISHEDPARTCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSNORMALLYPRODUCELARGEQUANTITIESOFONEPART,ALTHOUGHTHEYMAYPRODUCESMALLBATCHESORONEOFAKINDITEMSTHEYUSETHEIRKNOWLEDGEOFTHEWORKINGPROPERTIESOFMETALSANDTHEIRSKILLWITHCNCPROGRAMMINGTODESIGNANDCARRYOUTTHEOPERATIONSNEEDEDTOMAKEMACHINEDPRODUCTSTHATMEETPRECISESPECIFICATIONSBEFORECNCPROGRAMMERSALSOREFERREDTOASNUMERICALTOOLANDPROCESSCONTROLPROGRAMMERSMACHINEAPART,THEYMUSTCAREFULLYPLANANDPREPARETHEOPERATIONFIRST,THESEWORKERSREVIEWTHREEDIMENSIONALCOMPUTERAIDED/AUTOMATEDDESIGNCADBLUEPRINTSOFTHEPARTNEXT,THEYCALCULATEWHERETOCUTORBOREINTOTHEWORKPIECE,HOWFASTTOFEEDTHEMETALINTOTHEMACHINE,ANDHOWMUCHMETALTOREMOVETHEYTHENSELECTTOOLSANDMATERIALSFORTHEJOBANDPLANTHESEQUENCEOFCUTTINGANDFINISHINGOPERATIONSNEXT,CNCPROGRAMMERSTURNTHEPLANNEDMACHININGOPERATIONSINTOASETOFINSTRUCTIONS,THESEINSTRUCTIONSARETRANSLATEDINTOACOMPUTERAIDED/AUTOMATEDMANUFACTURINGCAMPROGRAMCONTAININGASETOFCOMMANDSFORTHEMACHINETOFOLLOWTHESECOMMANDSNORMALLYAREASERIESOFNUMBERSHENCE,NUMERICALCONTROLTHATDESCRIBESWHERECUTSSHOULDOCCUR,WHATTYPEOFCUTSHOULDBEUSED,ANDTHESPEEDOFTHECUTCNCPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSCHECKNEWPROGRAMSTOENSURETHATTHEMACHINERYWILLFUNCTIONPROPERLYANDTHATTHEOUTPUTWILLMEETSPECIFICATIONSBECAUSEAPROBLEMWITHTHEPROGRAMCOULDDAMAGECOSTLYMACHINERYANDCUTTINGTOOLS,COMPUTERSIMULATIONSMAYBEUSEDTOCHECKTHEPROGRAMINSTEADOFATRIALRUNIFERRORSFOUND,THEPROGRAMMUSTBECHANGEDANDRESTEDUNTILTHEPROBLEMISRESOLVEDINADDITION,GROWINGCONNECTIVITYBETWEENCAD/CAMSOFTWAREANDCNCMACHINETOOLSISRAISINGPRODUCTIVITYBYAUTOMATICALLYTRANSLATINGDESIGNSINTOINSTRUCTIONSFORTHECOMPUTERCONTROLLERONTHEMACHINETOOLTHESENEWCAMTECHNOLOGIESENABLEPROGRAMSTOBEEASILYMODIFIEDFORUSEONOTHERJOBSWITHSIMILARSPECIFICATIONSAFTERTHEPROGRAMMINGWORKISCOMPLETED,CNCOPERATORSALSOREFERREDTOASCOMPUTERCONTROLLEDMACHINETOOLOPERATORSPERFORMTHENECESSARYMACHININGOPERATIONSTHECNCOPERATORSTRANSFERTHECOMMANDSFROMTHESERVERTOTHECNCCONTROLMODULEUSINGACOMPUTERNETWORKLINKORFLOPPYDISKMANYADVANCEDCONTROLMODULESARECONVERSATIONAL,MEANINGTHATTHEYASKTHEOPERATORASERIESOFQUESTIONSABOUTTHENATUREOFTHETASKCNCOPERATORSPOSITIONTHEMETALSTOCKONTHECNCMACHINETOOLLATHE,MILLINGMACHINE,OROTHERSETTHECONTROLS,ANDLETTHECOMPUTERMAKETHECUTSHEAVIEROBJECTSMAYBELOADEDWITHTHEASSISTANCEOFOTHERWORKERS,AUTOLOADERS,ACRANE,ORAFORKLIFTDURINGTHEMACHININGPROCESS,COMPUTERCONTROLOPERATORSCONSTANTLYMONITORTHEREADOUTSFROMTHECNCCONTROLMODULE,CHECKINGTOSEEIFANYPROBLEMSEXISTMACHINETOOLSHAVEUNIQUECHARACTERISTICS,WHICHCANBEPROBLEMATICDURINGAMACHININGOPERATION,THEOPERATORMODIFIESTHECUTTINGPROGRAMTOACCOUNTFORANYPROBLEMSENCOUNTEREDUNIQUE,MODIFIEDCNCPROGRAMSARESAVEDFOREVERYDIFFERENTMACHINETHATPERFORMSATASKCNCOPERATORSDETECTSOMEPROBLEMSBYLISTENINGFORSPECIFICSOUNDSFOREXAMPLE,DULLCUTTINGTOOLOREXCESSIVEVIBRATIONDULLCUTTINGTOOLSAREREMOVEDANDREPLACEDANDREPLACEDMACHINETOOLSROTATEATHIGHSPEEDS,WHICHCANCREATEPROBLEMSWITHHARMONICVIBRATIONSINTHEWORKPIECEVIBRATIONSCAUSETHEMACHINETOOLSTOMAKEMINORCUTTINGERRORS,HURTINGTHEQUALITYOFTHEPRODUCTOPERATORSLISTENFORVIBRATIONSANDTHENADJUSTTHECUTTINGSPEEDTOCOMPENSATEINOLDER,SLOWERMACHINETOOLS,THECUTTINGSPEEDWOULDBEREDUCEDTOELIMINATETHEVIBRATIONS,BUTTHEAMOUNTOFTIMENEEDEDTOFINISHTHEPRODUCTWOULDINCREASEATARESULTINNEWER,HIGHSPEEDCNCMACHINES,INCREASINGTHECUTTINGSPEEDNORMALLYELIMINATESTHEVIBRATIONSANDREDUCESPRODUCTIONTIMECNCOPERATORSALSOENSURETHATTHEWORKPIECEISBEINGPROPERLYLUBRICATEDANDCOOLED,BECAUSETHEMACHININGOFMETALPRODUCTSGENERATESASIGNIFICANTAMOUNTOFHEATCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSTRAININVARIOUSWAYSINAPPRENTICESHIPPROGRAMS,INFORMALLYONTHEJOP,ANDINSECONDARY,VOCATIONAL,ORPOSTSECONDARYSCHOOLSDUETOASHORTAGEOFQUALIFIEDAPPLICANTS,MANYEMPLOYERSTEACHINTRODUCTORYCOURSES,WHICHPROVIDEABASICCOMPUTERSANDELECTRONICSALSOISHELPFULEXPERIENCEWITHMACHINETOOLSISEXTREMELYIMPORTANTINFACT,MANYENTRANTSTOTHESEOCCUPATIONSHAVEPREVIOUSLYWORKEDASMACHINISTSORMACHINESETTERS,OPERATORS,ANDTENDERSPERSONSINTERESTEDINBECOMINGCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSOROPERATORSSHOULDBEMECHANICALLYINCLINEDANDABLETOWORKINDEPENDENTLYANDDOHIGHLYACCURATEWORKHIGHSCHOOLORVOCATIONALSCHOOLCOURSESINMATHEMATICSTRIGONOMETRYANDALGEBRA,BLUEPRINTREADING,COMPUTERPROGRAMMING,METALWORKING,ANDDRAFTINGARERECOMMENDEDAPPRENTICESHIPPROGRAMSCONSISTOFSHOPTRAININGANDRELATEDCLASSROOMINSTRUCTIONINSHOPTRAINING,APPRENTICESLEARNFILING,HANDTAPPING,ANDDOWELFITTING,ASWELLASTHEOPERATIONOFVARIOUSMACHINETOOLSCLASSROOMINSTRUCTIONINCLUDESMATH,PHYSICS,PROGRAMMING,BLUEPRINTREADING,CADSOFTWARE,SAFELY,ANDSHOPPRACTICESSKILLEDCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSNEEDANUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEMACHININGPROCESS,INCLUDINGTHECOMPLEXPHYSICSTHATOCCURATTHECUTTINGPOINTTHUS,MOSTTRAININGPROGRAMSTEACHCNCOPERATORSANDPROGRAMMERSTOPERFORMOPERATIONSONMANUALMACHINESPRIORTOOPERATINGCNCMACHINEAGROWINGNUMBEROFCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSRECEIVEMOSTOFTHEIRFORMALTRAININGFROMCOMMUNITYORTECHNICALCOLLEGESLESSSKILLEDCNCOPERATORSMAYNEEDONLYACOUPLEOFWEEKSOFONTHEJOBTRAININGCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSCANADVANCEINSEVERALWAYSEXPERIENCEDCNCOPERATORSMAYBECOMECNCPROGRAMMERS,ANDSOMEAREPROMOTEDTOSUPERVISORYORADMINISTRATIVEPOSITIONINTHEIRFIRMSAFEWOPENTHEIROWNSHOPSCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSANDOPERATORSSHOULDHAVEEXCELLENTJOBOPPORTUNITIESDUETOTHELIMITEDNUMBEROFPEOPLEENTERINGTRAININGPROGRAMS,EMPLOYERSAREEXPECTEDTOHAVECONTINUETOHAVEDIFFICULTYFINDINGWORKERSWITHTHENECESSARYSKILLSANDKNOWLEDGEJOBGROWTHINBOTHOCCUPATIONSWILLBEDRIVENBYTHEINCREASINGUSEOFCNCMACHINETOOLSADVANCESINCNCMACHINETOOLSANDMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYWILLFURTHERAUTOMATEPRODUCTION,BOOSTINGCNCOPERATORSPRODUCTIVITYANDLIMITINGEMPLOYMENTGROWTHTHEDEMANDFORCOMPUTERCONTROLPROGRAMMERSWILLBENEGATIVELYAFFECTEDBYTHEINCREASINGUSEOFSOFTWARETHATAUTOMATICALLYTRANSLATESPARTANDPRODUCTDESIGNSINTOCNCMACHINETOOLINSTRUCTIONSWHATISCNCCNCSTANDSFORCOMPUTERIZEDNUMERICALCONTROLANDHASBEENAROUNDSINCETHEEARLY1970SPRIORTOTHIS,ITWASCALLEDNC,FORNUMERICALCONTROLWHILEPEOPLEINMOSTWALKSOFLIFEHAVENEVERHEARDOFTHISTERM,CNCHASTOUCHEDALMOSTEVERYFORMOFMANUFACTURINGPROCESSINONEWAYORANOTHERIFYOU’LLBEWORKINGMANUFACTURING,IT’SLIKELYTHATYOU’LLBEDEALINGWITHCNCONAREGULARBASISBEFORECNCWHILETHEREAREEXCEPTIONSTOTHISSTATEMENT,CNCMACHINESREPLACEORWORKINCONJUNCTIONWITHSOMEEXISTINGMANUFACTURINGPROCESSTAKEONEOFTHESIMPLESTMANUFACTURINGPROCESSES,DRILLINGHOLES,FOREXAMPLEADRILLPRESSCANOFCOURSEBEUSEDTOMACHINEHOLESAPERSONCANPLACEADRILLCHUCKTHATISSECUREDINTHESPINDLEOFTHEDRILLPRESSTHEYCANTHENMANUALLYSELECTTHEDESIREDSPEEDFORROTATIONCOMMONLYBYSWITCHINGBELTPULLEYS,ANDACTIVATETHESPINDLETHENTHEYMANUALLYPULLONTHEQUILLLEVERTODRIVETHEDRILLINTOTHEWORKPIECEBEINGMACHINEDASYOUCANEASILYSEE,THEREISALOTOFMANUALINTERVENTIONREQUIREDTOUSEADRILLPRESSTODRILLHOLESAPERSONISREQUIREDTODOSOMETHINGALMOSTEVERYSTEPALONGTHEWAYWHILETHISMANUALINTERVENTIONMAYBEACCEPTABLEFORMANUFACTURINGCOMPANIESIFBUTASMALLNUMBEROFHOLESORWORKPIECESMUSTBEMACHINED,ASQUANTITIESGROW,SODOESTHELIKELIHOODFORFATIGUEDUETOTHETEDIOUSNESSOFTHEOPERATIONANDDONOTETHATWE’VEUSEDONEOFTHESIMPLESTMACHININGOPERATIONSDRILLINGFOROUREXAMPLETHEREAREMORECOMPLICATEDMACHININGOPERATIONSTHATWOULDREQUIREAMUCHHIGHERSKILLLEVELANDINCREASETHEPOTENTIALFORMISTAKESRESULTINGINSCRAPWORKPIECESOFTHEPERSONRUNNINGTHECONVENTIONALMACHINETOOLWECOMMONLYREFERTOTHESTYLEOFMACHINETHATCNCISREPLACINGASTHECONVENTIONALMACHINEBYCOMPARISON,THECNCEQUIVALENTFORADRILLPRESSPOSSIBLYACNCMACHININGCENTERORCNCDRILLINGTAPPINGCENTERCANBEPROGRAMMEDTOPERFORMTHISOPERATIONINAMUCHMOREAUTOMATICFASHIONEVERYTHINGTHATTHEDRILLPRESSOPERATORWASDOINGMANUALLYWILLNOWBEDONEBYTHECNCMACHINE,INCLUDINGPLACINGTHEDRILLINTHESPINDLE,ACTIVATINGTHESPINDLE,POSITIONINGTHEWORKPIECEUNDERTHEDRILL,MACHININGTHEHOLE,ANDTURNINGOFFTHESPINDLEHOWCNCWORKSASYOUMIGHTALREADYHAVEGUESSED,EVERYTHINGTHATANOPERATORWOULDBEREQUIREDTODOWITHCONVENTIONALMACHINETOOLSISPROGRAMMABLEWITHCNCMACHINESONCETHEMACHINEISSETUPANDRUNNING,ACNCMACHINEISQUITESIMPLETOKEEPRUNNINGINFACTCNCOPERATORSTENDTOGETQUITEBOREDDURINGLENGTHYPRODUCTIONRUNSBECAUSETHEREISSOLITTLETODOWITHSOMECNCMACHINES,EVENTHEWORKPIECELOADINGPROCESSHASBEENAUTOMATEDLET’SLOOKATSOMEOFTHESPECIFICPROGRAMMABLEFUNCTIONSMOTIONCONTROLALLCNCMACHINETYPESSHARETHISCOMMONALITYTHEYALLHAVETWOORMOREPROGRAMMABLEDIRECTIONSOFMOTIONCALLEDAXISANAXISOFMOTIONCANBELINEARALONGASTRAIGHTLINEORROTARYALONGACIRCULARPATHONEOFTHEFIRSTSPECIFICATIONSTHATIMPLYACNCMACHINE’SCOMPLEXITYISHOWMANYAXESITHASGENERALLYSPEAKING,THEMOREAXES,THEMORECOMPLEXTHEMACHINETHEAXESOFANYCNCMACHINEAREREQUIREDFORTHEPURPOSEOFCAUSINGTHEMOTIONANEEDEDFORTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSINTHEDRILLINGEXAMPLE,THESE3AXESWOULDPOSITIONTHETOOLOVERTHEHOLETOBEMACHINEDINTWOAXESANDMACHINETHEHOLEWITHTHETHIRDAXISAXESARENAMEDWITHLETTERSCOMMONLINEARAXISNAMESAREX,Y,ANDZCOMMONROTARYAXISNAMESAREA,B,ANDCTHESEARERELATEDTOTHECOORDINATESYSTEMPROGRAMMABLEACCESSORIESACNCMACHINEWOULDN’TBEVERYHELPFULIFALLITCOULDONLYMOVETHEWORKPIECEINTWOORMOREAXESALMOSTALLCNCMACHINESAREPROGRAMMABLEINSEVERALOTHERWAYSTHESPECIFICCNCMACHINETYPEHASALOTTODOWITHITSAPPROPRIATEPROGRAMMABLEACCESSORIESAGAIN,ANYREQUIREDFUNCTIONWILLBEPROGRAMMABLEONFULLBLOWNCNCMACHINETOOLSHEREARESOMEEXAMPLESFORONEMACHINETYPEMACHININGCENTERSAUTOMATICTOOLCHANGERMOSTMACHININGCENTERSCANHOLDMANYTOOLSINATOOLMAGAZINEWHENREQUIRED,THEREQUIREDTOOLCANBEAUTOMATICALLYPLACEDINTHESPINDLEFORMACHININGSPINDLESPEEDANDACTIVATIONTHESPINDLESPEEDINREVOLUTIONSPERMINUTECANBEEASILYSPECIFIEDCANBETURNEDONINAFORWARDORREVERSEDIRECTIONITCANALSO,OFCOURSE,BETURNEDOFFCOOLANTMANYMACHININGOPERATIONSREQUIRECOOLANTFORLUBRICATIONANDCOOLINGPURPOSESCOOLANTCANBETURNEDINANDOFFFROMWITHINTHEMACHINECYCLETHECNCPROGRAMTHINKOFGIVINGANYSERIESOFSTEPBYSTEPINSTRUCTIONSACNCPROGRAMISNOTHINGMORETHANANOTHERKINDOFINSTRUCTIONSETIT’SWRITTENINSENTENCELIKEFORMATANDTHECONTROLWILLEXEC

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