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外文翻译--计算机辅助过程规划管理信息基础薄板.doc

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外文翻译--计算机辅助过程规划管理信息基础薄板.doc

附录2外语翻译(原文)ComputeraidedprocessplanningforsheetmetalbasedoninformationmanagementD.Lutters,E.tenBrinke,A.H.Streppel,H.J.J.KalsLaboratoryofProductionandDesignEngineering,UniversityofTwente,POBox217,7500AEEnschede,NetherlandsAbstractDuringthelastfewyears,attentioninthemanufacturingcyclehasshiftedtowardsconcurrentengineeringCE.Withthis,theintegrationofthedifferentproductlifecycleprocesseshasbecomeafocusinbothresearchandindustry.However,itisobviousthattheintegrationofallmanufacturingprocesses,takingintoaccountalllifecycleaspectsfrominitialfunctionalrequirementstofinaldisposal,ishardlyfeasibleinthetraditionalway.Inthispaper,theexecutionofthemanufacturingcyclebasedoninformationmanagementisexplainedbydescribingthedevelopmentofagenericarchitectureforcomputeraidedprocessplanning.Thisarchitectureiselaborateduponforthefieldofsheetmetalmanufacturinginasmallbatchpartenvironment.@2000ElsevierScienceS.A.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsConcurrentengineeringCAPPArchitecture1.IntroductionIntheresearchpresentedhere,itisadvocatedthatthesheerintegrationofmanufacturingprocesseswithintheproductlifecycleisinsuf®cienttoachievetrueintegratedproductdevelopment.Forthispurpose,themainfocusshouldbeontheinformationthatisappliedandgeneratedinthesemanufacturingprocesses.Iftheinformationoftheseparateprocessescanbemadeavailableduringtheentiredevelopmentcycle,itcanbethebasisforthecontroloftheentiremanufacturingcycle.Inordertotakefulladvantageofthemodi®edroleofinformationintheproductdevelopmentcycle,adifferentattitudewithrespecttothemanufacturingprocessesisrequired.Oneofthemaindifferencesis,thatthephasesinthemanufacturingprocessbecomeinstrumentaltotheinformationrequiredinthemanufacturingprocess.Thisimmediatelyimpliesthatprocessesinthemanufacturingcyclehavetobedefinedasgenericasmuchaspossible.Forexample,itbecomespracticabletointerchangesystemsdevelopedfordifferentproducttypesprismatic,sheetmetal,etc..Moreover,iftheinterfacesofthemutualsystemscanbedefinedadequately,thesesystemscanbecomeindependentmodules,thatareabletoperformtheirtaskswithoutbeingdependentonapredefined,sequentialscenario.A®rstprerequisiteforthisistheabilitytoeffectivelymanagetheinformationthatbecomesthebasisofthemanufacturingprocess.2.Informationmanagement2.1.ManufacturingengineeringreferencemodelInordertobeabletodealwithdifferentviewsonamanufacturingsystem,thesystemisintroducedbymeansofareferencemodel.Areferencemodelrepresentsasystemasanorganisationintermsofitsstructureofrelativelyindependent,interactingcomponents,andintermsofthegloballydefinedtasksofthesecomponents2.ThemanufacturingengineeringreferencemodelproposedinthepresentcontextisshowninFig.1.ThismanufacturingengineeringreferencemodelisbasedonthemanufacturingplanningcontrolreferencemodelintroducedbyArentsen1.However,adaptationshavebeenmade,inordertoemphasizetheequivalentimportanceofproducts,ordersandresourcesintheentiremanufacturingcycle4.Companymanagementisconcernedwiththecontrolofcustomerorders.Itisresponsibleforthestrategicdecisionsconcerningtherangeofproductswhichwillbeproducedandtheprocessesandresourceswhicharerequiredtothisend.Productengineeringreferstoalltheengineeringactivitiesrelatedtotheproductlifecycleofaspecifictypeofproduct.Itisconcernedwiththedesignanddevelopmentofaproducttypeanditsvariants,startingfromfunctionalrequirementsuptofinalrecycling/disposal.Orderengineeringaddressesthoseactivitiesthatrelateacustomerordertoaspecificvariantofaproduct.Itisthetaskoforderengineeringtocomposeproductionordersandtodecidewhengivenbatchesofproductsmustbeprocessedandwithwhichresources.Theobjectiveoforderengineeringistheintimeexecutionoftheproductionorders.Resourceengineeringreferstoalllifecycleaspectsoftheresources,requiredfortheexecutionoftheproductionactivities.Itthereforeincludesthespecification,design,development,acquisition,preparation,useandmaintenanceoftheresourcesofacompany.Productionisconcernedwiththeactualexecutionoftheplansgeneratedbytheengineeringtasks.Fromproduction,informationisfedbacktotheseengineeringtasks.Inthemanufacturingengineeringreferencemodel,informationmanagementisdiscernedasthekernel.Thisillustratestheopinionthattheavailabilityandaccessibilityofinformationispreferredoversheerdataexchange.2.2.InformationmanagementInrecognisingthefactthateachofthedepartmentsinacompanymakesmyriaddecisionsinordertogeneraterequiredinformation,itisobviousthatthereasoningbehindallthesedecisionscanhardlybetransferredtogetherwiththeinformation.Consequently,theneedforfeedbackandinterdepartmentalcommunicationincreases,whichmayleadtoextremelycomplexanduncontrollableflowsofinformationbetweentheseparatedepartments.However,providingthatinformationgeneratedbytheseparatedepartmentsisattachedtoanoverallandwidelyaccessiblemodel,thissituationmaychangeconsiderably.Inthiscase,insteadofpushinginformationfromonedepartmenttoanother,departmentscanpulltheinformationtheyrequireandaregivenaccessto.Hence,thefocuscanbeontheinformationinsupportofthecontrolofthemanufacturingprocesses,andforthisreason,thecourseofthemanufacturingprocessesmaybeguidedbytheuseof,andtheneedforinformation.Thetypesofobjectstheinformationisconcernedwithorders,products,operators,etc.canvaryconsiderably.Despitethisvariation,forthewaytheinformationisstructuredandattachedtoanoverallmodel,itisunimportantwhetherinformationbearsreferenceto,e.g.aproduct,amachineoritsoperator.Still,itisimportanttodistinguishbetweendifferenttypesofobjects,astheirdifferentsignificanceforthemanufacturingprocessesisapparent.Eachtypeofobjectcanbeattachedtoanoverallmodel,asocalledinformationstructure.Inaccordancewiththethreepilesofthereferencemodel,threeoftheseinformationstructuresarediscernedseeFig.2●productinformationstructure●orderinformationstructure●resourceinformationstructure.Becausethestructuresevolveindependentlyofeachother,whereasthewayoftheirmutualinteractionsremainsthesame,theentirerangeofmanufacturingenvironmentscanbeaddressedfromengineertoordertomassproduction.Forexample,inanengineertoorderenvironment,theorderinformationstructureandtheproductinformationstructureevolvealmostsimultaneouslyandtheresourceinformationstructureremainsrelativelyunchanged.Inamassproductionenvironment,theproductinformationstructureandtheresourceinformationstructurearedevelopedconcurrentlyandremainratherstatichenceforth.Subsequently,theorderinformationstructureisusedtospecifythechoiceofacertainproductvariant,andtodeterminetheleadtimeandotherlogisticconsequences.Thedifferentbehaviouroftheinformationstructuresindifferentmanufacturingenvironmentsimpliesthateachofthestructureshasitsownlifecycle.Inaimingfortheintegrationofprocesses,thelifecyclesmustbeorientedontheinformationcontainedintheinformationstructures,insteadofontheprocessesconcernedwiththisinformation.Inelaboratingthisconceptfortheproductinformationstructure,theproductlifecycleisorientedupontheproductinsteadofonthemanufacturingprocesses.Inthisway,informationmanagementaspartofthereferencemodel,consistsofanintegratedcollectionoftasksthatcanbeusedasabasistoinitiate,accompany,controlandevaluateallthemanufacturingprocessesinastructuredandtransparentway.Thesetasksarebasedontheinformationcontainedinthethreeinformationstructures,asisshowninFig.2.

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