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外文翻译--越南小规模婴儿粉低成本挤压机的生产效能.doc

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外文翻译--越南小规模婴儿粉低成本挤压机的生产效能.doc

英文原文ABILITYOFA‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDER’’TOPRODUCEINSTANTINFANTFLOURSATASMALLSCALEINVIETNAMCMOUQUETA,,BSALVIGNOLB,NVANHOANB,JMONVOISC,STRECHEDAUR106,NUTRITION,LIMENTATIONSOCIE′TES,IRD,BP182,OUAGADOUGOU01,BURKINAFASOBGRET,269KIMMASTREET,HANOI,VIETNAMCGRET,213RUELAFAYETTE,75010PARIS,FRANCEDUR106,IRD,BP64501,F34394MONTPELLIERCEDEXFRANCERECEIVED25JULY2002;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM18NOVEMBER2002;ACCEPTED21NOVEMBER2002ABSTRACTEXTRUSIONCOOKINGISAUSEFULPROCESSFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFINSTANTINFANTFLOURS,ASITALLOWSGELATINISATIONANDPARTIALDEXTRINISATIONOFSTARCH,ASWELLASREDUCTIONOFTHEACTIVITYOFSOMEANTINUTRITIONALFACTORSBUTEXISTINGEXTRUSIONEQUIPMENTISNOTSUITEDTOTHECONTEXTOFDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESASITREQUIRESCONSIDERABLEFINANCIALINVESTMENTANDTHEPRODUCTIONCAPACITYMINIMUM300KG/HISTOOHIGHTHEAIMOFOURSTUDYWASTOIMPROVETRADITIONALEXTRUDERSWITHLOWPRODUCTIONCAPACITYABOUT30KG/HMANUFACTUREDINVIETNAMANDTOTESTTHEIRPERFORMANCEINTHEPRODUCTIONOFINFANTFLOURSSEVERALBLENDSMADEWITHRICE,SESAMEAND/ORSOYBEANHAVEBEENEXTRUDEDWITHTHEMODIFIEDEQUIPMENTTHATWENAME‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDER’’INTHECASEOFBLENDSCONTAININGSOYBEAN,STARCHGELATINISATIONWASNOTCOMPLETE,ANDDECREASEDWITHANINCREASEINTHELIPIDCONTENTOFTHEBLENDTHERATEOFTRYPSININHIBITORDESTRUCTIONEVOLVEDINASIMILARWAYADDINGWATERBEFOREEXTRUSION,OREXTRUDINGTHEBLENDSTWICEWASNOTEFFECTIVEININCREASINGTHERATESOFSTARCHGELATINISATIONORTRYPSININHIBITORDESTRUCTIONHOWEVER,THE‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDER’’PROVEDITSABILITYTOPROCESSTHERICE–SESAMEBLENDTHATHADALIPIDCONTENTOFLESSTHAN6G/100GDM,ANDLOWINITIALWATERCONTENTAROUND10,WETBASISWBINTHISCASE,EXTRUSIONLEDTOTOTALSTARCHGELATINISATIONANDTHEEXTENTOFSTARCHDEXTRINISATION,WHICHWASMEASUREDBYCOMPARINGTHEVISCOSITYOFGRUELSPREPAREDFROMCRUDEANDCORRESPONDINGEXTRUDEDBLENDS,WASSUFFICIENTTOPREPAREGRUELSWITHSUBSTANTIALLYINCREASEDENERGYDENSITYWITHTHEADDITIONOFROASTEDSOYBEANFLOUR,SUGAR,MILKPOWDER,VITAMINSANDMINERALS,THISBLENDCOULDPROVIDEANUTRITIOUSINSTANTFLOURUSABLEASCOMPLEMENTARYFOODFORINFANTSANDYOUNGCHILDREN2003ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSEXTRUSIONCOOKING;INSTANTFLOUR;COMPLEMENTARYFOOD;GELATINISATION;DEXTRINISATION;TRYPSININHIBITORDESTRUCTION1INTRODUCTIONEXTRUSIONCOOKINGISONEOFSEVERALDIFFERENTPROCESSESUSEDTOPRODUCEINFANTFLOURSTHISPARTICULARPROCESSHASMANYADVANTAGESTHATHAVEBEENEXTENSIVELYREVIEWEDBJORCKASP,1983;CAMIRE,CAMIRE,KRUMHAR,1990;HARPERJANSEN,1985FROMANUTRITIONALPOINTOFVIEW,EXTRUSIONCOOKINGALLOWSINACTIVATIONOFCERTAINANTINUTRITIONALFACTORSLIKETRYPSININHIBITORFACTORSTHUSINCREASINGPROTEINDIGESTIBILITYTHEHIGHTEMPERATUREGENERATEDDURINGPROCESSINGENSURESSATISFACTORYHYGIENICQUALITY,ANDINGENERALRESULTSINSTARCHGELATINISATION,THUSLEADINGTOANINSTANTFLOURIFNOTTRULYINSTANT,THEFLOURISATLEASTPRECOOKED,ANDTHESUBSEQUENTTIMEREQUIREDTOCOOKTHEGRUELISCONSIDERABLYREDUCEDDURINGEXTRUSIONCOOKING,RAWMATERIALSALSOUNDERGOHIGHSHEAR,THUSALLOWINGPARTIALSTARCHHYDROLYSISCOLONNA,DOUBLIER,MELCION,DEMONREDON,MERCIER,1984THEEXTENTOFHYDROLYSISDETERMINESTHEENERGYDENSITYATWHICHITWILLBEPOSSIBLETOPREPAREAGRUELOFSEMILIQUIDCONSISTENCYTHATISACCEPTABLETOINFANTSATAGIVENCONSISTENCY,THEMOREIMPORTANTTHESTARCHISHYDROLYZED,THEHIGHERTHEGRUELENERGYDENSITYWILLBEINSPITEOFTHESEADVANTAGES,THEADOPTIONOFEXTRUSIONCOOKINGPROCESSINGFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFINFANTFLOURINDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESISSTILLLIMITEDONLYAFEWINDUSTRIALUNITSPRODUCEEXTRUDEDFLOURATALARGESCALEMAINLYINRESPONSETOTHENEEDOFINTERNATIONALORNONGOVERN03088146/03/SEEFRONTMATTER2003ELSEVIERSCIENCELTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/S0308814602005459FOODCHEMISTRY822003249–255WWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/FOODCHEMTEL226306737;FAX226310385EMAILADDRESSCLAIREMOUQUETIRDBFCMOUQUETMENTALORGANISATIONSFOREMERGENCYSUPPLIESTHEMAINREASONFORTHISISTHATMOSTEXTRUDERSAREDESIGNEDFORLARGESCALEPRODUCTION,THUSREQUIRINGVERYHIGHINVESTMENTANDTECHNICALKNOWLEDGEEVENTHESOCALLEDLOWCOSTEXTRUDERS,ORDRYEXTRUDERSTHATWEREDEVELOPEDFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFCOMPLEMENTARYFOODSATTHEBEGINNINGOFTHE1980SBYTHEUNIVERSITYOFCOLORADOHARPER,1995;HARPERJANSEN,1985;SAID,2000,ARETOOCOSTLYANDTHEIRPRODUCTIONCAPACITYISTOOHIGHABOUT55,000DOLLARSFORAMACHINEWITHAPRODUCTIONCAPACITYOF1TONPERHOUR,ANDARETHUSNOTAFFORDABLEFORDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESTHEDEVELOPMENTOFASMALLSIMPLEMACHINE,WITHASMALLPRODUCTIONCAPACITYABOUT30KG/HISTHEREFOREOFGREATPOTENTIALINTERESTTHEVIETNAMESECONTEXTISPARTICULARLYWELLSUITEDFORTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEPRODUCTIONOFINFANTFLOURBYEXTRUSIONCOOKINGFORSEVERALREASONS1INRURALAREASANDPARTICULARLYINTHEPLAINS,MOTHERSPREPAREATHERMOSOFBOILEDHOTWATEREACHMORNINGINORDERTOHAVEASUPPLYOFSAFEDRINKINGWATERAVAILABLEDURINGTHEDAY,ANDTHISWATERCOULDEASILYBEUSEDFORTHEPREPARATIONOFAGRUELWITHANINSTANTFLOUR2ARUDIMENTARYEXTRUSIONCOOKINGPROCESSHASBEENUSEDFORMANYYEARSINTHECOUNTRYSIDE;SIMPLEEXTRUDERSWITHVERYSMALLPRODUCTIONCAPACITYALREADYEXISTANDAREUSEDFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFSNACKSORCASSAVANOODLESSOLDINTHESTREETTHESEMACHINESWEREPROBABLYORIGINALLYDESIGNEDINTHEUNITEDSTATESATTHEENDOFTHENINETEENTHCENTURYFORTHEEXTRUSIONOFPLASTIC3THESESMALLEXTRUDERSARENOWMANUFACTUREDLOCALLYINSMALLMECHANICALWORKSHOPS,ANDITISALSOEASYANDCHEAPTOCONSTRUCTSPAREPARTSLOCALLYFORTHEMAINTENANCEOFTHEMACHINESOCCASIONALATTEMPTSHAVEBEENMADETOPRODUCEINSTANTINFANTFLOURSUSINGTHESERUDIMENTARYLOCALEXTRUDERSBUTTHESEEFFORTSHAVENOTCONTINUED,FIRSTLYBECAUSETHEIRIMPACTONNUTRITIONALQUALITYOFINFANTFLOURSWASNOTSATISFACTORY,ANDSECONDLYBECAUSETHEMACHINESWERENOTSTURDYANDOFTENBROKEDOWNDURINGPRODUCTIONTAKINGTHEFEATURESOFTHISSPECIFICCONTEXTINTOACCOUNT,WEMODIFIEDTHERUDIMENTARYTYPEOFLOCALEXTRUDERTOIMPROVETHEIRABILITYTOPRODUCEINFANTFLOUR,ASWELLASTHEIRSTURDINESSTHESEIMPROVEDEXTRUDERSWITHLIMITEDPRODUCTIONCAPACITYWERENAMED‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDERS’’INREFERENCETOTHELOWCOSTEXTRUDERSTHATHARPERANDJANSENALREADYDEVELOPEDFORTHEPRODUCTIONOFNUTRITIOUSPRECOOKEDFOODSFORDEVELOPINGCOUNTRIESHARPERJANSEN,1985THEOBJECTIVEOFTHISSTUDYWASTOTESTTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHESEIMPROVED‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDERS’’AND,INPARTICULAR,TOEVALUATETHEINSTANTCHARACTEROFTHEFLOUR,THEEXTENTOFSTARCHDEXTRINISATIONANDTHERESIDUALTRYPSININHIBITORACTIVITYOFEXTRUDEDBLENDS2MATERIALSANDMETHODS21EXTRUSIONCOOKINGEQUIPMENTTHE‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUDER’’WEUSEDISASIMPLESINGLESCREWAUTOGENOUSEXTRUDERMANUFACTUREDINVIETNAMBYASMALLENTERPRISENAMED‘‘MECHANICALWORKSHOPNO14700,PHANCHUTRINHSTREET,DANANGCITYACCORDINGPLANSTHATWEFURNISHEDSEEPHOTOINFIG1THEDRIVEMOTORHASAPOWEROF105KWTHEBARRELLENGTHIS200MMWITHALENGTH/DIAMETERRATIOOF5ANDHASACENTRALCYLINDRICALDIEOF5MMINDIAMETERAND9MMINLENGTHTHEROTATINGSPEEDOFTHESCREWISHIGH500RPM,THUSALLOWINGHIGHSHEARTHEDESIGNOFTHESCREWWASMODIFIEDCONSTANTPITCHANDGRADUALDECREASEINTHEFLIGHTDEPTH,TOALLOWAPROGRESSIVEINCREASEINFRICTIONFORCESANDCONSEQUENTLYINTHETEMPERATUREINSIDETHEBARRELTHESCREWDIAMETERIS40MMANDTHEROOTDIAMETERINCREASESGRADUALLYFROM33TO38MMSEEPHOTOINFIG2THEEXTRUDERBARRELWALLHASREVERSEHELICALGROOVESTOENHANCEFORWARDCONVEYANCEOFTHEPRODUCTTOENSUREAREGULARFEEDINGRATE,THEEXTRUDERISEQUIPPEDWITHAMOTORISEDFEEDINGSCREWTHATALLOWSFEEDINGRATESFROM5TO39KG/HRESIDENCETIMEISBETWEEN4AND20S,WHICHISVERYSHORTINCOMPARISONTOOTHEREXTRUDERSBUTLONGERTHANTHERESIDENCETIMEOBSERVEDINRUDIMENTARYVIETNAMESEEXTRUDERS22RAWMATERIALSTHERAWMATERIALSUSEDTOPREPARECOMPOSITEFLOURSWERETHECHEAPESTANDTHEMOSTEASILYAVAILABLEONTHEVIETNAMESEMARKETTHEBASICCEREALWASPOLISHEDRICESOYBEANANDSESAMEWEREADDEDTOINCREASELIPIDANDPROTEINCONTENTSALLRAWMATERIALSWEREBOUGHTLOCALLYSOYBEANWASDRIEDINANOVENTOREACHADRYMATTERCONTENTABOVE92,WETBASISWB,BEFOREBEINGDEHULLEDINANABRASIVEDISKHULLEREQUIPPEDWITHACYCLONETOREMOVEHULLSANDSTRAWSAFTERDEHULLING,THEABRASIVEDISKSWEREBROUGHTCLOSERANDTHESOYBEANPASSEDASECONDTIMEINTHEMACHINETOBEROUGHLYGROUNDTOASIZEOFABOUT2MMDIFFERENTINFANTFLOURFORMULASFLOURSA,B,CANDDWERECALCULATEDTOACHIEVETHEMINIMUMPROTEINANDLIPIDCONTENTSOFRESPECTIVELY,12AND8G/100GDMREQUIREDFORCOMPLEMENTARYFOODS,AFTERADDITIONOFAPREMIXTOTHEEXTRUDEDBLENDSTABLE1THEPREMIXCMOUQUETETAL/FOODCHEMISTRY822003249–255FIG1THE‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUSIONCOOKER’’USEDFOREXPERIMENTSDESIGNEDANDMANUFACTUREDINVIETNAM1FEEDINGHOPPER;2SCREWANDBARREL;3CENTRALCYLINDRICALDIE;4CONTROLPANELAMPERAGE,TEMPERATURE,FEEDINGSCREWON/OFF,EXTRUDERON/OFF;5FEEDINGSCREWSPEEDVARIATORFIG2MAINSPAREPARTSOFTHE‘‘VERYLOWCOSTEXTRUSIONCOOKER’’1BARREL;2SCREWWITHGRADUALDECREASEINTHEFLIGHTDEPTHANDCONSTANTPITCH;3CYLINDRICALDIEOF5MMINDIAMETERAND9MMINLENGTHTABLE1FORMULASANDCALCULATEDPROTEINANDLIPIDCONTENTSOFFINALCOMPOSITEFLOURSCOMPOSITIONG/100GDRYMATTERNUTRIENTCONTENTAOFFINALFLOURG/100GDMINGREDIENTSBLENDEDINGREDIENTSADDEDLIPIDPROTEINCBEFOREEXTRUSIONAFTEREXTRUSIONRICESOYBEANSESAMEROASTEDSOYBEANPREMIXBFLOURA499217570022710031545FLOURB50227100002278051663FLOURC50224723002278821670FLOURD524004920022710121633ACALCULATEDFROMSOUCIETAL2000BPREMIXPREPAREDBYBLENDINGSUGAR66,MILKPOWDER22,SALT4,VITAMINSANDMINERALS7ANDVANILLAAROMA1CTOTALNCONTENTMULTIPLIEDBY580,530,571AND638FORRICE,SOYBEAN,SESAMEANDMILKPOWDER,RESPECTIVELY

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