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外文翻译--车牌识别系统.doc

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外文翻译--车牌识别系统.doc

英文原文1.IntroductionNowadayslicenseplaterecognitionbecomesakeytechniquetomanyautomatedtransportsystemssuchasroadtrafficmonitoring,automaticpaymentoftollsonhighwaysorbridgesandparkinglotsaccesscontrol.Licenseplatelocationisanessentialandimportantstageinthistechnique,andithasreceivedconsiderableattention.Researchershavefoundmanydiversemethodsoflicenseplatelocation.RodolfoandStefano2000devisedamethodbasedonvectorquantizationVQ.VQimagerepresentationisaquadtreerepresentationbythespecificcodingmechanism,anditcangiveasystemsomehintsaboutthecontentsofimageregions,andsuchinformationboostslocationperformance.Parketal.1999usedneuralnetworkstolocatelicenseplate.Neuralnetworkscanbeusedasfiltersforanalyzingsmallwindowsofanimageanddecidingwhethereachwindowcontainsalicenseplate,andtheirinputsareHSIvaluesapostprocessorcombinesthesefilteredimagesandlocatestheboundingboxesoflicenseplatesintheimage.Besidesneuralnetworks,otherfiltershavebeenconsideredtoo.Forexample,someauthorsusedlinesensitivefilterstoextracttheplateareas.Licenseplatesareidentifiedasimageareaswithhighdensityofratherthindarklinesorcurves.Therefore,localizationishandledlookingforrectangularregionsintheimagecontainingmaximaofresponsetotheselinefilters,whichiscomputedbyacumulativefunctionLuisetal.,1999.Platecharacterscanbedirectidentifiedbyscanningthroughtheinputimageandlookingforportionsoftheimagethatwerenotlinkedtootherpartsoftheimage.Ifanumberofcharactersarefoundtobeinastraightline,theymaymakeupalicenseplateLimetal.,1998.FuzzylogichasbeenappliedtotheproblemoflocatinglicenseplatebyZimicetal.1997.Theauthorsmadesomeintuitiverulestodescribethelicenseplate,andgavesomemembershipfunctionsforthefuzzysetsbrightanddark,brightanddarksequencetogetthehorizontalandverticalplatepositions.Butthismethodissensitivetothelicenseplatecolorandbrightnessandneedsmuchprocessingtime.UsingcolorfeaturestolocatelicenseplatehasbeenstudiedbyZhuetal.2002andWeietal.2001,butthesemethodsarenotrobustenoughtothedifferentenvironments.Edgefeaturesofthecarimageareveryimportant,andedgedensitycanbeusedtosuccessfullydetectanumberplatelocationduetothecharacteristicsofthenumberplate.Mingetal.1996developedamethodtoimprovetheedgeimagebyeliminatingthehighestandlowestportionsoftheedgedensitytosimplifythewholeimage.Butsomeoftheplateregionidentitywillbelostinthismethod.Thispaperfurtherresearchesthesubjectoflicenseplatelocation.Therectanglelicenseplatecontainsrichedgeandtextureinformation,soweconsideritinitsedgeimagebutverydifferenttoMingetal.1996.Wefirstenhancetheoriginalcarimagetoboostuptheplatearea,thenextracttheverticaledgeimageusingSobeloperator,andthenremovethebackgroundcurvesandnoiseintheedgeimage,andfinallyslidearectanglewindowtosearchtheplateintheresidualimageandsegmentitoutfromtheoriginalcarimage.Section2describesourmethodoflicenseplatelocation,anditcontainsfourpartsimageenhancement,verticaledgeextraction,backgroundcurveandnoiseremoving,platesearchandsegmentation.ExperimentswiththreesetsofcarimagesareperformedinSection3.Section4givesthediscussionandconclusions.1.TheproposedmethodforlicenseplatelocationAlltheinputcarimageshave384288pixelsand256graylevels,andanexampleimageisgiveninFig.1.ThelicenseplateofthecarconsistsofseveralcharacterssuchasLatinletters,Arabicnumerals,etc.,sotheplateareacontainsrichedgeinformation.Butsometimesthebackgroundofthecarimageholdsmuchedgeinformationtoo.Therearetwofactsthatattractourattentiononeisthatthebackgroundareasaroundthelicenseplatemainlyincludesomehorizontaledgestheotheristhattheedgesinthebackgroundaremainlylongcurvesandrandomnoises,whereastheedgesintheplateareaclustertogetherandproduceintensetexturefeature.Ifonlytheverticaledgesareextractedfromthecarimagealthoughtheplatewilllosealittlehorizontaledgeinformation,thislittlelossistobevaluableandmostofthebackgroundedgesareremoved,theplateareawillbeisolatedoutdistinctlyinthewholeedgeimage.Thusweproposetolocatethelicenseplateinitsverticaledgeimageasthefollowingfourstages.2.1.ImageenhancementInFig.1,thegradientsinthelicenseplateareaaremuchlowerthanthoseinthecontourareasofthecar,whichiscausedbythecarshadowinthedazzlingsunshine.Thecarimagescapturedinthegloomydaysordimnightsoftenbringoutweakgradientsinplateareastoo.Afewverticaledgeswillappearintheplateareas,ifweextractedgeimagesdirectlyfromthesecarimages.Thereforeitisimportanttoenhancethecarimagesfirstly.Thelocalareasthatneedtobeenhancedinacarimagehavelowvariances.HereweuseIi,jtodenotetheluminanceofthepixelPi,jrow06i0Mi,jmax{Mi1,j1,Mi1,j,Mi1,j1,Mi,j1}1elseMi,jmax{Mi2,j1,Mi2,j,Mi2,j1,Mi1,j2,Mi1,j2,Mi,j2}1endendendend3.foreachrowifrombottomtotopdoforeachcolumnjfromrighttoleftdoifEi,j1ifEi1,j1Ei1,jEi1,j1Ei,j10Ni,jmax{Ni1,j1,Ni1,j,Ni1,j1,Ni,j1}1elseNi,jmax{Ni2,j1,Ni2,j,Ni2,j1,Ni1,j2,Ni1,j2,Ni,j2}1endendendend4.foreachrowifromtoptobottomdoforeachcolumnjfromlefttorightdoifEi,j1ifMi,jNi,jTlongkMi,jNi,jTshortEi,j0

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