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外文翻译--车牌识别系统.doc

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外文翻译--车牌识别系统.doc

英文原文1INTRODUCTIONNOWADAYSLICENSEPLATERECOGNITIONBECOMESAKEYTECHNIQUETOMANYAUTOMATEDTRANSPORTSYSTEMSSUCHASROADTRAFFICMONITORING,AUTOMATICPAYMENTOFTOLLSONHIGHWAYSORBRIDGESANDPARKINGLOTSACCESSCONTROLLICENSEPLATELOCATIONISANESSENTIALANDIMPORTANTSTAGEINTHISTECHNIQUE,ANDITHASRECEIVEDCONSIDERABLEATTENTIONRESEARCHERSHAVEFOUNDMANYDIVERSEMETHODSOFLICENSEPLATELOCATIONRODOLFOANDSTEFANO2000DEVISEDAMETHODBASEDONVECTORQUANTIZATIONVQVQIMAGEREPRESENTATIONISAQUADTREEREPRESENTATIONBYTHESPECIFICCODINGMECHANISM,ANDITCANGIVEASYSTEMSOMEHINTSABOUTTHECONTENTSOFIMAGEREGIONS,ANDSUCHINFORMATIONBOOSTSLOCATIONPERFORMANCEPARKETAL1999USEDNEURALNETWORKSTOLOCATELICENSEPLATENEURALNETWORKSCANBEUSEDASFILTERSFORANALYZINGSMALLWINDOWSOFANIMAGEANDDECIDINGWHETHEREACHWINDOWCONTAINSALICENSEPLATE,ANDTHEIRINPUTSAREHSIVALUES;APOSTPROCESSORCOMBINESTHESEFILTEREDIMAGESANDLOCATESTHEBOUNDINGBOXESOFLICENSEPLATESINTHEIMAGEBESIDESNEURALNETWORKS,OTHERFILTERSHAVEBEENCONSIDEREDTOOFOREXAMPLE,SOMEAUTHORSUSEDLINESENSITIVEFILTERSTOEXTRACTTHEPLATEAREASLICENSEPLATESAREIDENTIFIEDASIMAGEAREASWITHHIGHDENSITYOFRATHERTHINDARKLINESORCURVESTHEREFORE,LOCALIZATIONISHANDLEDLOOKINGFORRECTANGULARREGIONSINTHEIMAGECONTAININGMAXIMAOFRESPONSETOTHESELINEFILTERS,WHICHISCOMPUTEDBYACUMULATIVEFUNCTIONLUISETAL,1999PLATECHARACTERSCANBEDIRECTIDENTIFIEDBYSCANNINGTHROUGHTHEINPUTIMAGEANDLOOKINGFORPORTIONSOFTHEIMAGETHATWERENOTLINKEDTOOTHERPARTSOFTHEIMAGEIFANUMBEROFCHARACTERSAREFOUNDTOBEINASTRAIGHTLINE,THEYMAYMAKEUPALICENSEPLATELIMETAL,1998FUZZYLOGICHASBEENAPPLIEDTOTHEPROBLEMOFLOCATINGLICENSEPLATEBYZIMICETAL1997THEAUTHORSMADESOMEINTUITIVERULESTODESCRIBETHELICENSEPLATE,ANDGAVESOMEMEMBERSHIPFUNCTIONSFORTHEFUZZYSETS‘‘BRIGHT’’AND‘‘DARK’’,‘‘BRIGHTANDDARKSEQUENCE’’TOGETTHEHORIZONTALANDVERTICALPLATEPOSITIONSBUTTHISMETHODISSENSITIVETOTHELICENSEPLATECOLORANDBRIGHTNESSANDNEEDSMUCHPROCESSINGTIMEUSINGCOLORFEATURESTOLOCATELICENSEPLATEHASBEENSTUDIEDBYZHUETAL2002ANDWEIETAL2001,BUTTHESEMETHODSARENOTROBUSTENOUGHTOTHEDIFFERENTENVIRONMENTSEDGEFEATURESOFTHECARIMAGEAREVERYIMPORTANT,ANDEDGEDENSITYCANBEUSEDTOSUCCESSFULLYDETECTANUMBERPLATELOCATIONDUETOTHECHARACTERISTICSOFTHENUMBERPLATEMINGETAL1996DEVELOPEDAMETHODTOIMPROVETHEEDGEIMAGEBYELIMINATINGTHEHIGHESTANDLOWESTPORTIONSOFTHEEDGEDENSITYTOSIMPLIFYTHEWHOLEIMAGEBUTSOMEOFTHEPLATEREGIONIDENTITYWILLBELOSTINTHISMETHODTHISPAPERFURTHERRESEARCHESTHESUBJECTOFLICENSEPLATELOCATIONTHERECTANGLELICENSEPLATECONTAINSRICHEDGEANDTEXTUREINFORMATION,SOWECONSIDERITINITSEDGEIMAGEBUTVERYDIFFERENTTOMINGETAL1996WEFIRSTENHANCETHEORIGINALCARIMAGETOBOOSTUPTHEPLATEAREA,THENEXTRACTTHEVERTICALEDGEIMAGEUSINGSOBELOPERATOR,ANDTHENREMOVETHEBACKGROUNDCURVESANDNOISEINTHEEDGEIMAGE,ANDFINALLYSLIDEARECTANGLEWINDOWTOSEARCHTHEPLATEINTHERESIDUALIMAGEANDSEGMENTITOUTFROMTHEORIGINALCARIMAGESECTION2DESCRIBESOURMETHODOFLICENSEPLATELOCATION,ANDITCONTAINSFOURPARTSIMAGEENHANCEMENT,VERTICALEDGEEXTRACTION,BACKGROUNDCURVEANDNOISEREMOVING,PLATESEARCHANDSEGMENTATIONEXPERIMENTSWITHTHREESETSOFCARIMAGESAREPERFORMEDINSECTION3SECTION4GIVESTHEDISCUSSIONANDCONCLUSIONS1THEPROPOSEDMETHODFORLICENSEPLATELOCATIONALLTHEINPUTCARIMAGESHAVE384288PIXELSAND256GRAYLEVELS,ANDANEXAMPLEIMAGEISGIVENINFIG1THELICENSEPLATEOFTHECARCONSISTSOFSEVERALCHARACTERSSUCHASLATINLETTERS,ARABICNUMERALS,ETC,SOTHEPLATEAREACONTAINSRICHEDGEINFORMATIONBUTSOMETIMESTHEBACKGROUNDOFTHECARIMAGEHOLDSMUCHEDGEINFORMATIONTOOTHEREARETWOFACTSTHATATTRACTOURATTENTIONONEISTHATTHEBACKGROUNDAREASAROUNDTHELICENSEPLATEMAINLYINCLUDESOMEHORIZONTALEDGES;THEOTHERISTHATTHEEDGESINTHEBACKGROUNDAREMAINLYLONGCURVESANDRANDOMNOISES,WHEREASTHEEDGESINTHEPLATEAREACLUSTERTOGETHERANDPRODUCEINTENSETEXTUREFEATUREIFONLYTHEVERTICALEDGESAREEXTRACTEDFROMTHECARIMAGEALTHOUGHTHEPLATEWILLLOSEALITTLEHORIZONTALEDGEINFORMATION,THISLITTLELOSSISTOBEVALUABLEANDMOSTOFTHEBACKGROUNDEDGESAREREMOVED,THEPLATEAREAWILLBEISOLATEDOUTDISTINCTLYINTHEWHOLEEDGEIMAGETHUSWEPROPOSETOLOCATETHELICENSEPLATEINITSVERTICALEDGEIMAGEASTHEFOLLOWINGFOURSTAGES21IMAGEENHANCEMENTINFIG1,THEGRADIENTSINTHELICENSEPLATEAREAAREMUCHLOWERTHANTHOSEINTHECONTOURAREASOFTHECAR,WHICHISCAUSEDBYTHECARSHADOWINTHEDAZZLINGSUNSHINETHECARIMAGESCAPTUREDINTHEGLOOMYDAYSORDIMNIGHTSOFTENBRINGOUTWEAKGRADIENTSINPLATEAREASTOOAFEWVERTICALEDGESWILLAPPEARINTHEPLATEAREAS,IFWEEXTRACTEDGEIMAGESDIRECTLYFROMTHESECARIMAGESTHEREFOREITISIMPORTANTTOENHANCETHECARIMAGESFIRSTLYTHELOCALAREASTHATNEEDTOBEENHANCEDINACARIMAGEHAVELOWVARIANCESHEREWEUSEII,JTODENOTETHELUMINANCEOFTHEPIXELPI,JROW06I288,COLUMN06J384INTHECARIMAGE,ANDUSEI1I;JTODENOTETHELUMINANCEINTHEENHANCEDIMAGEWELETII,JANDI1I;JSATISFYEQ1,WHEREWI,JISAWINDOWCENTEREDONPIXELPI,J,IWI;JANDRWI;JARETHEMEANLUMINANCEANDSTANDARDDEVIATIONOFTHEPIXELSINTHEWINDOWWI,J,I0ANDR0ARETHEEXPECTEDMEANANDSTANDARDDEVIATION,RESPECTIVELY0,0,1,,IIIIJIJIWJIWJI(1)INORDERTOREPRESENTTHELOCALINFORMATIONBETTER,THESIZEOFTHEWINDOWSHOULDBESMALLERTHANTHEESTIMATEDSIZEOFTHEPLATEINTHISPAPER,WESELECTA4836RECTANGLEASTHEWINDOWWI,JANDTHUS88WINDOWSCANCOVEROVERTHEWHOLE384288CARIMAGELETI0BEEQUALTOIWI;JANDR0BEACONSTANTINDEPENDENTOFPIXELPI,JNOWWENEEDTOKNOWTHEVALUESIWI;JANDRWI;JATEACHPIXELCOMPUTINGOUTALLTHEVALUESISNOTADVISABLE,ANDWECANUSETHEBILINEARINTERPOLATIONALGORITHMTOGETTHEMFIRSTWECUTTHECARIMAGEINTO88BLOCKSEQUABLY;ANDTHENCOMPUTEOUTTHEIWI;JANDRWI;JVALUESATTHEVERTEXESOFBLOCKS,WHEREI36M,J48N,M,N0,1,2,,8;FINALLYCOMPUTEOUTEVERYIWI;JANDRWI;JBYTHEBILINEARINTERPOLATIONEQS2AND3FIG2,WHERE36M6I36M1,48N6J48N1,CXJ48N/48,ANDCYI36M/36111,DBAJIWXWDXYWXWXYWICICCICICCI(2)111,DCBAJIWXWXYWXWXYWCCCCCC(3)IFΣWI;JISCLOSETOZEROSUCHASONLYADARKORBRIGHTAREA,EQ1WILLGIVEOUTALARGEVALUEBUTWESHOULDNOTENHANCESUCHALOCALAREAIFΣWI;JISHIGHENOUGHFOREXAMPLEΣWI;J≥60,THEENHANCEMENTISUNNECESSARYTOOSOTHEENHANCEMENTEQ1ISIMPROVEDINTOEQ4INPRACTICEJIJIJIWWJIWJIIIIFI,,,,,(4)WHEREF(RWI;J)ISANENHANCEMENTCOEFFICIENTSHOWNINFIG3DEFINEDBYEQ5MOSTΣWI;JSOFTHEPLATEAREASWHICHNEEDENHANCEDAREAROUND20SOWELETTHEFUNCTIONFBEEQUALTO1WHENRWI;J0ORRWI;J≥60,ANDBEEQUALTO3AS20360WHENRWI;J20601602012016002320012040023,,,,,,22JIJIJIJIJIJIWWWWWWIFIFIFF(5)THEENHANCEDCARIMAGEISSHOWNINFIG4ANDWECANSEETHATTHELICENSEPLATEREGIONHASBEENSTRENGTHENEDIFTHEPLATEISWELLILLUMINATEDANDTHEIMAGEISINBALANCE,THEPROCESSWILLNOTCHANGETHECONTRASTOFTHEPLATEF(ΣWI,J1,IFΣWI,J≥60)22VERTICALEDGEEXTRACTIONWESELECTTHEVERTICALSOBELOPERATORINFIG5TODETECTTHEVERTICALEDGES,BECAUSETHESIMPLEOPERATORCOSTSUSALITTLECOMPUTATIONALTIMECONVOLVETHECARIMAGEWITHTHISSOBELOPERATORTOGETTHEVERTICALGRADIENTIMAGECOMPUTETHEMEANOFTHEABSOLUTEGRADIENTVALUESINTHEIMAGEANDMULTIPLYITBYACOEFFICIENTASATHRESHOLDFOREXAMPLE4GRAD,ORCOMPUTETHEGRADIENTHISTOGRAMANDFINDAGRADIENTATACERTAINPERCENTAGEFOREXAMPLE75OFTHEGRADIENTDISTRIBUTIONASATHRESHOLDUSETHISTHRESHOLDANDAPPLYNONMAXIMUMSUPPRESSIONINHORIZONTALDIRECTIONINTHEGRADIENTIMAGE,ANDWEGETTHEVERTICALSOBELEDGEIMAGESHOWNINFIG623BACKGROUNDCURVEANDNOISEREMOVINGFROMFIG6,WECANSEETHATTHEREAREMANYLONGBACKGROUNDCURVESANDSHORTRANDOMNOISEEDGESINTHEVERTICALEDGEIMAGEBESIDESTHELICENSEPLATEEDGESTHESEBACKGROUNDANDNOISEEDGESMAYINTERFEREINTHELICENSEPLATELOCATIONWEHAVEPROPOSEDASIMPLEALGORITHMTOREMOVETHEMFROMTHEEDGEIMAGETHISALGORITHMONLYREQUIRESUSTOSCANTHEEDGEIMAGEFORTHREETIMESTHEFIRSTSCANWILLRECORDTHEEDGELENGTHSAWAYFROMTHETOPORLEFTSTARTPOINTSANDTHESECONDSCANWILLRECORDTHEEDGELENGTHSAWAYFROMTHEBOTTOMORRIGHTENDPOINTSANDTHELASTSCANWILLADDUPTHETWOKINDSOFLENGTHSTODENOTETHEACTUALEDGELENGTHS;IFTHEEDGEPOINTHASAVERYLONGBACKGROUNDCURVEORVERYSHORTNOISEEDGEACTUALEDGELENGTH,THENTHEEDGEPOINTWILLBEREMOVEDFROMTHEEDGEIMAGEBEFOREDESCRIBETHEALGORITHMBELOW,WENEEDTOINTRODUCESOMESYMBOLSUSEDEDENOTESTHEEDGEIMAGEIFPIXELPI,JISANEDGEPOINT,EI,J1,ELSEEI,J0;MANDNAREBOTHMATRIXESWITHTHESAMESIZEASE;TLONG,WHICHHASRELATIONTOTHEESTIMATEDHEIGHTOFTHELICENSEPLATE,ANDTSHORT,WHICHISSHORTERTHANMOSTOFTHELENGTHSOFTHEPLATEEDGES,ARETWOTHRESHOLDSOFEDGELENGTHS1INITIALIZEMANDNTOZEROMATRIXES;2FOREACHROWIFROMTOPTOBOTTOMDOFOREACHCOLUMNJFROMLEFTTORIGHTDOIFEI,J1IFEI1,J1EI1,JEI1,J1EI,J10MI,JMAX{MI1,J1,MI1,J,MI1,J1,MI,J1}1;ELSEMI,JMAX{MI2,J1,MI2,J,MI2,J1,MI1,J2,MI1,J2,MI,J2}1;ENDENDENDEND3FOREACHROWIFROMBOTTOMTOTOPDOFOREACHCOLUMNJFROMRIGHTTOLEFTDOIFEI,J1IFEI1,J1EI1,JEI1,J1EI,J10NI,JMAX{NI1,J1,NI1,J,NI1,J1,NI,J1}1;ELSENI,JMAX{NI2,J1,NI2,J,NI2,J1,NI1,J2,NI1,J2,NI,J2}1;ENDENDENDEND4FOREACHROWIFROMTOPTOBOTTOMDOFOREACHCOLUMNJFROMLEFTTORIGHTDOIFEI,J1IFMI,JNI,JTLONGKMI,JNI,JTSHORTEI,J0;

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