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外文翻译--金属板料的成形及冲裁.doc

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外文翻译--金属板料的成形及冲裁.doc

1英文原文4Sheetmetalformingandblanking4.1Principlesofdiemanufacture4.1.1ClassificationofdiesInmetalforming,thegeometryoftheworkpieceisestablishedentirelyorpartiallybythegeometryofthedie.Incontrasttomachiningprocesses,ignificantlygreaterforcesarenecessaryinforming.Duetothecomplexityoftheparts,formingisoftennotcarriedoutinasingleoperation.Dependingonthegeometryofthepart,productioniscarriedoutinseveraloperationalstepsviaoneorseveralproductionprocessessuchasformingorblanking.Oneoperationcanalsoincludeseveralprocessessimultaneouslycf.Sect.2.1.4.Duringthedesignphase,thenecessarymanufacturingmethodsaswellasthesequenceandnumberofproductionstepsareestablishedinaprocessingplanFig.4.1.1.Inthisplan,theavailabilityofmachines,theplannedproductionvolumesofthepartandotherboundaryconditionsaretakenintoaccount.Theaimistominimizethenumberofdiestobeusedwhilekeepingupahighlevelofoperationalreliability.ThepartsaregreatlysimplifiedrightfromtheirdesignstagebyclosecollaborationbetweenthePartDesignandProductionDepartmentsinordertoenableseveralformingandrelatedblankingprocessestobecarriedoutinoneformingstation.Obviously,themoreoperationswhichareintegratedintoasingledie,themorecomplexthestructureofthediebecomes.Theconsequencesarehighercosts,adecreaseinoutputandalowerreliability.Fig.4.1.1Productionstepsforthemanufactureofanoilsump2TypesofdiesThetypeofdieandthecloselyrelatedtransportationofthepartbetweendiesisdeterminedinaccordancewiththeformingprocedure,thesizeofthepartinquestionandtheproductionvolumeofpartstobeproduced.Theproductionoflargesheetmetalpartsiscarriedoutalmostexclusivelyusingsinglesetsofdies.Typicalpartscanbefoundinautomotivemanufacture,thedomesticapplianceindustryandradiatorproduction.Suitabletransfersystems,forexamplevacuumsuctionsystems,allowtheinstallationofdoubleactiondiesinasufficientlylargemountingarea.Inthisway,forexample,therightandleftdoorsofacarcanbeformedjointlyinoneworkingstrokecf.Fig.4.4.34.Largesizesinglediesareinstalledinlargepresses.Thetransportationofthepartsfromoneformingstationtoanotheriscarriedoutmechanically.Inapresslinewithsinglepressesinstalledonebehindtheother,feedersorrobotscanbeusedcf.Fig.4.4.20to4.4.22,whilstinlargepaneltransferpresses,systemsequippedwithgripperrailscf.Fig.4.4.29orcrossbarsuctionsystemscf.Fig.4.4.34areusedtotransfertheparts.TransferdiesareusedfortheproductionofhighvolumesofsmallerandmediumsizepartsFig.4.1.2.Theyconsistofseveralsingledies,whicharemountedonacommonbaseplate.Thesheetmetalisfedthroughmostlyinblankformandalsotransportedindividuallyfromdietodie.Ifthisparttransportationisautomated,thepressiscalledatransferpress.Thelargesttransferdiesareusedtogetherwithsinglediesinlargepaneltransferpressescf.Fig.4.4.32.Inprogressivedies,alsoknownasprogressiveblankingdies,sheetmetalpartsareblankedinseveralstagesgenerallyspeakingnoactualformingoperationtakesplace.Thesheetmetalisfedfromacoilorintheformofmetalstrips.Usinganappropriatearrangementoftheblankswithintheavailablewidthofthesheetmetal,anoptimalmaterialusageisensuredcf.Fig.4.5.2to4.5.5.TheworkpieceremainsfixedtothestripskeletonupuntilthelaFig.4.1.2Transferdiesetfortheproductionofanautomatictransmissionforanautomotive3applicationstoperation.Thepartsaretransferredwhentheentirestripisshiftedfurtherintheworkflowdirectionaftertheblankingoperation.Thelengthoftheshiftisequaltothecenterlinespacingofthediesanditisalsocalledthestepwidth.Sideshears,veryprecisefeedingdevicesorpilotpinsensurefeedrelatedpartaccuracy.Inthefinalproductionoperation,thefinishedpart,i.e.thelastpartinthesequence,isdisconnectedfromtheskeleton.Afieldofapplicationforprogressiveblankingtoolsis,forexample,intheproductionofmetalrotorsorstatorblanksforelectricmotorscf.Fig.4.6.11and4.6.20.Inprogressivecompounddiessmallerformedpartsareproducedinseveralsequentialoperations.Incontrasttoprogressivedies,notonlyblankingbutalsoformingoperationsareperformed.However,theworkpiecealsoremainsintheskeletonuptothelastoperationFig.4.1.3andcf.Fig.4.7.2.Duetotheheightoftheparts,themetalstripmustberaisedup,generallyusingliftingedgesorsimilarliftingdevicesinordertoallowthestripmetaltobetransportedmechanically.Pressedmetalpartswhichcannotbeproducedwithinametalstripbecauseoftheirgeometricaldimensionsarealternativelyproducedontransfersets.Fig.4.1.3ReinforcingpartofacarproducedinastripbyacompounddiesetNexttothediesalreadymentioned,aseriesofspecialdiesareavailableforspecialindividualapplications.Thesediesare,asarule,usedseparately.Specialoperationsmakeitpossible,however,forspecialdiestobeintegratedintoanoperationalSequence.Thus,forexample,inflangingdiesseveralmetalpartscanbejoinedtogetherpositivelythroughthebendingofcertainmetalsectionsFig.4.1.4andcf.Fig.2.1.34.Duringthisoperationreinforcingparts,glueorothercomponentscanbeintroduced.Otherspecialdieslocatespecialconnectingelementsdirectlyintothepress.Sortingandpositioningelements,forexample,bringstampingnutssynchronisedwiththepresscyclesintothecorrectpositionsothatthepunchheadscanjointhemwiththesheetmetalpartFig.4.1.5.Ifthereissufficientspaceavailable,formingandblankingoperationscanbecarriedoutonthesamedie.4Furtherexamplesincludebending,collarforming,stamping,fineblanking,wobbleblankingandweldingoperationscf.Fig.4.7.14and4.7.15.Fig.4.1.4AhemmingdieFig.4.1.5Apressedpartwithanintegratedpunchednut4.1.2DiedevelopmentTraditionallythebusinessofdieengineeringhasbeeninfluencedbytheautomotiveindustry.Thefollowingobservationsaboutthediedevelopmentaremostlyrelatedtobodypaneldieconstruction.Essentialstatementsare,however,madeinafundamentalcontext,sothattheyareapplicabletoallareasinvolvedwiththeproductionofsheetmetalformingandblankingdies.TimingcycleforamassproducedcarbodypanelUntiltheendofthe1980ssomecarmodelswerestillbeingproducedforsixtoeightyearsmoreorlessunchangedorinslightlymodifiedform.Today,however,productiontimecyclesaresetforonlyfiveyearsorlessFig.4.1.6.Followingthenewdifferentmodelpolicy,thedemandsondiemakershavealsochangedfundamentally.ComprehensivecontractsofmuchgreaterscopesuchasSimultaneousEngineeringSEcontractsarebecomingincreasinglycommon.Asaresult,thediemakerisofteninvolvedattheinitialdevelopmentphaseofthemetalpartaswellasintheplanningphasefortheproductionprocess.Therefore,amuchbroaderinvolvementisestablished

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