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外文翻译--集成设计与制造中的的智能综合系统 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--集成设计与制造中的的智能综合系统 英文版.pdf

JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology76199823–28IntelligenthybridsystemforintegrationindesignandmanufactureDaizhongSu,MarkWakelamDepartmentofMechanicalandManufacturingEngineering,TheNottinghamTrentUni6ersity,BurtonStreet,Nottingham,NG14BU,UKReceived23May1997receivedinrevisedform11June1997AbstractAnintelligenthybridsystemIHSapproachhasbeendevelopedtointegratevariousstagesintheprocessofdesignandmanufacture,includingproductdesignspecification,conceptualdesign,detaildesign,processplanning,costingandCNCmanufacture.TheIHSapproachblendsarulebasedsystemRBS,artificialneuralnetworksANNs,geneticalgorithmGA,hypermediaHMandCADCAECAMpackagesintoasingleenvironment.ThedesignandmanufactureexpertiseiscapturedbytheRBSandANNs,whiletheothertasks,suchasnumericalanalysis,designoptimisation,engineeringdrawinganddataprocessing,areperformedusingGA,HMandCADCAECAM.TheRBSworksasacoordinator,controllingthewholeprocess.Asanapplicationoftheapproach,anIHSformechanicalpowertransmissionsystemshasbeendeveloped.©1998ElsevierScienceS.A.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsArtificialintelligenceHybridsystemCADCAECAMMechanicaltransmissionDesignManufacture1.IntroductionDuetovariousstagesandcomplexactivitiesinvolved,theprocessofproductdesignandmanufactureistediousandtimeconsuming.Inordertoreduceproductioncostsandtimetomarket,itishighlydesirabletointegratethewholeprocessusingadvancedcomputingtechniques.Inthisresearch,anintelligenthybridsystemIHSapproachhasbeendevelopedtointegratevariousactivitiesinvolvedindesignandmanufacture.ThisisachievedbyblendingarulebasedsystemRBS,artificialneuralnetworksANNs,geneticalgorithmsGA,hypermediaHMandCADCAECAMpackagesintoasingleenvironment.BothintegrationindesignandmanufactureandapplicationofartificialintelligenceAIinengineeringhaveattractedresearchersattentions,forexample1–3,however,integrationofmultipleAItechniques,asmentionedabove,intothewholeprocessofdesignandmanufacturehasnotbeenfoundintheliterature.Hence,theIHSisanovelresearch.EachindividualtypeofAIsystemhasadvantagesanddisadvantages.TheIHScombinesthepowerofeachtechnique,avoidstheirweakaspects,andthus,providesamorepowerfultoolforAIbasedintegration.Nowadays,manyCADCAMCAEpackagesareappliedinindustries,however,inmostcases,theyarestandalonetypes.Asoneoftheimportantfeaturesofthisapproach,itprovidesameanstointegratesuchexistingpackagesintoasingleenvironment.Thisisobviouslycosteffectiveforindustrialusers,particularlyformediumandsmallsizecompanies.Inthefollowingsections,theapproachisbrieflydescribedfirst,togiveanoverviewofthemainstructure,relationshipsofthesoftwaretechniquesinvolved,designandmanufacturingactivitiesconsidered,andtheintegratedprocess.Then,theimportantfeaturesoftheIHSarepresentedinmoredetail,includingtheRBS,ANNs,GA,HM,andCADCAECAMintegration.Theapproachhasbeenappliedintothedesignandmanufactureofmechanicalpowertransmissionsystems.Thekeyfeaturesarepresentedinconjunctionwiththeapplication.Correspondingauthor.Tel.441159418418fax441159486506emailmec3sudntu.ac.uk092401369819.00©1998ElsevierScienceS.A.Allrightsreserved.PIIS0924013697003105D.Su,M.WakelamJournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology76199823–2824Fig.1.Softwareintegration.2.OverviewoftheapproachThesoftwaretechniquesandpackagesprogrammesinvolvedintheIHSandtheirrelationshipareshowninFig.1.Integrationofthevariouselementsintoasingleenvironmentisachievedviathecontrol,whichisaRBS.ThedesignandmanufactureexpertiseiscapturedbytheRBSandANNs,whiletheothertaskswithinthedesignandmanufacturingprocess,suchasnumericalanalysis,engineeringdrawinganddataprocessing,areperformedusingrelevantCADCAECAMsoftwarepackages.GAandHMareusedtoconductdesignoptimisationandtoprovideeffectivemeansforuserinterfacesanddatatransfer.TheRBScommunicateswiththeothersandworksasacoordinator,controllingthewholeprocess.UsingtheIHS,thefollowingactivitiesareintegratedthroughoutthewholeprocessofdesignandmanufactureconceptualdesignformulationofproductdesignspecification,conceptgenerationandevaluationdetaildesignanalysis,subassemblycomponentdesignandassembly,engineeringdrawings,designretrievalmanufactureprocessplanning,costingandCNCmanufacture.TheintegratedprocessisshowninFig.2,whichindicateshowthewholeprocessiscontrolledbytheRBSandhowrelevantsoftwaretechniquespackagesareinvolvedateachstage.Asanexampletoillustratetheapproach,anIHSforthedesignandmanufactureofmechanicalpowertransmissionsystemshasbeendevelopedtoperformthefollowingtasksaFormulationofproductdesignspecificationPDS.12PDSitems,suchasorientationofinputoutputshafts,manufacturecost,etc.areconsidered.ItispossibletoextendthesystemtoaidmorePDSitems.bConceptualdesign.TheconceptstobeconstructedbytheprototypeIISfallintothefollowingrangestagesofthetransmissionone,twoorthreeorientationofinputoutputshaftsparallel,crossandperpendicularcomponentsateachstageofthetransmissionseventypesofcomponentsincludinggears,beltsandchainscDetaildesign.TheIIScanconductthedetaildesignofgearboxes,beltdrivesoracombinationofboth,includingthefollowinggearstrengthanalysis,bearingselection,shaftdesign,casedesign,beltandpulleyselection,designoptimisation,componentandassemblydrawingsandparametricdesignofcomponents.Fig.2.Theintegratedprocess.D.Su,M.WakelamJournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology76199823–2825dManufacture.TheIIScanperformthefollowingtaskscostanalysis,processplanningforthemanufactureofmajorcomponentsandCNCprogrammingformanufactureofshafts.3.SystemcontrolAsshowninFig.2,withintheintegratedprocess,thePDSareformulatedfirst,thentheIHScreatesallpossibleconceptstomeetthespecificationsandselectsthebestconceptfordetaildesign.Atthedetaildesignstage,twotypesofsubsystemsareconsidered,beltdrivesandgearboxes,fromwhichapowertransmissionsystemisbuiltandthedesignofcomponentssuchasgears,shaftsandbearingsarealsocarriedout.Aftercompletionofthedetaildesign,theIHSmovestothemanufacturestagewhereCNC,planningandcostingaretobeconducted.TheIHScanalsocarryoutanyredesigntaskwheneveritisnecessary.TheprocessiscontrolledbyasystemcontrollerSCandsubcontrollersSubC.TheSCcontrolstheoverallprocessbycommunicationwiththeSubCs,whileaSubCcontrolstheactivitieswithinaparticularstage.TheSCandSubCsareRBScomprisingtwotypesofrulescontrolrulesandinformationrules.Thecontrolrulesholdtheknowledgerelatingtothedesignsprogress.Theserulesstructurethedesignprocessandcontrolitsdevelopment,formingtheinferenceengineandactivatingtheappropriateinformationrulesdependingonthecircumstancesappliedandthedesignstage.ForexamplefacewidthratioisnotdefinedbyuserIFacti6atefacewidthinformationrulesTHENThecontrolrulesalsocontroltheactivationofothermoduleswithinthedesignsystems.ForexampleIFgearisthroughhardenedacti6ateANNmodule1THENFig.4.Fullyconnectednetworks.Theinformationrulescontaininformationintheformofnumericalvaluesanddesignfeaturesoractivateanequationthatencapsulatesthedesigninformation.ForexampleIFthegearisdoublehelicalanditsheattreatmentisnitridedanditsmountingissymmetricTHENmaximumfacewidthratiois1.4heattreatmentiscasecarburisedIFTHENmaximumnumberofteeth119gearratio37.334.ArtificialneuralnetworksANNswithintheIHSANNsareappliedattwostageswithintheintegratedprocess1attheconceptualdesignstage,fourANNsaredevelopedforcreationofconcepts,and2atthedetaildesignstage,fourANNsareusedtoobtaindesignfactorsintheprocessofinitialgearsizing.AlltheANNsareoffeedforwardmultilayerperceptronstrainedwiththebackpropagationtechnique,i.e.commonlyknownasbackpropagationnetworks.Thistypeofnetworkhasbeenselectedfortwomainreasonsfixedstructureenablingastandardstructuretobeestablishedwithinthedesignsystemforeasymodificationandupdateofknowledge.successinpatternrecognitionforsimilarapplications,increasingtheprobabilityofsuccessfortheirapplicationwithintheproject.4.1.ANNsforconceptualdesignAnexampleoftheconceptsforthemechanicaltransmissionsystemisshowninFig.3,indicatingthataconceptisformedbyassemblingacomponentsintothepositionsofanarrangement.Fournetworksareusedforthetaskofconceptgenerationthreeforcomponentselectionandoneforthearrangement.4.1.1.ComponentnetworksThreenetworksarerequiredtoincorporatethehierarchy4.EachnetworkistrainedwithvariationsoftheFig.3.Conceptconstruction.D.Su,M.WakelamJournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology76199823–2826Fig.5.Combinationofgenestoformachromosome.samedatawitheithernone,oneortwooftheoutputspermanentlysettozero.Settingtheelementstozeroeffectivelyremovestheelementfromthenetworkwhilemaintainingastandardnetworkstructure.4.1.2.ArrangementnetworkThearrangementnetworkincorporatesthePDS,orientationandnumberofstagesinitsdecisionmakingprocess.Thenumberofstagesthatarerequiredisfirstlydefinedbyaseriesofproductionrules.However,adegreeofambiguityisintroducedwhentheparametersoftheproductionruleconditionsoverlapgivingmorethanoneresultantsolution.ThestructureofthenetworksissuchthatthedesignspecificationformtheANNsinputwhiletheconceptsrepresenttheoutput.Fig.4illustratesthisrelationship.TrainingdatahasbeenpreparedforthenetworksusinganExcelprogrammewhichperformsthesuitabilitycalculations,thenscalestheresultsbetween0and1.TheresultsarematchedagainstthePDS,formingthetrainingdatasimilartotheformbelowwhichrepresentfourinputstothenetworkandthreeoutputsfromthenetwork.Fordetailedinformationregardingthetrainingmethod,see4.4.2.ANNsforinitialgearsizingInthedetaildesignofgears,informationabouttherequireddesign,suchaspower,inputspeed,gearratioandcentredistance,isspecifiedfirst.Oncethegearspecificationshavebeenobtained,theIHSgoesthroughtheprocessofgearsizingtodeterminethegeometricparametersincludingmodule,numberofteeth,diameters,helicalangle,etc.ThentheIHSrunsaprogrammeforthegearratingofcontactandbendingstrength.Withinthegearsizingprocess,thevaluesofsafetyfactors,pitchaccuracy,leadaccuracyandloadfactorKHbhavetobedetermined.Thosevaluesareinitiallyprovidedbydesigngraphs,whichareforuseinthemanualdesignprocess,andnormally,theoriginaldatathatthegraphwasconstructedfromareunobtainable,whichmakesitdifficulttoincludethemintoacomputerintegratedprogramme.However,theapplicationofANNssolvedthisproblem.Inthiscircumstance,fourANNshavebeentrainedusingthedataobtaineddirectlyfromthegraphs,whichprovidesadesirablesolutiontoencodethedesignprocessintothesystem.Forfurtherdetails,see5,6.5.ApplicationofgeneticalgorithmsGAintheIHSTherehavebeenseveraloptimisationsearchtechniquesavailablesuchashillclimbingandNeutronRaphsonmethods,however,duetothemagnitudeofthesearchareaofacontinuoussearchinvolved,theyaretootimeconsuming.Anadaptivesearchtechniqueappearstoprovideasuitablesolution,asitiscapableofcoveringthesearchspacewithoutanalysingeverypoint.TwoGAprogrammesareimplementedwithintheIHSonefortheoptimisationofANNarchitecture,theotherforsearchingthebestcombinationofgeardesignparameters.Duetotherestrictiononthelengthofthepaper,onlytheformerisdescribedinthissection,whilethelattercanbefoundin7.Trainingofabackpropagationnetworkhasprovedtobeadifficultprocess,duetothelackofeffectiverulesandguides.Toovercomethisproblem,aGAhasbeendeveloped.Basedupontheperformancefitnessofthenetwork,theGAisusedtooptimisethetopology,transferfunctionandtrainingperiod,whicharethemajorfactorsaffectingnetworkperformance.Optimisationofthesefactorsisperformedsimultaneously,consideringtheircombinedeffectsuponperformanceandconvergence.Thisobviouslymakestheoptimisationmoreeffective.Theinformationrelatingtothefactorsthataffecttheperformanceofanetworkduringtrainingareencodedintothegenesinbinaryformwithinchromosomes.Fig.5showsanexample,whichcorrespondstoasigmoidtransferfunction,19elementsinthefirsthiddenlayerand9inthesecondandatrainingfactorof5.TheoptimisationprocessisshowninFig.6.Uponinitiation,thevaluescontainedwithinthegenesarerandomlysetfromvalueswithinthesearchspace.Thenetworkscorrespondingtotheinformationcontainedwithinallthechromosomesofthepopulationaredeterminedandsortedintoorderofdescendingfitness.

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