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外文资料--Failure analysis of the suspension spring of a light duty truck.pdf

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外文资料--Failure analysis of the suspension spring of a light duty truck.pdf

ENDPRECAUTIONSTOBETAKENTOPREVENTASIMILARFAILUREISRECOMMENDEDFROMTHEBOTTOMOFTHERIGHTREARSUSPENSIONSYSTEMAROUNDTHEPINHOLEFIG3BYTHEANALYSISOFTHEFRACTURESURFACEITISCONCLUDEDTHATFAILUREOCCURREDBYSUDDENBRITTLEFRACTURECORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL902122931300X2428;FAX902122450795EMAILADDRESSGOKSENLIITUEDUTRAGOKSENLIWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/ENGFAILANALENGINEERINGFAILUREANALYSIS142007170–17813506307/SEEFRONTMATTERC2112005ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDTHEFUNCTIONOFTHEMULTILEADSPRINGMLSISTOTRANSMITANDPARTLYABSORBTHEFORCESCOMINGFROMTHEAXESTOTHECHASSISTHEMLSCONSISTSOFLEADSPRINGSWHICHAREJOINEDTOGETHERWITHASHACKLEBUSHANDSTABILISIEDBYASHACKLEPINFIG21BYTHISSUSPENSIONSYSTEM,PARABOLICFLATSPRINGSAREUSED2ANALYSISOFSUSPENSIONSYSTEMOFTHETRUCKTHETRUCKWASLIFTED,REARSUSPENSIONANDMLSWASINVESTIGATEDINTHEUNIVERSITYLABORATORYNOOVERLOADINGANDIMPACTEffECTSONTHEMLSANDLOADTRANSMITTINGPOINTSWEREDETECTEDBRITTLEFRACTUREHASOCCURREDC2112005ELSEVIERLTDALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSSUSPENSIONSPRINGFAILURE;BRITTLEFRACTURE;INCLUSIONS;NOTCHEffECT;CHANGINGDESIGNPARAMETERS1INTRODUCTIONTHEVEHICLEISA2003MODELN2CLASSLIGHTDUTYTRUCKTHETRUCKHASACLOSEDREARCABINTOPREVENTANOVERLOADINGDURINGWOVENMATERIALTRANSPORTATIONTHEMAXIMUMPERMITTABLELOADIS10300KGONLYTHREETIMESTHETRUCKWASOVERLOADED,BUTONLY1–2OVERTHEPERMITTABLELOADTHEAVERAGELOADINGOFTHETRUCKWAS7204KGFIG1AFTER3MONTHSUSAGEOFTHETRUCKAT17251KM,FRACTUREOCCUREDATTHEFLATSPRINGSECONDFAILUREANALYSISOFTHESUSPENSIONSPRINGOFALIGHTDUTYTRUCKIBERYUREK,MEREKE,AGOKSENLIDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,ISTANBULTECHNICALUNIVERSITY,GUMUSSUYU,ISTANBUL,TURKEYRECEIVED20APRIL2005;ACCEPTED2NOVEMBER2005AVAILABLEONLINE13FEBRUARY2006ABSTRACTINTHISPAPERTHEFAILUREOFTHEREARSUSPENSIONSPRINGISANALYZEDINDETAILTHEREARAXLESUSPENSIONSYSTEMOFTHETRUCKANDFRACTUREDFLATSPRINGISINVESTIGATEDFRACTURESURFACE,MECHANICALANDCHEMICALPROPERTIESANDMICROSTRUCTUREOFTHESPRINGMATERIALISANALYZEDFORCESACTINGONTHESPRINGISDETERMINEDANDSTRENGTHCALCULATIONSARECARRIEDOUTLATER,FAILUREBEHAVIOURANDCAUSEOFFRACTUREISREVEALEDAFTERCAREFULLYANALYSISOFMICROSTRUCTUREANDRESULTSOFCALCULATIONSATTHEDOI101016/JENGFAILANAL200511007IBERYUREKETAL/ENGINEERINGFAILUREANALYSIS142007170–178171FIG1LOADINGOFTHETRUCK3PROPERTIESOFMATERIALTWOFLATSPRINGS,ONEDAMAGEDANDONEUNDAMAGED,WEREINVESTIGATEDACCORDINGCHEMICALANDMECHANICALPROPERTIESANDMICROSCOPICANALYZERESULTS31CHEMICALANALYSISTHECHEMICALANALYSISOFMATERIALSFROMBOTHUNDAMAGEDANDDAMAGEDSPRINGSWERECARRIEDOUTBYATOMICABSORPTIONSPECTROSCOPYANDAREREPORTEDINTABLE132MECHANICALPROPERTIESTENSILEANDHARDNESSTESTSWEREPERFORMEDTOCOMPARETHEMECHANICALPROPERTIESOFTWOFLATSPRINGSWHICHCANBESEENINTABLE2THEENDURANCELIMITSEOFTHESPRINGCANBEESTIMATEDUSINGTHESIMPLIFIEDEQUATION2FIG2REARSUSPENSIONANDMULTILEADSPRINGSYSTEMFIG3MACROSCOPYOFFRACTURESURFACEFORLIMIT33MICROSCOPYTHENITRALSPRING4STRESSTHEINALAXLEROUGHNESSTIONFORCESTABLE1CARBONANDSULFURCONTENTOFTHESPRINGSCSFRACTUREDSPRING06750212UNDAMAGEDSPRING07250028TABLE2MECHANICALPROPERTIESOFFLATSPRINGS172IBERYUREKETAL/ENGINEERINGFAILUREANALYSIS142007170–178THEAISI6170SPRINGMATERIAL,THESPECIFIEDUTSIS1680MPA3,FORWHICHTHEACHIEVABLEENDURANCESE05C2UTSULTIMATETENSILESTRENGTH810MPA1SPRINGYIELDSTRENGTHMPATENSILESTRENGTHMPARAPTUREELONGATIONHARDNESSHRCFRACTURED14651620636UNDAMAGED155017101032FIG4MICROSTRUCTUREOFFLATSPRINGSIS780MPATHISVALUEISQUITECLOSETOOURCALCULATEDVALUEMICROSTRUCTUREOFTHESPRINGMATERIALSWEREDEVELOPEDBYETCHING,AFTERDIAMONDPOLISHING,WITH2SOLUTIONANDWEREOBSERVEDUNDERTHEMICROSCOPEFIG4THEPHASESWHICHCANBESEENINTHERUPTUREDAREMNSENCLUSIONSANALYSISOFTHEFRACTUREDSPRINGSPRINGSAREUNDERTHEEffECTOFDIffERENTFORCESFIG5STATICFORCEFZ,STAT,WHICHISCAUSEDBYTHENOMLOADOFTHEVEHICLE,ISACTINGTOTHEZDIRECTIONDYNAMICFORCEFZ,DYNOCCURSBECAUSEOFTHEROADWHICHISCAUSEDBYFZ,STATANDISACTINGTOTHEZDIRECTIONBRAKINGFORCEFXACTINGTOTHEXDIRECISCAUSEDBYTHEBRAKINGDECELERATIONBOFTHEVEHICLEALINEARRELATIONBETWEENBRAKINGFORCESANDACTINGTOTHEZDIRECTIONEXISTSINTHEFORM4FIG5FORCESACTINGONTHEFLATSPRINGSLBG2FXLFZ;STATFZ;DYN3WHEREBISDECELERATIONBRAKINGACCELERATION2M/S2ANDLCOEffiCIENTOFADHESIVEFRICTIONL02THETOTALSTRESSSESRWHEREOFTHEBEROFTHEBYBYANALYZIETRY,41FATIGUWHICHTABLEFORCESFZ,STAT36,000IBERYUREKETAL/ENGINEERINGFAILUREANALYSIS142007170–1781733ANDSTRESSESACTINGONTHESPRINGNFZ,DYNNFXNRSTATMPARDYNMPARBRAKEMPARTMPA39,60015,12014315761361RERMTC1MDC1MSKTC1RUTS11NOFATIGUEFAILUREISEXPECTEDTHISFATIGUELIMITSTRESSCANBECALCULATEDUSINGTHESIMPLIFIEDEQUATION8,FORDETAILEDFATIGUEANALYSISS–NCURVEOFTHESPRINGISESTIMATEDFIRST,ALIFENEISSPECIFIED,SUCHAS106CYCLESFORSTEEL,BEYONDWHICHTHES–NCURVEISASSUMEDTOBEHORIZONTALHENCE,AFATIGUELIMIT,ORSTRESSBELOWELIFEANALYSISSTATICSAFETYFACTORSSISSSRYIELDRMAX146563223210KTISDETERMINEDAS1757RMAXRTC1KT361C1175632MPA9NOTCHEffECTOFTHEHOLEISTAKENINTOACCOUNTTOOBYCONSIDERINGTHEGEOMETRYOFTHEHOLEANDSPRINGGEOMCONSIDERINGIMPACTFACTORU11THEFORCESANDSTRESSESACTINGONTHESPRINGCANBESEENINTABLE3NGTHEMAXIMUMSTRESSRMAXACTINGONTHEFRACTUREDSURFACE,THESTRESSCONCENTRATIONEffECTKTRTRSTAT1FZ;DYNFXFZ;STAT8TOTALSTRESSESRTACTINGONTHESPRINGISC18C19FZ;STATDURINGBRAKINGASUPPLEMENTSTRESSISFORMEDTHISBRAKINGSTRESSRBRAKECANBECALCULATEDASRBRAKEFXC1RSTATFZ;STAT7RZ;DYNFZ;DYNC1RSTAT6NESSACTINGINTHEFORMOFDYNAMICLOADSONTHESPRINGSITCANBEEXPRESSEDASLA,LB,BANDH0AREGEOMETRICALPARAMETERSOFTHEASYMMETRICPARABOLICSPRINGLALB1700MMLENGTHSPRING,B80MMWIDTHOFTHESPRINGANDH040MMTHICKNESSOFTHESPRING,NREFERSTOTHENUMSPRINGSATTHEMULTILEADSPRINGSYSTEMN5DYNAMICSTRESSRDYNOCCURSBECAUSEOFTHEROADROUGHRTRSTATRDYNRBRAKE4THESTATICSTRESSRSTATWHICHOCCURS,BECAUSEOFMAXIMUMNOMINALAXLELOAD,CANBECALCULATEDAS5,6RSTAT6FZ;STATC1LALBNBH20LALB5RTACTINGONTHESPRINGCANBECALCULATEDASTHESUMOFSTATICRSTAT,DYNAMICRDYNANDBRAKINGSTRESBRAKE

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