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法学外文翻译--中华人民共和国的刑事责任劳动安全行为.doc

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法学外文翻译--中华人民共和国的刑事责任劳动安全行为.doc

法学外文翻译温州姜原文一COPYRIGHTI2004WASHINGTONUNIVERSITYWASHINGTONUNIVERSITYGLOBALSTUDIESLAWREVIEWCRIMINALLIABILITYFORLABORSAFETYVIOLATIONSINTHEPEOPLE’SREPUBLICOFCHINANAMEJOHNBALZANOSUMMARYCHINA’SWORKERSHAVEFALLENONHARDTIMESONESCHOLARCOMMENTSTHATCHINA’S1994LABORLAWSEEMSTOREFLECTWARMERFEELINGSONTHEPARTOFTHECHINESEGOVERNMENTWITHREGARDTOCIVILLIABILITYINTHECONTEXTOFLABORANDEMPLOYMENTLAWTHETOOLSTHATONENEEDSTOANALYZEHOWTHECRIMINALLAWCANBEUSEDTOPUNISHLABORSAFETYVIOLATIONSARESIMPLYTOUNDERSTANDTHEGENERALPROVISIONSOFTHECRIMINALLAWONDOLUSSPECIALISMENSREA,THECONCEPTOFCRIMINALLIABILITYFORACORPORATIONOROTHERLEGALENTITY,ANDTHEACTUSREUSFORTHESPECIFICCRIMESWHATEMERGESFROMTHESEPROVISIONSASCITEDABOVEISTHATWHENASAFETYACCIDENT1OCCURS,2RESULTSINDEATH,INJURY,ORSEVERECONSEQUENCES,3ISDUETOVIOLATIONSTHATHADALREADYBEENPOINTEDOUTBYTHEAUTHORITIESORTHEEMPLOYEESOFTHECORPORATION,AND4ISSEVERE,THENCRIMINALLIABILITYSHALLATTACHFORTHOSEPERSONNELWHOAREDIRECTLYZHIJIERESPONSIBLEFORITSOCCURRENCEINTHEEND,SUCCESSMAYDEPENDONTHETHEORYCHOSEN,ANDTHEWILLINGNESSOFTHEPROCURATORANDJUDGETOALLOWANEGLIGENCETHEORYINALABORSAFETYVIOLATIONCASEKEYWORDSCRIMINALLIABILITYLABORSAFETYVIOLATIONSTEXTBINTRODUCTIONCHINA’SWORKERSHAVEFALLENONHARDTIMESINTHEPEOPLESREPUBLICOFCHINA’SPRC’SNEWSOCIALISTMARKETECONOMYSTATEOWNEDENTERPRISES,WHICHCURRENTLYEMPLOYABOUTSIXTYPERCENTOFTHEURBANPOPULATION,HAVEBEENFORCEDTOLAYOFFWORKERSTOCOMPETEWITHTHEEMERGINGPRIVATESECTORANDINTERNATIONALCONGLOMERATESCHINASCHOLARSHAVERECENTLYDEVOTEDMUCHATTENTIONTOTHESADSTATEOFCHINESEWORKERS,TELLINGTALESOFINEFFICIENTSOCIALINSURANCEANDRAMPANTUNEMPLOYMENTSOMESCHOLARSHAVEFOUNDITALMOSTIMPOSSIBLETOCOUNTTHENUMBERSOFURBANUNEMPLOYEDINTHEWORLD’SMOSTPOPULOUSNATIONMOREOVER,TOADDINJURYTOINSULT,THEREAREPROBLEMSINSIDETHEFACTORYASWELLTHECHINESEGOVERNMENTHASCOMEUNDERCONSIDERABLEPRESSURETODEALWITHTHEGROWINGNUMBEROFINDUSTRIALACCIDENTS,RESULTINGDEATHS,ANDUNCOUNTABLELABORLAWVIOLATIONSTHATPLAGUEANATIONVIGOROUSLYTRYINGTOCONFORMITSLAWSTOWTOSTANDARDSWITHINTHENEXTSEVERALYEARSINDEED,THEREISAGROWINGREALIZATIONTHATCHINAFACESAMASSIVECHALLENGEINBRINGINGITSLABORSTANDARDSUPTOCODEFORTHEWTO,ESPECIALLYWHILETRYINGTOMAKEANALREADYFAILINGSTATESECTORINTERNATIONALLYCOMPETITIVEOVERTHEPASTTWENTYYEARS,CHINAHASENACTEDANUMBEROFLABORLAWSANDREGULATIONSAIMEDATDEALINGWITHLABORSAFETYPROBLEMS7MOSTIMPORTANTLY,THEPRCENACTEDALABORLAWIN1994,ANDSINCETHEN,THEPROVINCESANDOTHERASSORTEDJURISDICTIONSHAVEDONEACONSIDERABLEAMOUNTOFLEGISLATINGATTHELOCALLEVELONLABORSTANDARDSANDSAFETYATTHATTIME,SCHOLARSWEREOPTIMISTICTHATTHISPROFUSELABORLEGISLATIONWOULDWORKTOFIXSOMEOFTHELABORISSUESTHATHAVEBEENPILINGUPSINCETHEBEGINNINGOFTHEREFORMERAIN1978UNFORTUNATELY,CHINA’SWORKERSARENOTMUCHSAFERANDHAPPIERTHANTHEYWEREBEFORETHISCONTINUINGPROBLEMLEADSONETOQUESTIONHOWEFFECTIVETHEMINISTRYOFLABORANDSOCIALSECURITYMOLSSANDTHECHINESECOURTSHAVEBEENATENFORCINGTHISGROWINGBODYOFLABORANDEMPLOYMENTLAWALSORELEVANTTOTHISDISCUSSION,ISTHEQUESTIONOFHOWMANYOFTHELABORSAFETYVIOLATIONSINHIGHLYINDUSTRIALIZEDAREASAREACTUALLYUNCOVEREDINTIMETOPREVENTACCIDENTSANDSAVELIVESTHEANSWER,UNFORTUNATELY,ISVERYFEWITSEEMSTHENTHATCHINA’SLABORLAWPROVIDESFORANINEFFECTIVESYSTEMFORSUPERVISINGANDDETERRINGPRODUCTIONOPERATIONSFROMENGAGINGINILLEGALANDUNSAFELABORPRACTICESINLIGHTOFTHESERIOUSDEFICIENCIESINTHECURRENTCIVILANDADMINISTRATIVELEGALMECHANISMSAVAILABLEFORTHEENFORCEMENTOFLABORSAFETYVIOLATIONS,THISNOTEWILLARGUETHATTHEPRCSHOULDSTRENGTHENEXISTINGCRIMINALPENALTIESANDDETERRENTSFORVIOLATINGLABORSAFETYLAWSMORESPECIFICALLY,THECHINESEGOVERNMENTMUSTCONSIDERREFININGANDMOREFREQUENTLYUTILIZINGSOMEOFTHEPROVISIONSINTHELABORLAWANDTHECRIMINALCODETOBRINGABOUTAMOREEFFECTIVESYSTEMOFCRIMINALENFORCEMENTOFTHELABORLAW,ESTABLISHMOREFORMIDABLEDETERRENTSFORMANAGERSANDWORKERSINENTERPRISESINBOTHTHEPUBLICANDPRIVATESECTOR,ANDPROMOTEASAFEWORKPLACETHISNOTEWILLARGUETHATTHISKINDOFREFORMSHOULDINCLUDEMOREDEFINEDMENSREAREQUIREMENTS,CRIMINALLIABILITYFORMANAGERSINTHEENTERPRISEORLEGALENTITY,ANDCRIMINALLIABILITYFORSAFETYVIOLATIONSWHICHCREATEASERIOUSRISK,BUTHAVENOTYETCAUSEDASERIOUSACCIDENTBTHEHISTORYOFLABORLAWINTHEPRCUNTILTHEENACTMENTOFTHE1994LABORLAW,THEPRCHADNOCOMPREHENSIVELABORLAWOTHERTHANASETOFREGULATIONS,WHICHWEREDRAFTEDBYTHETHENMINISTRYOFLABORWITHINTHESTATECOUNCILINFACT,THEGROWTHOFTHECONCEPTOFLABORRIGHTSASCODIFIEDINTHE1994LAWHASBEENALONGTIMEINTHEMAKING,ALTHOUGHTHECELEBRATIONOFTHEWORKERINCHINESESOCIETYWASIMPORTANTTHROUGHOUTTHEEARLIERPARTOFTHECOMMUNISTERAINDEED,THEESTABLISHMENTOFTHECHINESECOMMUNISTPARTYINTHEEARLY1920SCENTURYBROUGHTAWORKER’SMOVEMENTTOLIFETHATPREVAILEDTHROUGHOUTTHEMAOERATHISMOVEMENTGATHEREDMOMENTUMDURINGTHECULTURALREVOLUTION19651969WHENTHEWORKERSWEREONEOFTHEGROUPS,WHICHWEREACTIVEINMANYOFTHENEWMOVEMENTSYUNDONGTHATTORETHROUGHCHINESESOCIETYTHEN,WITHTHEDEATHOFMAOZEDONGINTHELATE1970SANDTHEBEGINNINGOFTHEREFORMERAUNDERDENGXIAOPING,THEPLACEOFWORKERSINTHEPRCBEGANTOFALLDENG’SMARKETREFORMSBROUGHTABOUTANEWPRIVATESECTOR,WHICHCREATEDCOMPETITIONFORTHEENORMOUS,INEFFICIENTSTATEENTERPRISES,ANDTHEWORKERSWEREHITFROMTWOANGLESFIRST,INTHEPRIVATESECTORLABORWASNOLONGERPROTECTEDBYTHESTATE,ORATLEASTN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

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