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外文翻译--高级机器人技术和传感器技术对美国军舰构造的维修的应用 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--高级机器人技术和传感器技术对美国军舰构造的维修的应用 英文版.pdf

1TheApplicationofAdvancedRoboticsandSensorTechnologiestothePreservationoftheUSSConstitutionJeffreyColeStevenDubowskyNathanRutmanCraigSunadaDepartmentofMechanicalEngineeringMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyCambridge,MAO2139USAABSTRACTTheapplicationofroboticsandadvancedsensortechnologytosolveimportantproblemsinthefieldsofarchitectural,archaeologicalandartconservationandpreservationisdiscussed.TheUSSConstitutionisconsideredasademonstrationprojectofthiswork.Threeimportantapplicationsofthistechnologytothepreservationoftheshiparediscussed.Adesignispresentedforoneoftheseapplicationsakeeldeflectionmeasurementsystem.Itisconcludedthatroboticsandadvancedsensortechnologyofferssubstantialpromiseofhavingimportantbenefitsfortherestorationandpreservationofimportanthistoricandarchitecturalsitesandmoments.INTRODUCTIONThispaperreportsonaresearchprograminwhichweareexploringtheapplicationofrecentlydevelopedtechnologiesinrobotics,sensorsandrealtimecomputerstosolveimportantproblemsfacedbythearchitectural,archaeologicalandartconservationandpreservationcommunities.Overthepastdecade,significantadvancementhasbeenmadeinthetechnologyofrobotics,sensorsandcomputers,atsubstantialcoststogovernmentagenciessuchasNASA,theDepartmentofDefense,andtheDepartmentofEnergy17.Thistechnologyhasimportantpotentialapplicationintheareaofpreservationandconservationofhistoricandartistictreasures,andinparticularmonumentsandfieldsites.Amongthetasksthattheconservationcommunityiscalledontoperform,thereexistanumberthatcouldgreatlybenefitfromtheapplicationofadvancedroboticsandGraduateResearchAssistantProfessor2sensortechnologies.Sometraditionalconservationworkhasresulted,unavoidably,inthedeteriorationofthesite.Forexample,conservationworkonsomelargemonumentshasusedscaffoldinganchorsinstalledinholesdrilledintothemonumentitself.Someconservationtasks,suchasdetailedsitemappings,requireagreatdealoftediouswork.Manytasksarelimitedduetosafetyconsiderations.Indeed,sometasksthatareofinteresttotheconservationcommunitysimplyarenowimpossibleorimpracticaltoexecuteduetosafetyconcernsandaccesslimitations.Finally,manyhighlydesirableconservationproceduresaresimplytooexpensiveusingcurrenttechniques.Advancedroboticsandsensortechnologiesmaybeabletosolvesomeoftheseproblems.Workingwithresearchersandpractitionersintheconservationandpreservationfieldshasmadeitcleartous,thatwhiletechnicalcapabilitiesareveryimportant,theacceptanceofroboticsandsensortechnologytothesefieldswillrequireahighlysuccessfulandvisibledemonstrationproject.Fromourstudies,wehaveidentifiedtheUSSConstitutionastheidealsiteforsuchademonstrationproject.Ourpreliminaryworkhasshownthatthereareanumberofpotentialtasks,importanttothepreservationoftheship,thatadvancedtechnologycouldperformmoreeffectivelythancurrentmethods.Insomecasesthetechnologycouldoffergreatersafetyorispotentiallymorecosteffective.Inthispaperwedescribethreeofthesepotentialapplicationsandtheirpossiblesolutions.Thefirstisanautomatedinsituhogmeasurementsensorsystemtocontinuouslymonitortheshapeoftheshipskeelwhilesheinthewater.Thesecondisaroboticsystemtodetectrotintheshipsinternalstructurebeneathitsrockandchainballast.Thefinalisaroboticdevicetoinspecttheshipsmastandriggingfordeterioration.ItshouldberecognizedthatademonstrationontheUSSConstitutionwouldalsobenefitthegrowthofrobotics.Itwouldprovideachallengingandexcitingtestbedforthetechnologyunderactualfieldconditions.HOGMEASUREMENTSYSTEMThekeeloftheshipchangesshapeovertimeduetotheeffectsofwaterandloading.Inordertoreducethishogandtherebyextendthelifeofthekeel,itisnecessarytoknowtheshapeofthecurveaccurately.Presently,hogmeasurementmethodsincludeusingdiverswhomanuallymeasurethedisplacementofthekeelfromafixedreferenceline,orindirectmethodsfrominsidetheshipshull.WehavedevelopedFigure1.TheUSSConstitution3asystembasedondistributedsensortechnologyforquickly,accurately,andinexpensivelydeterminingthekeelshape.Simplyput,thesystemmeasuresthewaterpressureatasmallsetoflocationssevenonthekeel.Fromthesemeasurementsacomputeraccuratelyinferstheshapeofthekeel,inrealtime.ThesystemisabletouseasmallnumberofsensorsbyapplyingChebyshevtheorytodeterminetheoptimallocationsforthepressuremeasurements.Theselocationsareselectedtominimizethemaximummeasurementerror.Thewaterpressureonthekeelisconvertedtoanairpressuresignalbyfixedkeelpressuretransducers,seeFigure2.Pressuresensorsthenmeasurethepressureatthekeel,whichisadirectfunctionofthedepth.Thesepressuresensorsareexposedonlytoairpressureandarelocatedatanonboardmeasurementcomputerwithintheship.Thisdesignputsallelectronichardwareelementsinashirtsleeveenvironment.Itpermitstheuseofinexpensivecommercialcomponentsandmakesmaintenanceandcalibrationofthesystemeasy.differentialpressureSensorsairhosescomputerreferencepressureWaterPressure/AirPressureTransducerskeelDataAcquisitionInterfaceFigure2.TheHogmeasurementsystemoverview.Sensorsonthekeelreportpressureatspecificlocations,fromwhichthecomputercalculatesthekeelshape.Thekeelpressuresarecomparedtoareferencepressureatoneendoftheshipusingthesedifferentialpressuresensors.Thisallowsaccuratemeasurementsoverthe4smallrangeoftransducerdepths.Fromthesefinitedepthmeasurementsthecomputercalculatestheshapeofthekeel,seeFigure3.Keelpositionft4202468101214Figure3.Keelshapeinferredfromsevenmeasurements.Thebarsaresensorreadings,thesolidlineisdivermeasureddata,andthedashedlineisthecurveshapeinferredfromthesensors.SUBBALLASTINSPECTIONTheareaunderneaththeballastintheholdoftheshipissubjecttodamp,rotinducingconditions,seeFigure4.Itisimpossibleforworkerstoinspectthisareaexceptduringdrydock,whentheballastisremoved.Inordertofacilitatemorefrequentinspection,theuseofasmallautonomousfieldrobottoperformthisinspectionisbeingconsidered,seeFigure5.Therobotwouldcarryavideocameraandsensorsdesignedtodetectandmeasurerot.KeelsonSisterKeelProposedBallastSupportBallastInspectionSurfacesDrainKeelHullLimberstrakeFigure4.Subballastarea.Theareaisonlyexposedduringdrydock.Anautomatedinspectionsystemthatcanworkunderneaththeballastwouldbeveryuseful.

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