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外文翻译--关于直升机变速器齿轮的自动故障预测 英文版【优秀】.pdf

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外文翻译--关于直升机变速器齿轮的自动故障预测 英文版【优秀】.pdf

AutomatedGearPrognosticsforHelicopterTransmissionsAvinashV.SarlashkarKennethBarlowWangmingLu,Ph.DMichaelJ.Roemer,Ph.DImpactTechnologies,LLCNavalAirSystemsCommand200CanalViewBlvd.,Suite300AIR4.4.3.3Rochester,NY14623PatuxentRiver,MDABSTRACTGearfailuresinhelicopterpowertransmissionsareverycritical,bothfromtheviewpointofthesafetyoftheoccupantsaswellastheabilityoftheassettocompletethemission.Twoprominentfailuremodesexistforspiralbevelgearscommonlyusedinhelicoptertransmissions.Thesefailuremodesareageartoothseparationfromahighcyclefatiguecrackoriginatinginthetoothfilletandbsurfacedamageresultingfromscuffingdamageongeartoothcontactingsurfaces.Anautomatedprocesstoperformgearprognosticshasbeendevelopedthatencompassesthecriticalelementsnecessaryforreliableestimationoffailureprogressionratesinspiralbevelgearsandprovideassociatedconfidencebounds.TheSpiralBevelGearPrognosticSystemGPSdescribedhereinautomatesthegenerationofgeargeometriesandassociatedfiniteelementmodels,estimationoftoothcontactloads,3Dfracturemechaniccalculations,leadingtopredictionofremainingusefullife.ThesoftwaresystemisdesignedtorunonaPCrunningMicrosoftWindowsandseamlesslyusesthefiniteelementprogramANSYSandthe3DfracturemechanicsprogramFranc3D.AlsopresentedaretheresultsofscuffingtestsforthegearmaterialAISI9310.Inparticular,testresultsarepresentedwithrespecttodegreeofscuffingdamageandtheassociatedfeaturessuchasoildebrisconcentrationandchangestocoefficientoftraction.KeywordsPrognostics,HCF,SpiralBevelGears,FractureMechanics,Franc3D,ANSYSINTRODUCTIONSpiralbevelgearsareusedextensivelyinhelicopterpowertransmissions.Therefore,overallreliabilityandsafetyofhelicoptersisdictatedbythereliabilityoftheseindividualspiralbevelgears.Therearetwoprimarymodesofgearfailures.FirstmodeistheHighCycleFatigueHCFdrivencrackinitiationfollowedbycrackpropagation.Crackstypicallyinitiateathighlystressedfilletregionatthebaseofageartooth.Itisalsopossiblethatacrackcouldinitiatefromatoothsurfaceasaresultofsurfacedamagesuchaspitting,or,alternately,acrackcouldalsoinitiatefromamachiningmarkorothersurfacedamagethatcouldoccurduringassembly.Theworstoutcomeinvolvescrackpropagationthatultimatelyleadstotoothseparationandsubsequentlossoffunctionalityofthegearbox.Thesecondfailuremodeinvolvessurfacedeteriorationthatcanbetheresultofoneormoreofthefollowingwear,pittingandscuffing.Typicalsymptomsassociatedwiththesurfacefailureareincreaseinvibrationandnoiselevel.InthespiralbevelgearprognosticsystemGPS,scuffingandsubsequentwearwereevaluatedsince,comparedtootherformsofsurfacedamage,itismoresevereandthereforecanrapidlyreducetheremainingusefullifeRUL.Scuffingisabnormalwearoftoothsurfacesduetocombinationofhighcontactpressuresandslidingvelocitiesattheinterface.Highcontactpressuresalongwithhighslidingvelocitiesbetweencontactingsurfacescanresultinrepeatedlocalizedweldingandfractureleadingtoseveresurfacedeterioration.Calculationofremainingusefullifeofaninservicespiralbevelgearsystemdependsonthemodeoffailure.Forthefirstfailuremodedescribedabove,thetotalusefullifeiscomposedoftwopartscrackinitiationlifeandcrackpropagationfatiguelife.Forthesecondfailuremode,servicelifeisdefinedbysurfacedurability,i.e.,thetimerequiredtoaccumulatecertainamountofsurfacedamagesuchas,forexample,depthofwearonthecontactsurfaces.Surfacedurabilitydependsonavarietyoffactorssuchasrollingandslidingvelocities,contactpressure,typeoflubricantandtypeoflubrication,materialandassociatedmaterialheattreatmentetc.DevelopedbyImpactTechnologies,LLCanditscontractorsunderaPhaseIISBIReffort,thisprototypeGPSisaimedtodemonstratearobustphysicsbasedtoolthatmodelsphysicsofdifferentfailuremodesforspiralbevelgearsandatthesametimehastheabilitytousevibrationandothersystemlevelfeaturestoprovideenhancedprognosticsforthespiralbevelgearsystems.ThisprototypesystemincludesseveralmodulesforaAutomatedgenerationofspiralbevelgeargeometriesandtheassociatedfiniteelementmodels,bGeartoothcontactanalysis,cCrackinitiationand3Dcrackpropagationcalculations,dGearsurfacescuffingmodel,andeAnexampleofintegrationwithHealthandUsageMonitoringSystemHUMSdata.AttheheartGPSisthegearprognostickernelthatinteractswithdifferentmodules.Theseindividualmodulesareresponsibleforspecificautomationtasks.Figure1showsoverallorganizationofGPS.Figure1ArchitectureofthespiralbevelgearprognosticsystemGPSTheprogramisdevelopedtorunonaPCrunningMicrosoftWindowsandseamlesslyinteractswiththecommercialfiniteelementanalysisprogramANSYS,3DfracturemechanicsprogramFranc3D,andGleasonsgeartoothcontactanalysisprogramT900.ANSYSisprimarilyusedasthemainstructuralanalysisandpostprocessingmodule,Franc3Disusedfor3DcrackpropagationanalysisandtheT900programisusedforgearfiniteelementmodelgenerationandgeartoothcontactanalysis.OutputofGPSistheestimatedremainingusefullife,measuredastimeinoperatinghours.Basically,inputdataincludesthespiralbevelgeargeometry,torque,materialproperties,andothersystemlevelfeaturedatathatcanbeusedtotunethepredictedanalyticalresults.Mainly,therearetwotypesoftestdatavibrationsignalbasedfeatures,andexperimentallyobtainedscuffingprogressioninformation.FusionofnumericallypredictedresultsANSYS,Franc3D,T900withthosefromtestandrealtimemeasurementdata,ifprocessedproperly,cansignificantlyimprovetherobustnessandaccuracyofRULpredictions.Inthefollowingsections,basicconceptsbehindthedevelopmentofGPSarepresentedonamodulebymodulebasis.Inthenextsection,geargeometryandfiniteelementmodelgenerationmodulesarepresented.Thisisfollowedbypresentationofthegeartoothcontactanalysismodule.BothmodulesusetheT900programdevelopedbyGleasonCorporation.Amodifiedversionofthe3Dfracturemechanicprogram,Franc3D,developedbyFractureAnalysisConsultant,IncFACisusedtoperform3Dcracksimulation.ThismodifiedversionofFranc3DistightlycoupledwithANSYStoimprovecomputationalefficiency.TheGPSkernelcollectsinformationfromallsourcesandthenfusesthisinformationtogeneratebestRULestimatefortheinserviceasset.Thebasicideainfusionistouseasmuchavailableevidence,suchasinspectiondata,toimproveonthequalityoftheresultsthatwouldbeproducedbyanalyticalmodelsalone.AUTOMATICGENERATIONOFGEARGEOMTRYANDFEMODELSGenerationofgeargeometryandassociatedfiniteelementFEmodelsservesasthestartingpointforGPS.AcustomversionofGleasonsT900programisusedtogeneratethisinformationinanautomatedfashion.Figure2showsgear/pinionfiniteelementmodelsgeneratedusingGleasonsprogram.ThefiniteelementmodelsareimportedinANSYSforsubsequentanalysispurpose.Figure2FiniteelementmodelofapinionInGPS,thegear/pinionfiniteelementmodelsshownabovearefurtherimprovedbyusingprecisegearblankandshaftgeometry.WiththegeometrydataprovidedbyendusersthroughfriendlyGraphicalUserInterfaceGUI,theshaftfiniteelementmodelsarecreatedusingANSYSmacros.Theshaftgenerationmoduleallowsdefinitionofboundaryconditionsdifferentbearingconfigurationsandmeshingcontrolparameters.Thepartialgear/pinionmodelsshownaboveareexpandedintomodelscontainingfullshaftandbearingsupportdefinitions.OneexampleofthefiniteelementmodelforthewholepinionshaftisshowninFigure3.Amoreprecisedefinitionofgearblankgeometryalongwithshaftgeometryandbearingsupportconditionsprovideimprovedstressdefinition,especiallyforaerospacegears.

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