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外文翻译--关于直升机变速器齿轮的自动故障预测 英文版【优秀】.pdf

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外文翻译--关于直升机变速器齿轮的自动故障预测 英文版【优秀】.pdf

AUTOMATEDGEARPROGNOSTICSFORHELICOPTERTRANSMISSIONSAVINASHVSARLASHKARKENNETHBARLOWWANGMINGLU,PHDMICHAELJROEMER,PHDIMPACTTECHNOLOGIES,LLCNAVALAIRSYSTEMSCOMMAND200CANALVIEWBLVD,SUITE300AIR4433ROCHESTER,NY14623PATUXENTRIVER,MDABSTRACTGEARFAILURESINHELICOPTERPOWERTRANSMISSIONSAREVERYCRITICAL,BOTHFROMTHEVIEWPOINTOFTHESAFETYOFTHEOCCUPANTSASWELLASTHEABILITYOFTHEASSETTOCOMPLETETHEMISSIONTWOPROMINENTFAILUREMODESEXISTFORSPIRALBEVELGEARSCOMMONLYUSEDINHELICOPTERTRANSMISSIONSTHESEFAILUREMODESAREAGEARTOOTHSEPARATIONFROMAHIGHCYCLEFATIGUECRACKORIGINATINGINTHETOOTHFILLETANDBSURFACEDAMAGERESULTINGFROMSCUFFINGDAMAGEONGEARTOOTHCONTACTINGSURFACESANAUTOMATEDPROCESSTOPERFORMGEARPROGNOSTICSHASBEENDEVELOPEDTHATENCOMPASSESTHECRITICALELEMENTSNECESSARYFORRELIABLEESTIMATIONOFFAILUREPROGRESSIONRATESINSPIRALBEVELGEARSANDPROVIDEASSOCIATEDCONFIDENCEBOUNDSTHESPIRALBEVELGEARPROGNOSTICSYSTEMGPSDESCRIBEDHEREINAUTOMATESTHEGENERATIONOFGEARGEOMETRIESANDASSOCIATEDFINITEELEMENTMODELS,ESTIMATIONOFTOOTHCONTACTLOADS,3DFRACTUREMECHANICCALCULATIONS,LEADINGTOPREDICTIONOFREMAININGUSEFULLIFETHESOFTWARESYSTEMISDESIGNEDTORUNONAPCRUNNINGMICROSOFTWINDOWSANDSEAMLESSLYUSESTHEFINITEELEMENTPROGRAMANSYSANDTHE3DFRACTUREMECHANICSPROGRAMFRANC3DALSOPRESENTEDARETHERESULTSOFSCUFFINGTESTSFORTHEGEARMATERIALAISI9310INPARTICULAR,TESTRESULTSAREPRESENTEDWITHRESPECTTODEGREEOFSCUFFINGDAMAGEANDTHEASSOCIATEDFEATURESSUCHASOILDEBRISCONCENTRATIONANDCHANGESTOCOEFFICIENTOFTRACTIONKEYWORDSPROGNOSTICS,HCF,SPIRALBEVELGEARS,FRACTUREMECHANICS,FRANC3D,ANSYSINTRODUCTIONSPIRALBEVELGEARSAREUSEDEXTENSIVELYINHELICOPTERPOWERTRANSMISSIONSTHEREFORE,OVERALLRELIABILITYANDSAFETYOFHELICOPTERSISDICTATEDBYTHERELIABILITYOFTHESEINDIVIDUALSPIRALBEVELGEARSTHEREARETWOPRIMARYMODESOFGEARFAILURESFIRSTMODEISTHEHIGHCYCLEFATIGUEHCFDRIVENCRACKINITIATIONFOLLOWEDBYCRACKPROPAGATIONCRACKSTYPICALLYINITIATEATHIGHLYSTRESSEDFILLETREGIONATTHEBASEOFAGEARTOOTHITISALSOPOSSIBLETHATACRACKCOULDINITIATEFROMATOOTHSURFACEASARESULTOFSURFACEDAMAGESUCHASPITTING,OR,ALTERNATELY,ACRACKCOULDALSOINITIATEFROMAMACHININGMARKOROTHERSURFACEDAMAGETHATCOULDOCCURDURINGASSEMBLYTHEWORSTOUTCOMEINVOLVESCRACKPROPAGATIONTHATULTIMATELYLEADSTOTOOTHSEPARATIONANDSUBSEQUENTLOSSOFFUNCTIONALITYOFTHEGEARBOXTHESECONDFAILUREMODEINVOLVESSURFACEDETERIORATIONTHATCANBETHERESULTOFONEORMOREOFTHEFOLLOWINGWEAR,PITTINGANDSCUFFINGTYPICALSYMPTOMSASSOCIATEDWITHTHESURFACEFAILUREAREINCREASEINVIBRATIONANDNOISELEVELINTHESPIRALBEVELGEARPROGNOSTICSYSTEMGPS,SCUFFINGANDSUBSEQUENTWEARWEREEVALUATEDSINCE,COMPAREDTOOTHERFORMSOFSURFACEDAMAGE,ITISMORESEVEREANDTHEREFORECANRAPIDLYREDUCETHEREMAININGUSEFULLIFERULSCUFFINGISABNORMALWEAROFTOOTHSURFACESDUETOCOMBINATIONOFHIGHCONTACTPRESSURESANDSLIDINGVELOCITIESATTHEINTERFACEHIGHCONTACTPRESSURESALONGWITHHIGHSLIDINGVELOCITIESBETWEENCONTACTINGSURFACESCANRESULTINREPEATEDLOCALIZEDWELDINGANDFRACTURELEADINGTOSEVERESURFACEDETERIORATIONCALCULATIONOFREMAININGUSEFULLIFEOFANINSERVICESPIRALBEVELGEARSYSTEMDEPENDSONTHEMODEOFFAILUREFORTHEFIRSTFAILUREMODEDESCRIBEDABOVE,THETOTALUSEFULLIFEISCOMPOSEDOFTWOPARTSCRACKINITIATIONLIFEANDCRACKPROPAGATIONFATIGUELIFEFORTHESECONDFAILUREMODE,SERVICELIFEISDEFINEDBYSURFACEDURABILITY,IE,THETIMEREQUIREDTOACCUMULATECERTAINAMOUNTOFSURFACEDAMAGESUCHAS,FOREXAMPLE,DEPTHOFWEARONTHECONTACTSURFACESSURFACEDURABILITYDEPENDSONAVARIETYOFFACTORSSUCHASROLLINGANDSLIDINGVELOCITIES,CONTACTPRESSURE,TYPEOFLUBRICANTANDTYPEOFLUBRICATION,MATERIALANDASSOCIATEDMATERIALHEATTREATMENTETCDEVELOPEDBYIMPACTTECHNOLOGIES,LLCANDITSCONTRACTORSUNDERAPHASEIISBIREFFORT,THISPROTOTYPEGPSISAIMEDTODEMONSTRATEAROBUSTPHYSICSBASEDTOOLTHATMODELSPHYSICSOFDIFFERENTFAILUREMODESFORSPIRALBEVELGEARSANDATTHESAMETIMEHASTHEABILITYTOUSEVIBRATIONANDOTHERSYSTEMLEVELFEATURESTOPROVIDEENHANCEDPROGNOSTICSFORTHESPIRALBEVELGEARSYSTEMSTHISPROTOTYPESYSTEMINCLUDESSEVERALMODULESFORAAUTOMATEDGENERATIONOFSPIRALBEVELGEARGEOMETRIESANDTHEASSOCIATEDFINITEELEMENTMODELS,BGEARTOOTHCONTACTANALYSIS,CCRACKINITIATIONAND3DCRACKPROPAGATIONCALCULATIONS,DGEARSURFACESCUFFINGMODEL,ANDEANEXAMPLEOFINTEGRATIONWITHHEALTHANDUSAGEMONITORINGSYSTEMHUMSDATAATTHEHEARTGPSISTHEGEARPROGNOSTICKERNELTHATINTERACTSWITHDIFFERENTMODULESTHESEINDIVIDUALMODULESARERESPONSIBLEFORSPECIFICAUTOMATIONTASKSFIGURE1SHOWSOVERALLORGANIZATIONOFGPSFIGURE1ARCHITECTUREOFTHESPIRALBEVELGEARPROGNOSTICSYSTEMGPSTHEPROGRAMISDEVELOPEDTORUNONAPCRUNNINGMICROSOFTWINDOWSANDSEAMLESSLYINTERACTSWITHTHECOMMERCIALFINITEELEMENTANALYSISPROGRAMANSYS,3DFRACTUREMECHANICSPROGRAMFRANC3D,ANDGLEASON’SGEARTOOTHCONTACTANALYSISPROGRAMT900ANSYSISPRIMARILYUSEDASTHEMAINSTRUCTURALANALYSISANDPOSTPROCESSINGMODULE,FRANC3DISUSEDFOR3DCRACKPROPAGATIONANALYSISANDTHET900PROGRAMISUSEDFORGEARFINITEELEMENTMODELGENERATIONANDGEARTOOTHCONTACTANALYSISOUTPUTOFGPSISTHEESTIMATEDREMAININGUSEFULLIFE,MEASUREDASTIMEINOPERATINGHOURSBASICALLY,INPUTDATAINCLUDESTHESPIRALBEVELGEARGEOMETRY,TORQUE,MATERIALPROPERTIES,ANDOTHERSYSTEMLEVELFEATUREDATATHATCANBEUSEDTO“TUNE”THEPREDICTEDANALYTICALRESULTSMAINLY,THEREARETWOTYPESOFTESTDATAVIBRATIONSIGNALBASEDFEATURES,ANDEXPERIMENTALLYOBTAINEDSCUFFINGPROGRESSIONINFORMATIONFUSIONOFNUMERICALLYPREDICTEDRESULTSANSYS,FRANC3D,T900WITHTHOSEFROMTESTANDREALTIMEMEASUREMENTDATA,IFPROCESSEDPROPERLY,CANSIGNIFICANTLYIMPROVETHEROBUSTNESSANDACCURACYOFRULPREDICTIONSINTHEFOLLOWINGSECTIONS,BASICCONCEPTSBEHINDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFGPSAREPRESENTEDONAMODULEBYMODULEBASISINTHENEXTSECTION,GEARGEOMETRYANDFINITEELEMENTMODELGENERATIONMODULESAREPRESENTEDTHISISFOLLOWEDBYPRESENTATIONOFTHEGEARTOOTHCONTACTANALYSISMODULEBOTHMODULESUSETHET900PROGRAMDEVELOPEDBYGLEASONCORPORATIONAMODIFIEDVERSIONOFTHE3DFRACTUREMECHANICPROGRAM,FRANC3D,DEVELOPEDBYFRACTUREANALYSISCONSULTANT,INCFACISUSEDTOPERFORM3DCRACKSIMULATIONTHISMODIFIEDVERSIONOFFRANC3DISTIGHTLYCOUPLEDWITHANSYSTOIMPROVECOMPUTATIONALEFFICIENCYTHEGPSKERNELCOLLECTSINFORMATIONFROMALLSOURCESANDTHEN“FUSES”THISINFORMATIONTOGENERATEBESTRULESTIMATEFORTHEINSERVICEASSETTHEBASICIDEAINFUSIONISTOUSEASMUCHAVAILABLEEVIDENCE,SUCHASINSPECTIONDATA,TOIMPROVEONTHEQUALITYOFTHERESULTSTHATWOULDBEPRODUCEDBYANALYTICALMODELSALONEAUTOMATICGENERATIONOFGEARGEOMTRYANDFEMODELSGENERATIONOFGEARGEOMETRYANDASSOCIATEDFINITEELEMENTFEMODELSSERVESASTHESTARTINGPOINTFORGPSACUSTOMVERSIONOFGLEASON’ST900PROGRAMISUSEDTOGENERATETHISINFORMATIONINANAUTOMATEDFASHIONFIGURE2SHOWSGEAR/PINIONFINITEELEMENTMODELSGENERATEDUSINGGLEASON’SPROGRAMTHEFINITEELEMENTMODELSAREIMPORTEDINANSYSFORSUBSEQUENTANALYSISPURPOSEFIGURE2FINITEELEMENTMODELOFAPINIONINGPS,THEGEAR/PINIONFINITEELEMENTMODELSSHOWNABOVEAREFURTHERIMPROVEDBYUSINGPRECISEGEARBLANKANDSHAFTGEOMETRYWITHTHEGEOMETRYDATAPROVIDEDBYENDUSERSTHROUGHFRIENDLYGRAPHICALUSERINTERFACEGUI,THESHAFTFINITEELEMENTMODELSARECREATEDUSINGANSYSMACROSTHESHAFTGENERATIONMODULEALLOWSDEFINITIONOFBOUNDARYCONDITIONSDIFFERENTBEARINGCONFIGURATIONSANDMESHINGCONTROLPARAMETERSTHEPARTIALGEAR/PINIONMODELSSHOWNABOVEAREEXPANDEDINTOMODELSCONTAININGFULLSHAFTANDBEARINGSUPPORTDEFINITIONSONEEXAMPLEOFTHEFINITEELEMENTMODELFORTHEWHOLEPINIONSHAFTISSHOWNINFIGURE3AMOREPRECISEDEFINITIONOFGEARBLANKGEOMETRYALONGWITHSHAFTGEOMETRYANDBEARINGSUPPORTCONDITIONSPROVIDEIMPROVEDSTRESSDEFINITION,ESPECIALLYFORAEROSPACEGEARS

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